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Understanding the Potential for Open Government: Open Source Processes for EGovernment

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Federal Enterprise Architecture process domains are the prime candidates. Financial management ... Exportable processes for democratic government operations. 27 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding the Potential for Open Government: Open Source Processes for EGovernment


1
Understanding the Potential for Open Government
Open Source Processes for
E-Government
  • Walt Scacchi
  • Institute for Software Research
  • University of California, Irvine
  • Wscacchi_at_uci.edu
  • http//www.ics.uci.edu/wscacchi
  • http//www.ics.uci.edu/wscacchi/Presentations/Ope
    nGovt

2
Open Government?
  • Free/open source software development encourages
    sharing, examination, reuse, modification, and
    redistribution
  • E-Government encourages adoption of
    E-Commerce/E-Business in government agency
    operations, functions, business lines
  • Open government embraces open source and
    E-government processes, practices, and communities

3
Why Open Government?
  • Help make government faster, better, cheaper
  • Empower interested government employees,
    contractors, and interested citizens to offer
    help and capture their contributions
  • Enable creation of public test-beds where
    existing/new government processes can be
    demonstrated, manipulated, and refined.

4
Why Open Government?
  • Make processes of government and democracy
    Web-enabled and computationally enactable
  • Codify processes into high-level, user-friendly
    process models as their source code
  • Avoid coding processes in conventional
    programming or scripting languages
  • This makes them opaque to users, and difficult to
    improve, adapt, or learn

5
Overview
  • Open processes for system development, use, and
    evolutionary support
  • Motivations for open source processes
  • Government operations and business processes
  • International Development applications
  • Military and security applications
  • Opportunities and conclusions

6
Open source processes
  • System development
  • build and release, testing, review/inspection,
    configuration management, security certification,
    localization, porting, contribution, development
    Web site maintenance, etc.
  • Deployment
  • business process redesign, organizational
    transformation, system upgrade, user training,
    community development and support, etc.

7
Open source processes
  • Free/open source software does not embody the
    processes for how best to develop, deploy, use or
    sustain them
  • Deploying free/open source software is often
    inefficient and sub-optimal
  • Closed source software development, deployment,
    use and support is generally no different!
  • Explicit open source processes could also help
    closed source systems.

8
Open source process example
  • Example of an open source process model of a
    proposal submission process, specified in a
    Process Markup Language, PML
  • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying
    Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational
    Computing, Journal of Network and Computer
    Applications, 4(1)39-61, 2001.

9
Complex motivations for open source processes
  • Closed source processes opaque or tacit,
    difficult to improve, subject to patent
  • Most enterprise processes are operational, not
    strategic.
  • Continuous process improvement and organizational
    learning requires open access to the source
    code of operational processes

10
Closed source process as strategic business assets
  • Processes offering competitive advantage can be
    patented, denoting their value as strategic
    business assets
  • But very few enterprise processes are source of
    competitive advantage
  • Closed/tacit vs. administrative vs. open source
    enterprise processes

11
A closed source business process example
12
Closed vs. administrative vs. open source
processes
  • Closed Amazon one-click e-purchase
  • Patented processes inhibits their sharing, reuse,
    study, modification, and redistribution
  • Administrative Java community process
  • asserts property rights, responsibilities, and
    administrative authority
  • legalistic or bureaucratic policy and
    procedures are narrative, not operational gt
    ambiguous interpretation and legal wrangling

13
Java Community Process
14
Administrative process example
15
Continuous process improvement and organizational
learning
  • CPI is easier when processes are open and
    computationally explicit
  • OL can be supported just-in-time via
    process-directed intranets/extranets
  • PDIs/PDEs enable just-in-time training, process
    prototyping, performance monitoring and
    measurement, dynamic repair of process execution
    breakdowns/failures, and more.
  • see References for citations and details

16
Government operations and business processes
  • Example Procurement and acquisition
  • Procurement purchasing MRO supplies
  • Acquisition contracting for services
  • Not simply a matter using electronic forms or
    extensible markup notations about them
  • Reengineering enterprise processes is complex and
    requires processes transformation, integration,
    commitment, and training
  • W. Scacchi, Redesigning Contracted Service
    Procurement for Internet-based Electronic
    Commerce A Case Study, Journal of Information
    Technology and Management, 2(3), 313-334, 2001.

