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C H A P T E R

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The Divisive Politics of Slavery. 1. SECTION. The Civil War Begins. 2. SECTION ... Across the United States a debate is raging, dividing North from South: Is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: C H A P T E R


1
QUIT
4
C H A P T E R
The Union in Peril
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE
INTERACT WITH HISTORY
TIME LINE
The Divisive Politics of Slavery
1
SECTION
The Civil War Begins
2
SECTION
MAP
GRAPH
The North Takes Charge
3
SECTION
Reconstruction and Its Effects
4
SECTION
VISUAL SUMMARY
2
HOME
4
C H A P T E R
The Union in Peril
To understand the events that led to the Civil
War, the course and outcome of the war, and the
establishment and eventual failure of
Reconstruction
3
HOME
4
C H A P T E R
The Union in Peril
I N T E R A C T
W I T H H I S T O R Y
The year is 1850. Across the United States a
debate is raging, dividing North from South Is
slavery a property right or is it a violation of
liberty and human dignity? The future of the
Union depends on compromisebut for many people
on both sides, compromise is unacceptable.
How can the Union be saved?
Examine the Issues
Is it possible to compromise on an ethical
issue such as slavery?
What are the obstacles to altering an
institution, such as slavery, that is
fundamental to a regions economy and way of
life?
4
HOME
4
C H A P T E R
The Union in Peril
The United States
The World
continued . . .
5
HOME
4
C H A P T E R
The Union in Peril
The United States
The World
6
HOME
KEY IDEA
The issue of slavery leads to increased tension
and violence between the North and the South and
finally brings the nation to the brink of war.
OVERVIEW
ASSESSMENT
7
HOME
OVERVIEW
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
The modern Democratic and Republican parties
emerged from the political tensions of the
mid-19th century.
Disagreements over slavery heightened regional
tensions and led to the breakup of the Union.
TERMS NAMES
ASSESSMENT
8
HOME
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. List four events that heightened
tensions between the North and South.
The Compromise of 1850 includes a new fugitive
slave law
1857, Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court case
causes sectional passions to explode
1852, Uncle Toms Cabin book on slavery stirs
strong reactions
1859, John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry attempt
to start a slave uprising intensifies sectional
feeling in the country
continued . . .
9
HOME
2. Do you think there were any points at which
civil war might have been averted? Think About
the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act,
and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
the new political parties
the Supreme Courts ruling in the Dred Scott
decision
the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in
1860
ANSWER
POSSIBLE RESPONSES Yes. The Supreme Court made
a major blunder in the Dred Scott decision.
No. The conflict was inevitable.
continued . . .
10
HOME
3. John Brown, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher
Stowe, and Stephen Douglas all opposed slavery.
Who do you think had the greatest impact on
American history and why?
ANSWER
Responses should reflect understanding of the
strengths and weaknesses of each individual and
an awareness of their contributions.
continued . . .
11
HOME
4. How did the tension between states rights and
national government authority manifest itself in
the events leading up to the Civil War?
ANSWER
Popular sovereignty reinforced states rights.
The Dred Scott decision convinced many
Northerners that the slave states were
influencing the national government. Lincolns
election frightened supporters of states rights,
because he believed that Congress could abolish
slavery.
End of Section 1
12
HOME
MAP
GRAPH
KEY IDEA
The Civil War becomes a more prolonged, deadly
conflict than anyone had predicted and has a
significant impact on civilians, soldiers, and
African Americans.
OVERVIEW
ASSESSMENT
13
HOME
MAP
GRAPH
OVERVIEW
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Shortly after the nations Southern states
seceded from the Union, war began between the
North and South.
The nations identity was forged in part by the
Civil War. Sectional divisions remain very strong
today.
TERMS NAMES
ASSESSMENT
14
HOME
MAP
GRAPH
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. List the military actions and social
and economic changes of the first two years of
the Civil War.
