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Blended Learning: Reconceptualizing approaches to teaching and learning

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Director, Learning Commons. garrison_at_ucalgary.ca. Critical Assessment. How well have we approached the ideal of a university learning experience? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Blended Learning: Reconceptualizing approaches to teaching and learning


1
Blended Learning Reconceptualizing approaches
to teaching and learning
  • New Ways and New Technologies Conference
  • University of Calgary

D. Randy Garrison, Professor Director, Learning
Commons garrison_at_ucalgary.ca
2
Critical Assessment
  • How well have we approached the ideal of a
    university learning experience?
  • How well are we developing critical and creative
    thinkers individuals who have learned to learn?

3
King Kitchener, 1994
Virtually no change in reflective thinking scores
from freshman to juniors. many college
students are at a loss when asked to defend their
answers to ill-structured problems or to
articulate the role of evidence in making
interpretations
4
Reflective Judgment
college seniors do not typically articulate
concepts that underlie reflective
thinking King Kitchener, 1994
5
Dahlgren
  • In recent years, it has become clear from
    numerous investigations that
  • Many students are accomplished at complex routine
    skills in science, mathematics, and humanities,
    including problem-solving algorithms.

6
  • Many have appropriated enormous amounts of
    detailed knowledge, including knowledge of
    subject-specific terminology.
  • Many are able to reproduce large quantities of
    factual information on demand.
  • Many are able to pass examinations.

7
  • But many are unable to show that they understand
    what they have learned, when asked simple yet
    searching questions that test their grasp of the
    content.

8
Goals/Reality
  • Academic Plan Principles
  • Learning-centred university
  • Devoted to multidisciplinary inquiry
  • SAA survey quality learning/classroom
    experience
  • New resources not likely
  • Rethinking new ways

9
Structural Imbalance
  • To make things worse
  • and things have got worse.

10
Teaching Research
  • Transformation of higher education
  • Increasingly dependent on tuition and grants
  • Entrepreneurial, market focused
  • Research focused merit system
  • Research support
  • Federal granting councils
  • CRCs, CRI, Alberta (AHFMR)
  • Provincial granting councils
  • Internal research grants
  • Comparable bodies for TL innovation?

11
Teaching Research Balance
  • Funding not congruent with growth (increased
    class size)
  • Research driving investment and allocation of
    base funding
  • Full-time researchers (e.g., CRC)
  • Few incentives for teaching innovation, quality
    (promotion and tenure)

12
The Challenge is
  • How shall we treat subject matter that is
    supplied by textbook and teacher so that it shall
    rank as material of reflective inquiry, not as
    ready-made intellectual pablum to be accepted and
    swallowed just as if it were something bought at
    a shop?
  • John Dewey

13
Deep Approach to Learning
  • intention to understand the material fully
  • focus is on what the material means and how it
    may be applied
  • use linking to past knowledge and everyday
    experiences to learn material
  • integration, synthesis of knowledge
  • students engaged and assume responsibility

14
Inquiry-Based Learning
  • IBL is core to a deep approach.
  • In its simplest sense, it is an interactive,
    question-driven search for understanding.
  • Through this process students construct
    meaningful information structures, apply, and
    effectively demonstrate understanding and
    critical thinking.

15
Community of Inquiry
Discourse/Collaboration
SocialPresence
CognitivePresence
EducationalExperience
Informal Learning
Non Formal Learning
ClimateSetting
Content
Teaching Presence
Communication Medium
16
Blended Learning
  • New way
  • New technology

17
President of Penn State
  • cites the convergence of classroom and online
    education as the single greatest unrecognized
    trend in higher education today
  • (Young, 2002).

18
BL Described
  • Thoughtful and logical integration of the
    inherent strengths of face-to-face and online
    learning.
  • Not an add-on to a classroom lecture nor a DE
    course
  • An optimal design approach to enhance the campus
    experience and extend learning through the
    innovative use of Internet information, online
    inquiry and communications technology.

