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Gender Mainstreaming


True or False Exercise - Sara. GM Strategy and checklists - Nasser ... Access to land, equipment and credit. Legal rights and political power. Violence against women ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender Mainstreaming

Gender Mainstreaming
  • May 2007

Gender Mainstreaming Outline
  • GM overview - Thuraya
  • Evelyn Report - Tuful
  • GM in brief Mayssam
  • True or False Exercise - Sara
  • GM Strategy and checklists - Nasser
  • Gender Sensitive Budgeting Indicators Sara
  • Gender Analysis - Rana
  • The Thermometer Exercise Rana
  • Gender Measurement Hossam
  • Resource Guide for Gender Theme Group Norah
  • GM Knowledge and Learning Dima
  • Models for Successful Women and Men Exercise
  • Gender and Thematic Practice Areas
  • ICT, Energy and Water Management Asim
  • Governance Thuraya
  • Governance Indicators Poverty Yassin
  • Conflict Mohammed
  • GM and MDGs/HDR Tuful
  • The Tarot of the Attitudes - Dima

Where we are?
  • CO GM Committee
  • Gender CO GM Committee
  • Gender audit recommendations
  • Gender general awareness
  • GM online course
  • GM in some projects
  • Using GM checklist in some projects
  • GM Initiative (Thematic Fund)
  • Women in Management (2 to 3)
  • Gender balance in committees
  • audit recommendations
  • Gender general awareness
  • GM online course
  • GM in some projects
  • Using GM checklist in some projects
  • GM Initiative (Thematic Fund)
  • Women in Management (2 to 3)
  • Gender balance in committees

Where we want to go?
  • CO Gender Strategy action plan implemented
  • UN Gender Thematic Group (UNGTG)
  • Programme team national managers fully equipped
    with GM tools and expertise
  • GM in human resources
  • GM included in management performance to ensure
  • GM incorporated in programme cycle
  • GM integrated in monitoring evaluation

Steps towards our goal?
  • GM trainings to staff projects managers
  • Present GM CO strategy to UNCT and develop a
    common GM Strategy
  • Allocate a of projects budgets for GM
  • GM in situation analysis mechanisms set
  • Mobilize programme staff NGOs for thematic
  • GM included in office WP, RCA, IWP, learning
    goals JD
  • GM incorporated in meetings

  • Gender Audi Findings Summary Report

  • Introduction
  • Special Considerations
  • Gender in Practice
  • Gender in Our Projects
  • Gender among our staff
  • Gender in Teams of Committees and other
  • Suggestions for UNDP CO
  • Recommendations

  • Commitment to equal rights of men and women.
  • UNDP Gender Action Plan developed in 2005.
  • The TOR of the gender audit exercise.

Special Considerations
  • Saudi Arabia as an NCC country and therefore
    UNDPs role as provider of technical and advisory
  • Limited space for advocacy role of corporate
    themes including gender
  • The socio-cultural context with traditions of
    gender discrimination

Gender in Practice
  • Sensitivity of gender in discussion
  • Recent change in official policy concerning
  • NHDR 2003 sheds light on gender issues
  • The 8th DP (2005-2009) as a landmark in gender
  • NMDGs Report for 2005 reflects some progress in
    gender issues
  • Saudi Arabia has therefore started the process of
    gender mainstreaming
  • UNDP CO faces the challenges of using this start
    to strengthen dialogue

Gender in Our Projects
  • Little attention is paid to gender in UNDPs work
  • Discussion with project managers reveals that the
    situation is not as worse as PDs.

Gender among our staff
  • Gender in staff rules and regulations in general
  • From HR Management perspective.

Gender in Teams of Committees and other Facilities
  • Gender Focal Point is a system that was
    introduced in UNDP as a strategy to improve
    integration of gender consideration in UNDPs
    work. (GFP) has made a significant contribution
    to gender mainstreaming and women empowerment.
  • Recommendations for GFP.
  • Gender and committees.

Suggestions for UNDP CO
  • UNDP KSA allocate financial and human resources
    to development.
  • UNDP KSA seeks ways of encouraging staff to use
    learning opportunities.
  • UNDP KSA explores ways to mainstream gender
  • Use of gender sensitive language.