1. Bull Run
1. African Americans join Union army
2. Shiloh
2. Food shortages in South
3. Antietam
3. Battlefield medicine
4. First income tax
continued . . .
15
HOME
MAP
GRAPH
2. What effects did the Civil War have on women
and African Americans? Think About
the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation
womens role in the war effort
ANSWER
Opportunities expanded for both groups. For
example, the Emancipation Proclamation allowed
African Americans to fight for the Union, and new
jobs, such as nursing, opened to women.
continued . . .
16
HOME
MAP
GRAPH
3. What advantages did the Union have over the
South?
ANSWER
The Union had greater human resources, more
factories, greater food production, and a more
extensive railroad system.
End of Section 2
17
HOME
KEY IDEA
The South surrenders to the North. However, the
war has an enduring effect on the nation and on
American lives.
OVERVIEW
ASSESSMENT
18
HOME
OVERVIEW
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
After four years of bloody fighting, the Union
wore down the Confederacy and won the war.
The Union victory confirmed the authority of the
federal government over the states.
TERMS NAMES
ASSESSMENT
19
HOME
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. List political, economic, physical, and
social consequences of the Civil War.
Freed enslaved people prevented disintegration
of Union
Political
Stimulated economic growth of the North and
contributed to economic decline of the South
Economic
Consequences of the Civil War
Widespread destruction of houses, livestock, and
railroads in the South increased
industrialization in the North
Physical
Family life in both North and South disrupted by
departure of millions of men to fight in the war
and the high casualty rate
Social
continued . . .
20
HOME
2. Grant and Sherman used the strategy of total
war. Do you think the end justifies the means?
That is, did defeating the Confederacy justify
harming civilians? Think About
their reasons for targeting the civilian
population
Shermans march through Georgia
ANSWER
POSSIBLE RESPONSES Yes. Saving the Union and
abolishing slavery were worth the cost of
civilian lives. No. Killing defenseless
citizens is immoral under any circumstances.
continued . . .
21
HOME
3. How did Lincoln abolish slavery in all states?
ANSWER
Lincoln thought that a constitutional amendment
would be necessary to abolish slavery, and the
Thirteenth Amendment was passed at the end of
1865.
continued . . .
22
HOME
4. Why did the Unions victory strengthen the
power of the national government?
ANSWER
It ensured that states would never again threaten
secession.
End of Section 3
23
HOME
KEY IDEA
Reconstruction results in many political, social,
and economic changes in the South before being
ended in 1877.
OVERVIEW
ASSESSMENT
24
HOME
OVERVIEW
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
After the Civil War, the nation embarked on a
period known as Reconstruction, during which
attempts were made to readmit the South to the
Union.
The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, passed
as part of Reconstruction, gave civil rights to
Americans of all races.
TERMS NAMES
ASSESSMENT
25
HOME
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. List five problems facing the South
after the Civil War. Then describe the solution
that was attempted for each problem.
Congressional Reconstruction
Reuniting North and South
Public Works Programs
Physical devastation of the South
Former slaves need assistance
Freedmens Bureau established
Former slaves need land
40 acres and a mule plan
Enforcement Acts
Vigilante groups arise
continued . . .
26
HOME
2. Do you think that Reconstruction had positive
effects on Southern society? Think About
the formation of the Ku Klux Klan
why so many African Americans turned to
sharecropping
ANSWER
POSSIBLE RESPONSES Reconstructions positive
effects include the Freedmens Bureaus
assistance to former slaves. Reconstruction
had negative effects by trying to help former
slaves it encouraged a backlash that intensified
racism and led to the rise of the Ku Klux Klan
by not offering land to former slaves, it forced
African Americans into sharecropping.
continued . . .
27
HOME
3. How did the Radical Republicans hope to
reconstruct the South?
ANSWER
The Radical Republicans wanted to destroy the
political power of former slaveholders. They also
wanted African Americans to be given full
citizenship, including the right to vote.
End of Section 4
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