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Time use study by gender in Europe,Spain and Andalucia:gender distribution of paid and unpaid work 2

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Title: Time use study by gender in Europe,Spain and Andalucia:gender distribution of paid and unpaid work 2


1
Time use study by gender in Europe, Spain and
Andalucia gender distribution of paid and unpaid
work 2nd Global Forum on Gender Statistics
Ghana, 26-28/01/2009
  • Prof. Paula Rodríguez Modroño
  • University Pablo de Olavide
  • Member of the group of experts for gender
    mainstreaming in the Andalusian
  • Statistical Plan 2007-2010

2
RESEARCH ON TUS for the Andalusian Statistical
Institute
  • Study on 15 EU countries that carried Eurostat
    harmonized TUS in 2000-2004 to compare
    the impact of different public policies and
    social systems on gender equality female
    strategies.
  • Spanish and Andalusian case through microdata
    (including demographic socioeconomic variables
    and all diary activities, also care work). Topics
    covered
  • Employment care economy
  • Health life cycle
  • Leisure
  • Education
  • Travel transport
  • Gender gap between rural urban areas

3
Starting points
Female strategies vary by region depending on the
level of the Welfare state, the development of
the market economy and income levels, and the
maintenance of traditional roles.
Study the impact of public welfare sytems on
gender equality
  • Low fertility rates
  • Lack of autonomy part-time jobs, low activity
    rates
  • Import of legal/ illegal labor

4
SUMMARY OF EU RESULTS
  • Women and men confront different constraints and
    social determining factors that limit rationality
    in their choices and thus, their freedom and
    capabilities.
  • Women have a lower amount of free time, what
    undermines female capabilities, and thus their
    potential to develop them.
  • As other studies show GENDER MATTERS more than
    other differences such as income levels,
    education, employment rates, etc.

5
4 EU CLUSTERS
  • There are time use differences between EU
    countries due to different MIXED WELFARE
    ECONOMIES and therefore, a different
    distribution among the State, families and the
    market of the necessary work to sustain the
    socioeconomic system.
  • Variables used in this cluster analysis
    fertility rates, female activity rates, part-time
    work, education, female political representation,
    working time (paid unpaid), etc.
  • Social democrat countries (Norway Sweden).
  • Conservative group (Belgium, France Germany)
    Finland Great Britain.
  • Former Eastern European countries (Hungary,
    Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia).
  • Mediterranean countries (Italy Spain).

6
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA
Working time of women and men aged 20 to 74
years. Unit hours and minutes per day (Left bar
women Right bar men)
BE Belgium IT Italy SI Slovenia AN
Andalusia DE Germany LV Latvia FI Finland EE
Estonia LT Lithuania SE Sweden ES Spain HU
Hungary UK United Kingdom FR France PL
Poland NO Norway Source National Time Use
Surveys (Eurostat IEA).
7
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA
Work total of employed women and men. Unit hours
and minutes per day (Left bar women Right bar
men)
BE Belgium IT Italy SI Slovenia AN
Andalusia DE Germany LV Latvia FI Finland EE
Estonia LT Lithuania SE Sweden ES Spain HU
Hungary UK United Kingdom FR France PL
Poland NO Norway Source National Time Use
Surveys (Eurostat IEA).
8
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA
Gainful work/study and care work activities of
women aged 20 to 74
Source National Time Use Surveys (Eurostat
IEA).
9
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA
Gainful work/study and care work activities of
men aged 20 to 74
Source National Time Use Surveys (Eurostat
IEA).
10
ANDALUSIAN CASE AN UNEQUAL AND UNSUSTAINABLE
SYSTEM
Unpaid work Domestic activities (household care
work) volunteer work (informal formal)
11
ANDALUSIAN CASE UNPAID WORK
12
CULTURAL CHANGES ARE SLOW YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPAIN
  • A continuity in traditional roles in time
    allocation among young women and men. Despite the
    advances in female human capital, labor market
    continues segregating workers by their gender,
    even in the latest incorporation of very educated
    young population.
  • Young women, even before having reached the age
    of confronting the biggest problems in work
    life balance (30 years old is the female average
    age of getting married having the first child),
    spend less time than men in paid work and much
    more in non-paid work.
  • These gender roles will affect their life
    choices, including their access to the labor
    market and female opportunities to grow
    professionally and personally. For example, in
    Andalucia when a man starts living in a couple
    reduces his domestic working time whereas women
    have to increase it considerably.

13
Participation rate in the following activities of
young people under 25 in Spain
Source Spanish Time Use Survey, 2002-03 (IEA).
14
Average social time allocation by adolescents
from 10 to 17 years in Spain
15
Changes in time use between adolescents (10 to
17) and young people from 18 to 25 inSpain
(units minutes)
Source Spanish Time Use Survey, 2002-03 (IEA).
16
Concluding Remarks
  • Main factor determining time use of EU citizens
    is GENDER.
  • Women work more than men (work total paid work
    unpaid work)
  • As more developed the society is, more equal is
    time allocation, however this advance is still
    unequal.
  • Female strategies vary by region depending on the
    level of the Welfare state, the development of
    the market economy and income levels, and the
    maintenance of traditional roles.
  • Childcare and care of elderly or dependents is
    mainly a female activity, affecting womens
    decisions to have children and to enter, stay or
    exit the labor market and the type of work they
    get (full-time /part-time).

17
LESSONS FOR TUS STUDIES
  • Need for harmonized international TUS, so to do
    cross-cutting studies and analyze the impact of
    different public policies, as we do not have much
    historical data for longitudinal analysis.
  • Periodical TUS to capture evolution and cultural
    changes.
  • Add other socioeconomic variables indicators to
    be able to obtain a full view of how socially
    unsustainable our economic development is in
    terms of gender equity.

18
Lessons for Public Policies
  • Need to collect data and study all non-paid work
    (domestic, informal, volunteer) to be able to
    grasp real socio-economic systems.
  • Need to invest an important effort (collecting
    information, budgets) in Gender equality and
    womens empowerment, so that we can really reduce
    gender inequality.
  • Key role of education to change social norms and
    traditional culture
  • Male population
  • Young people

19
THANK YOUprodmod_at_upo.es
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