17
Government operations and business processes
  • Federal Enterprise Architecture process domains
    are the prime candidates
  • Financial management
  • Human relations
  • Monitoring benefits and public health
  • Data and statistic development
  • Criminal investigation
  • Regulation and legislation development,
    deployment, and enforcement

18
Open Govt for International Development
applications
  • Promote free/open source enterprise software
    systems and processes
  • http//www.gnuenterprise.org for enterprise
    resource management and E-business framework
  • Many other office productivity, E-business, and
    E-commerce systems being developed and deployed
    as free/open source

19
GNUe enterprise system architecture
20
Open Govt for International Development
applications
  • Free/open source systems and processes are
    comparatively easy to transfer and deploy into
    developing nations, once localized
  • Free/open source systems and processes amenable
    to co-sourced, cost-shared, multi-lateral
    development

21
Military and security applications
  • Most of the military enterprise focuses on
    operational, logistical, and training processes
  • Administrative processes are ponderous,
    procrustean, rather than agile, flexible
  • Current legacy processes are compliance oriented,
    rather than improvement oriented

22
DD(X) Overview
23
DD(X) Acquisition Guidelines
24
Acquisition Process-Directed Intranet
demonstration
More information available in J. Noll and W.
Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext
for Organizational Computing, Journal of Network
and Computer Applications, 4(1)39-61, 2001. W.
Scacchi, Open Acquisition Combining Open Source
Software Development with System Acquisition,
technical report, July 2002.
25
Military and security applications
  • Homeland security will increasingly become focus
    of process improvement, streamlining and cost
    reduction.

26
Open Govt Opportunities
  • Establish OG Web portals and clearinghouse
  • Create/share process toolkits, libraries,
    repositories
  • Co-sourced development of OG processes
  • amortize and share OG development costs
  • Capture and codification of government process
    domain expertise
  • Operational OG system and process demos
  • OG prototypes
  • Exportable processes for democratic government
    operations

27
Conclusions
  • Free/open source software systems for government
    represent a significant opportunity
  • Seek high-level, user-friendly processes for
    government operations expressed as open source,
    computationally enactable processes
  • Open government embraces and extends open source,
    while also moving towards flexible, agile
    democratic government operations

28
References
  • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Supporting Software
    Development in Virtual Enterprises, Journal of
    Digital Information, 1(4), February 1999.
  • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying
    Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational
    Computing, Journal of Network and Computer
    Applications, 4(1)39-61, 2001
  • W. Scacchi, Redesigning Contracted Service
    Procurement for Internet-based Electronic
    Commerce A Case Study, Journal of Information
    Technology and Management, 2(3), 313-334, 2001.
  • W. Scacchi, Open Acquisition Combining Open
    Source Software Development with System
    Acquisition, technical report, July 2002.
  • W. Scacchi, Open EC/B A Case Study in Electronic
    Commerce and Open Source Software Development,
    technical report, July 2002.

29
References
  • W. Scacchi and P. Mi, Process Life Cycle
    Engineering A Knowledge Based Approach and
    Environment, Intern. Journal Intelligent Systems
    in Accounting, Finance, and Management, 6(1),
    83-107, 1997.
  • W. Scacchi, Understanding the Social,
    Technological, and Policy Implications of Open
    Source Software Development position paper
    presented at the NSF Workshop on Open Source
    Software, January 2002 (revised August 2002).
  • W. Scacchi, Understanding the Requirements for
    Developing Open Source Software Systems, IEE
    Proceedings--Software, 149(1), 24-39, February
    2002.

30
Acknowledgements
  • The research described in this report is
    supported by contracts/grants from
  • National Science Foundation
  • IIS-0083075, ITR-0205679, ITR-0205724 and
    Industry/University Research Cooperative for the
    CRITO Consortium
  • Defense Acquisition University
  • N487650-27803
  • No endorsement implied.
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