19
E-LEARNING
Blended
Enhanced
Online
20
Why Blended Learning?
  • New approaches to teaching
  • Enhanced student engagement
  • Focus on higher learning (e.g., CT)
  • Strategy to fundamentally redesign courses and
    programs

21
Oral Communication
  • Fast-paced
  • Tends to be spontaneous
  • Ephemeral
  • Relatively simple grammatical structure (varies
    considerably)
  • A rich medium - nonverbal cues, intonation,
    voice quality, etc.

22
Text or Written Communication
  • Tends to be slower paced, reflective
  • Permanent, can be reread
  • Relatively complex grammatical structure (varies
    considerably)
  • Page layout, headings, etc. to indicate
    conceptual structure
  • A lean medium - lacks nonverbal cues,
    intonation, etc. But can use punctuation to
    partially compensate

23
Example - University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Redesigned its General Chemistry sequence to
    increase the level of active learning and student
    feedback
  • Eliminated one lecture and one discussion period
    per week and implemented a modularized, online
    system of diagnostic examples, tutorials, and
    quizzes
  • Controlled study found learning to be equivalent
    to that of students who were conventionally
    taught
  • UWM expects a cost-per-student reduction of 28
  • http//www.center.rpi.edu/PewGrant/rd1award/UWM.ht
    ml

24
Example - Brigham Young University
  • Redesigning its first-year writing course (3400
    students)
  • The redesign will
  • reduce classroom time from three hours to one
    hour per week
  • make use of interactive multimedia lessons, more
    one-on-one time with faculty, and additional
    peer-to-peer sessions
  • Initial pilot revealed overall paper quality is
    higher in the online versus the traditional
    version of the course
  • A 41 cost savings estimated
  • http//www.center.rpi.edu/PewGrant/RD320Award/BYU
    .html

25
Science One - UBC
  • Less lecturing less content
  • More engagement, problem solving
  • More collaboration (community)
  • Focus on critical thinking, conceptual learning
  • Gass Berger, 2004

26
Science 311 U of C
  • Writing Reviewing Scientific Reports
  • Originally capped at 40 students BL used to
    increase cap and implement inquiry approaches
  • Students focus on writing instead of passively
    listening to lectures
  • Allows professor more time to engage with
    students in the writing process
  • Course material presented online weekly
    discussion drop-in tutorials with professor
  • Peer review document mgmt system facilitates
    anonymous feedback (reduced administration)

27
Roadmap to Redesign (R2R)
  • Goal to accelerate adoption of proven redesign
    methodology including blended learning
  • Focused on improving learning and reducing costs
  • PEW study funded 30 projects and institutions and
    impacted gt50K students
  • Carol Twigg

28
RESULTS
  • 25 of 30 have shown improvement in learning
    outcomes 5 have shown equal learning
  • Redesigned courses reduce costs by 40 on
    average, with a range of 20 to 77

29
Blended Courses
  • 80 of U.S. institutions offer hybrid i.e.,
    blended learning courses
  • (Evolving Campus Support Models for
    E- Learning Courses, 2003)

30
UK Survey
  • 94 of lecturers stated that blended learning is
    more effective than classroom-based teaching
    alone
  • 85 of lecturers stated that online learning
    improves both teaching creativity and student
    learning
  • WebCT Survey, 2004

31
Higher Education Survey
  • More American faculty teach online and hybrid
    courses 16 vs 11 24 vs 18 and more have
    course websites than Canadian HE institutions.
  • it seems that faculty in the United States are
    pulling well ahead of Canadian faculty in
    practice.
  • Technology and Student Success in Higher
    Education, 2003

32
Albert Einstein
  • defined insanity as the belief that you can
    get different results by doing the same thing
    over and over.

33
Organized Abandonment
  • If we did not do this already, would we, knowing
    what we now know, go into it?
  • Peter Drucker, 1999
  • From a higher education perspective, would we,
    knowing what we now know, design learning
    experiences with two and three hundred students
    in a lecture hall?

34
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