Recommendation concerning gender in UNDP CO
  • UNDP KSA allocate financial and human resources
    to development.
  • UNDP KSA seeks ways of encouraging staff to use
    learning opportunities.
  • UNDP KSA explores ways to mainstream gender
  • Use of gender sensitive language

  • Adding additional gender training to the basic
    Gender Journey.
  • Organizing regular Working Group sessions among
  • Developing the basic reference materials to TOR.
  • Applying a systematic checklist.
  • All persons with programmes should reflect gender
    dimensions on project.

  • Gender Manistreaming in Brief

What is Gender
  • Gender refers to the social meaning given to
    being a man or woman in a given society. i.e.
    Characteristics used to define a man or woman do
    not stem from biological differences
  • It defines the boundaries of what women and men
    can and should be and do.
  • It shapes and determines the behavior, roles,
    expectations and entitlements of women and men in
    a particular society

What is Gender
  • Refers to the rules, norms, customs and practices
    through which the biological differences between
    males and females are transformed into social
  • This results in women and men being valued
    differently and having unequal opportunities and
    life chances.
  • Gender relations are specific to societies and to
    historical time
  • Gender relations change in response to wider
    changes. They are not fixed for all time
  • Gender roles and relations differ between and
    within societies

A Core UNDP Commitment
  • Equality between women and men is fair and right
    (heart of HR)
  • Central to progress in HD
  • UNDP committed to making equality a reality to
    promote prosperity and well-being for all

What is Gender Analysis
  • Collection and analysis of gender disaggregated
  • - different roles, tasks, responsibilities
  • - different needs, interests, capacities
  • - differences in access and control of
    resources and benefits
  • Gender analysis tells us about the rules, norms
    and practices of social institutions that keep
    the divisions of labour and distribution of
    resources between women and men in place.

What is Gender Mainstreaming
  • Gender mainstreaming is ensuring that what we do
    and how we do it promotes gender equality
  • This is based on a recognition that all
    development initiatives have an impact on gender
    relations sometimes positive sometimes negative

  • Technical domain constitutes capacities, tools
    and instruments
  • Political domain is the site for planning and
    decision making, hierarchies and power, access
    and control over resources
  • Cultural domain where the gap between policy and
    practice is created but also negotiated and

  • Gender-Sensitive
  • Budgeting Indicators.

DOES NOT aim at producing a separate budget for
women nor does it imply increasing spending on
women specific programs
.but aims at analyzing any form of national
expenditure from a gender perspective through
identifying the implications and impacts for
women and girls as for men and boys
What is a Gender-Sensitive Budget Initiative??
It simply brings gender equality to the
allocation of public funds enhances womens
participation in the decision-making processes
that shape their lives
What impact does this fiscal measure have on
gender equality??
  • A national, regional or local budget reflects a
    governments social and economic priorities.
  • The budget is the place where policies and
    programs are defined and translated into resource
  • Examining budgets through a gender lens can help
    identify gaps in access to and distribution of
    public resources.
  • Gender budgets provide a mechanism by which
    governments can integrate a gender analysis into
    public expenditure policies.
  • Gender-sensitive budget analysis provides a way
    to hold governments accountable of their
    commitments to gender equality and womens human

Why a gender-sensitive budget???
How to go ahead with a gender-sensitive budget
Gender Analysis
National, regional, local
Elected assemblies
Political Location
The whole budget
Selected depart. or programs
Inside government departments
Outside government
New projects
Selected forms or revenue
Changes in tax system
New legislation
How to go ahead ..contd.
Budget Classification
Stage of Budget cycle
  • Line Item (by payments)
  • Functional (by broad purpose)
  • Economic (by economic impact)
  • Administrative (by institution)

  • Programme (by programs or activities)

  • Territorial (by geographical area)

