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United Nations security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security

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... on gender issues (East Timor, Kosovo, DRC, Cote d'Ivore and Sierra Leone) ... Cote d'Ivoire: a UN Volunteer is the only staff member working on gender issues ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: United Nations security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security


1
United Nations security Council Resolution 1325
on Women, Peace and Security
2
History
  • On October 31, 2000, the United Nations Security
    Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1325 on
    women, peace and security
  • Key players in adoption
  • NGOs, especially womens NGOs ex. NGO Working
    Group on Women, International Peace and Security
  • UN agencies, ex. UNIFEM
  • Member States on SC, ex. Namibia, Bangladesh,
    Canada, Jamaica
  • Historic and Unprecedented
  • Effectively International Law
  • 1325 did not come out of nowhere
  • It was preceded by numerous international
    documents, treaties and statements

3
Legal Framework
  • Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
    discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 1979
  • Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995
  • ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions on Gender
    Mainstreaming, 1997
  • Security Council Presidential Statement
    (Bangladesh), 8 March 2000
  • Windhoek Declaration and the Namibia Plan of
    Action on Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in
    Multidimensional Peace Support Operations, May
    2000
  • Outcome Doc. Of the UN General Assembly Special
    Session Women 2000 Gender Equality, Development
    and Peace for the 21st Century Beijing 5

4
What is UN SC Resolution 1325?
It is a watershed political framework that makes
women and a gender perspective relevant to all
aspects of peace processes- from peace agreements
through peace support operations and planning for
refugee, IDPs and other war affected to
post-conflict reconstruction processes and the
restoration of the social fabric of a broken
society.
Resolution 1325 makes the pursuit of gender
equality relevant to every single action of the
UN SC ranging from Mine Clearance to Elections to
Demobilisation, Disarmament, Reintegration
Security Sector Reform.
5
What Does Resolution 1325 Mean in Practice?
  • Resolution 1325 is a validation of over 20 years
    of womens struggles, advocacy and persistent
    lobbying
  • It is a political framework that provides a
    number of operational mandates with implications
    for the following actors Policy makers,
    decision-takers, programmers and funding
    components.

6
Actors
  • Security Council
  • Secretary General
  • Member States
  • Humanitarian Agencies
  • The Military
  • Researchers

7
It can be used as a Tool for
  • Demanding political accountability and the
    protection of rights
  • Advocacy and lobbying
  • Negotiation
  • Leverage
  • Inclusion and representation in Peace Processes

8
How is Resolution 1325 Constructed?
It calls upon all relevant actors to take action
in five interrelated areas elaborated in 18
paragraphs
Paragraphs 1-4 deals with womens participation
and representation in decision-making levels in
all aspects of peace processes, including in
peacekeeping and other field based operations
Paragraphs 6 7 deal with gender sensitive
training, materials and guidelines for HIV/AIDS
and the funding of training for all staff
employed on peacekeeping missions
Paragraphs 8 12 deal with the protection of
womens human rights and the right to redress
9
Paragraph 13 addresses disarmament,
demobilisation, reintegration and differences in
women and mens needs
Paragraph 14 addresses humanitarian needs and
protection issues
Paragraph 15 expresses the SCs willingness to
consider gender considerations and womens rights
through consultation with local womens groups
during their various field missions.
Paragraphs 16 17 deal with Gender Mainstreaming
in UN reporting
10
Key Commitments Made in UN SC Resolution 1325
Inclusion of a Gender Perspective at All Levels
of Decision-Making
Gender Perspective in SG Reports and in SC
Missions
Protection of and Respect for Human Rights of
Women and Girls
Gender Perspective in Post-Conflict Processes
Gender Perspective in Peacekeeping
11
Inclusion of a Gender Perspective at All Levels
of Decision-Making
  • UN SC Resolution 1325 calls for MORE
  • Women at all decision-making levels in national,
    regional and international institutions and
    mechanisms for the prevention, management and
    resolution of conflict.
  • Women as Special Representatives (head of
    peacekeeping mission) and envoys of the
    Secretary-General
  • Women as military observers, civilian police,
    human rights and humanitarian personnel

12
Protection of and Respect for Human Rights of
Women and girls
  • UNSC Resolution Calls for
  • Respect for international law, as applicable to
    women and girls
  • Special measures to protect women and girls from
    gender-based violence and other forms of violence
    in situations of armed conflict
  • An end to impunity, including for those
    responsible for committing sexual violence
    against women and girls
  • Respect for the civilian and humanitarian
    character of refugee camps
  • The integration of the particular needs of women
    and girls into the design of refugee camps

13
Gender Perspective in Peacekeeping
  • UN SC Resolution 1325 Calls for
  • Senior level gender advisor/gender units
  • Gender Training of all peacekeeping personnel
    pre-deployment (responsibility of member state)

