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Correctional Continuum

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By 1500, gov't 'corrections' overcomes traditions of private ... PN vs. Auburn debate. Reflects new understanding of cause of crime. The Great Debate. PN ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Correctional Continuum


1
Correctional Continuum
  • U.S. Correctional History

2
Review
  • Corrections in Feudal Society?
  • Serfs vs. Freemen
  • First principalities in 12th Century
  • From private to territorial lords
  • By 1500, govt corrections overcomes traditions
    of private restitution and/or revenge
  • Punishments very public, and brutal/bizarre
  • In part, an effort to demonstrate that the
    government has a monopoly on the legitimate use
    of violence

3
Review II
  • Interesting stuff from reading that I forgot to
    mention last class
  • Inquisitorial vs. Accusatory system
  • Eventually (1750s to 1850s), corrections changes
    into the form we recognize today
  • No more molten lead down the front of the shirt
  • Why?? Spierenburgs explanation?
  • Transformation of sensibilities
  • State no longer needs to prove itself

4
Colonial America (1600-1750)
  • Nature of Society
  • Calvinist doctrine
  • Crime not a problem (fact of life)
  • Control through family training/community
    cohesion
  • Nature of Punishment
  • Borrow heavily from England, So...central
    features are same
  • Corporal
  • Public
  • Sparse use of prisons

5
Enlightenment and Change (1770s-1820)
  • Population boom and shift from agrarian to
    industrial economy
  • Enlightenment
  • Produces alarm/dismay but also optimism
  • First burst of enthusiasm (deterrence)
  • Reform the legal code
  • Substitute prisons for corporal punishment
  • First wave of prison building (1790-1800)
  • A repulsion from the gallows rather than any
    faith in the penitentiary spurred the late-18th
    Century construction

6
From deterrence to penance (1820-1850)
  • By 1820, the luster of the classical school (and
    associated reforms) fades
  • No crime reduction, trouble with prisons
  • Still, very optimistic (impulse to reform)
  • The Invention of the Penitentiary
  • A PROPER penitentiary will reform offenders
  • PN vs. Auburn debate
  • Reflects new understanding of cause of crime

7
The Great Debate
  • PN
  • Reform through penance, solitude, silence, labor
    (inmates kept in cell, separate yard)
  • Auburn
  • Reform through discipline/obedience, labor
    (inmates congregate to work, but lockstep, etc)
  • Contract labor system
  • Why did Auburn Win?

8
Southern/Western Penology
  • Often neglected topic in corrections texts
  • Prisons develop differently
  • In South, race and the Black codes
  • Little to build prisons (civil war decimation)
  • The LEASE SYSTEM
  • Penal Farms

9
The New Penology (1870-1900)
  • By 1860, enthusiasm for penitentiaries wanes
  • Corruption, corporal punishment, crowding...
  • Wardens give up on ideal and seek to maintain
    order
  • 1870 National Prison Congress
  • Leads to Declaration of Principles
  • Reaffirm reform over punishment
  • Indeterminate sentences
  • Parole
  • Separate institutions for females and juveniles
  • The lockstep, rules of silence, isolation, etc
    humiliating and unproductive
  • Elmira as test case for new Reformatory

10
Progressive Era 1900-1960
  • Progressives middle/upper class reformers
  • Great optimism belief in government
  • Sought to eradicate all sorts of social ills
  • Crime?
  • General reform (poverty reduction, fix slums)
  • Embrace new penology
  • Indeterminate sentences parole
    boards/supervision
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • Probation

11
The Medical Model and Rehabilitative Ideal
  • By 1940s, social sciences gain prestige
  • Psychiatry, psychology, sociology
  • Rehabilitative Ideal (1940s-1960s)
  • Causes of crime are unique (social,
    psychological)
  • The goal of corrections is to identify and
    eliminate/correct these causes (rehabilitation)
  • Treatment must be individualized
  • Corrections workers and judges must be trusted
    with a great deal of discretion

12
1960s Corrections becomes professionalized
  • Rehab as unquestioned goal (in rhetoric at least)
    of Corrections system
  • American Corrections Association (from American
    Prison Association)
  • Correctional Facilities
  • Standards for correctional officers
  • All kinds of new Rx programs
  • College education, group counseling, therapeutic
    milieu, behavior modification

13
Progressives? Radicals, Change... (1960s-1980)
  • Social Context of 1960s
  • Contrast with progressive optimism/faith
  • Many progressives turn more radical
  • Labeling theory ascends ? avoid doing harm
  • Martinson Report ? nothing works
  • JUSTICE MODEL
  • Clear et al. Community Corrections era
  • Conservatives have different take on 60s
  • Crime symbol of all the DISORDER
  • Solution go back to classical school

14
Uneasy Alliance
  • Conservatives and liberals agree on
  • The need to limit sentencing discretion
  • Conservatives liberal judges
  • Liberals corrupt, racist judges/parole boards
  • Solution return to determinate sentencing,
    sentencing guidelines, etc
  • Only difference is on length of sentences
  • Liberals do less harm, be fair (justice model)
  • Conservatives punishment WORKS!
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