Presentation of the analysis
  • In the main budget or evaluation report
  • In special annex to the main budget/evaluation.
  • In briefing papers for parliamentarians
  • In submission to government task forces, planning
  • In research publications
  • In popular education publications

of Gender-senstive budgets
A rights-based approach to budgeting
helps ensure that gender equality becomes both a
goal and indicator of economic governance
Gender budgets are important instruments
for making governments accountable to women
and ensuring that governments live up to
their commitments
Macroeconomic policy can increase decrease or
leave unchanged the gender inequality through
adjustments in fiscal policy
Gender sensitive budgets engage members of civil
society and women in a vital area of political
and economic policy debate
Approaches to analyze Gender Analysis.
  • Gender analysis
  • Macroeconomic analysis
  • Budget analysis technique
  • Specific knowledge

How can initiatives be taken to introduce a
gender-sensitive budget?
  • Assessing the gender-sensitivity of policies.
  • Focus groups of beneficiaries.
  • Analyzing the impact of public spending.
  • Analyzing the impact of the budget on the use of
    time, according to sex.
  • Carrying out a medium-term gender-based
    assessment of economic policies, focusing on
    instruments designed to promote globalization and
    combat poverty
  • Issuing reports and/or statements on the response
    of budgets to gender gaps, by means of indicators
    such as those mentioned earlier

National Level Gender - Sensitive Indicators
  • Gender-sensitive indicators support the gender
    and development approach which focuses on
    changing the gendered nature of society through
    the promotion of gender equity, rather than on
    women in isolation, which was the focus of the
    women in development model and is reflected in an
    emphasis on gender statistics.

Gender-Sensitive Indicators Classification
  • Population composition and change
  • Human settlements and geographical distribution
  • Households and families, marital status,
  • Learning in formal and non-formal education
  • Health, health services, nutrition
  • Economic activity and labor force participation
  • Access to land, equipment and credit
  • Legal rights and political power
  • Violence against women
  • Macroeconomic policy and gender

  • Gender Analysis
  • The Gender Analysis Frame Work

(No Transcript)
Activity Profile Who does what?What men and
women (adults, children, elders) do, and where
and when these activities take place
  • The planner needs to know the tasks of men and
    women in the population subgroups in the project
    area to be able to direct project activities
    toward those performing particular tasks.
    Therefore, data must be gathered on womens and
    mens involvement in each stage of the
    agricultural cycle, on their shared as well as
    unshared tasks, and on the degree of fixity of
    the gender division of labor. The objective is to
    ensure that women are actively included in the
    project and are not disadvantaged by it.
  • The Activity Profile usually considers all
    categories of activities productive,
    reproductive,1 community-related service. It
    identifies how much time is spent on each
    activity, how often this work is done (e.g.,
    daily or seasonally), which periods are
    characterized by a high demand for labor, and
    what extra demands the program inputs will make
    on women, men, and children.
  • The Activity Profile also identifies where the
    activities take place, at home or elsewhere (the
    village, marketplace, fields, or urban centers),
    and how far these places are from the household.
    This information gives insights into female and
    male mobility, and allows an assessment of the
    impact of the program on mobility, method of
    travel, travel time for each activity, and
    potential ways of saving time.
  • Issues considered under Activity Profile include
  • Production of goods and services
  • Reproductive and human resource maintenance
  • Community work
  • Community organization and activities

Access and control profile Who has what?Who has
access to and control of resources, and decision
  • The Access and Control Profile considers
    productive resources such as land, equipment,
    labor, capital and credit, and education, and
    training. It differentiates between access to a
    resource and control over decisions regarding its
    allocation and use. It enables planners to
    consider whether the proposed project could
    undermine access to productive resources, or if
    it could change the balance of power between men
    and women regarding control over resources.
  • The profile examines the extent to which women
    are impeded from participating equitably in
    projects. For example, if women have limited
    access to income or land, they may be unable to
    join groups, which provide production inputs and
    commercial opportunities, or to become
    independent commercial producers. In some
    subgroups, men may also suffer the same
  • Program management mechanisms (e.g., the creation
    of water users) groups or cooperatives) may
    determine who has access to and control over
    productive resources and may change existing
    gender relations.