14
Gender Perspective in Post-Conflict Processes
  • UN SC Resolution 1325 Calls for
  • The adoption of a gender perspective in
    Demobilization, Disarmament, Repatriation,
    Resettlement and Reintegration (DDRRR), and
    post-conflict reconstruction
  • The consideration of the different needs of
    female and male ex-combatants
  • Respect for the civilian and humanitarian
    character of refugee camps

15
Gender Perspective in Secretary General reports
and in security Council missions
  • UN SC Resolution 1325 Calls for
  • The SG to carry out a study on the impact of
    armed conflict on women and girls, the role of
    women in peace-building and the gender dimensions
    of peace processes
  • The SG to report on progress in gender
    mainstreaming in peacekeeping missions in all of
    his reports to the SC
  • The integration of gender considerations and the
    rights of women in SC missions
  • SC members consultation with womens groups and
    organizations while on mission

16
UN SC Resolution 1325 Strengths
  • AS a Security Council Resolution
  • Article 25 of the UN Charter The members of the
    United nations agree to accept and carry out the
    decisions of the Security Council in accordance
    with the present Charter
  • Global Constituency
  • Grassroots organizations, international NGOs
  • UN
  • Governments
  • Academics
  • Active collaboration across sectors
  • It does not stand alone Holistic perspective
  • Other Security Council Resolutions
  • General Assembly Resolutions
  • CEDAW (1979)
  • Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
    (1995)
  • European Parliament Resolution on participation
    of women in peaceful conflict resolution (2000)
  • G8 Rome Initiatives on conflict prevention
    Strengthening the role of women in conflict
    prevention (2001)
  • Protocol to the African Charter on Human and
    Peoples Rights on the rights of women in Africa
    (2003)
  • Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
    (ICC)

17
UNSC 1325 Challenges
  • Weak Language
  • As compared to other resolutions, i.e.
    Counter-Terrorism Resolution (1373)
  • UN SC Res. 1325 express, emphasizes, requests
  • UN SC Res. 1373 decides, directs, declares
  • Absence of mechanisms for monitoring and
    reporting on implementation
  • Absence of quotas, time-bound targets (unlike
    European Parliament Resolution on participation
    of women in peaceful conflict resolution)
  • Lack of Political Will among Member-States and
    within UN System
  • Gender still not a politicized issue for many UN
    member states, remains a soft issue
  • Women as victims vs. Active agents
  • Resistance of budgetary actors to allocate
    funding for gender programming

18
  • People dont know it exists
  • UN, government, civil society
  • Example of lack of systematic information flow
    between UN Headquarters and field
  • Translations needed
  • Only 1 of approximately 50 Special
    Representatives of the SG or Special Envoys on
    peacekeeping operations is a woman (Georgia).
    There are 4 women deputy heads in peacekeeping
    missions (Guatemala, DRC, Ethiopia and Eritrea)
  • 30 quota target for women in UN system set out
    for 2005 is not on track
  • Rape and other forms of sexual violence and
    gender-based violence systematic, and widespread
    in todays armed conflicts
  • DRC Rape as a systematic tool of warfare
  • Iraq Rise in reported cases of kidnapping, rape,
    trafficking

19
  • To-date, only 5 peacekeeping missions have had
    staff working directly on gender issues (East
    Timor, Kosovo, DRC, Cote dIvore and Sierra
    Leone)
  • These gender units continue to be understaffed
    and weak, as a result of a lack of mandate
    authority
  • Cote dIvoire a UN Volunteer is the only staff
    member working on gender issues from within the
    Human Rights Unit.
  • While Gender training is compulsory for
    peacekeepers, its integration relies on the
    political will of each mission head.
  • Needs and voices of the dependants of
    ex-combatants frequently ignored and
    marginalized, respectively
  • Wives of Ugandan rebels Lords Resistance Army-
    What happens to them?
  • Refugee women and girls continue to experience
    sexual and gender based violence in refugee camps
    and settlements, forced to trade sex for
    humanitarian supplies
  • Continued poor record of SC consultation with
    womens organizations while on mission

20
UN SC Resolution 1325 Models for Implementation
  • Civil Society
  • DRC Using 1325 as a toll in preparation for and
    at Inter-Congolese Dialogue in Sun City, South
    Africa
  • Internally displaced women in Colombia, Gender
    and Peacebuilding Working Group in Canada
  • WILPF Australia 1325 as priority for education
    and action
  • http//www.1325australia.org.au
  • UN
  • Inter-Agency Taskforce on Women, Peace and
    Security
  • Gender Unit of the Peacekeeping Mission in DRC
    (MONUC)
  • UNIFEM Women, War and Peace Web Portal
    www.womenwarpeace.org

21
  • Government
  • Friends of 1325 a UN member states coalition
    (Germany as member)
  • Netherlands joint working group of Ministries of
    Foreign Affairs and Defence on Implementation of
    1325 (2002) released report on status of
    implementation
  • US Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson US House
    Congressional Resolution 432 on 1325 and women,
    peace and security -
  • Collaboration Across Sectors
  • Coalition 1325, Azerbaijan (UNIFEM Supported)
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