Analysis of factors and trends What is the
socio-economic context?How activity, access, and
control patterns are shaped by structural factors
(demographic, economic, legal, and institutional)
and by cultural, religious, and attitudinal ones.
  • This analysis considers the structural and
    socio-cultural factors that influence the gender
    patterns of activity and access and control in
    the project area
  • demographic factors, including household
    composition and household headship
  • general economic conditions, such as poverty
    levels, inflation rates, income distribution,
    internal terms of trade, and infrastructure
  • cultural and religious factors
  • education levels and gender participation rates
  • political, institutional, and legal factors.
  • The analysis should consider the following
  • Which policies and programs aimed at ensuring
    womens participation could affect the project?
  • Which community norms and beliefs could influence
    womens participation in the projects
  • Are there laws or regulations that could affect
    womens participation in the project or their
    access to its benefits?

Program cycle analysis What gender considerations
are needed for the project?Gender-sensitive
project planning, design, implementation,
monitoring, and post-evaluation
  • This analysis will indicate if and where the
    objectives and methods proposed for the project
    should be modified to improve the chances that
    the project will succeed and to minimize the
    likelihood that women will be disadvantaged as a
    result of it. Some questions that may need to be
    considered in this analysis deal with production
    processes, training, information, participation,
    access, institution building, project framework
  • Particularly within the Project framework, the
    following issues need to be considered
  • Do the planning assumptions (at each level of the
    planning framework or logical framework, for
    example) adequately reflect the constraints on
    womens participation in the program?
  • Do project performance indicators identify the
    need for data to be collected, disaggregated by
    gender? Will changes in the gender division of
    labor be monitored? Will data on womens access
    to and control over resources be collected during
    the project?
  • Can the project meet both practical gender needs
    (supporting and improving the efficiency of
    womens and mens productive roles) and strategic
    gender needs (improving gender equity through
    womens participation in the project)?
  • Do the goals, purposes, or objectives of the
    program explicitly refer to women or reflect
    womens needs and priorities?
  • Do the project inputs identify opportunities for
    female participation in program management, in
    the delivery and community management of goods
    and services, in any planned institutional
    changes, in training opportunities, and in the
    monitoring of resources and benefits? Will the
    project resources be relevant and accessible to
    poor women in terms of personnel, location, and
  • Does the project include measurable indices for
    the attainment of its GAD objec-tives, to
    facilitate monitoring and post-evaluation?

  • Gender Equality

Gender Equality and MDGs
  • The MDGs are an integrated set of eight goals and
    18 time-bound targets for extending the benefits
    of globalization to the worlds poorest citizens.
  • MDGs goal 3 is to promote gender equality and
    empower women.
  • The goal has one target to eliminate gender
    disparity in primary and secondary education,
    preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education
    no later than 2015.
  • The existence of a separate goal on gender
    equality demonstrates that the global community
    has accepted the centrality of gender equality
    and women empowerment to the development paradigm

What about men?
  • Relation ships between men and women and the way
    in which masculinity is defined are the heart of
    many development challenges.
  • Men have to relinquish some of their economic ,
    political and social power if women are to have
    their fair share of it and giving up power is
    something that few do gladly.

GE achievement by MDG
  • Bahrain support to women political empowerment
    prior to elections brings 6 women to present
  • Yemen support to voter education efforts that
    are linked to religious instruction in order to
    counter claims that religion bans women from
  • 2-Poverty reduction
  • India India Partnership Forum (IPF) developed
    an innovative social code for business to protect
    women. More than 300 companies have adopted the
    code which promotes for equal employment.
  • Uzbekistan UNDP supported a comprehensive
    analysis of the impact of the trade polices on
    women which was the basis for roundtable
    discussions on engendering macroeconomics that
    influenced the national MDG and poverty reduction

3- Crises prevention and recovery
  • Bosnia UNDP supported the development of by-law
    on the national return policy that give priority
    to women headed households.
  • 4- Energy environment Ukraine the sustaining
    Women Farmers" projects is offering information
    technology services to rural women farmers
    through local information centers women are able
    to access information abut their rights, changes
    in agrarian legislations, market their products.
  • Nepal UNDP supported the creation of gender
    balanced community organization to manage
    Micro-hydro energy fueling system and irrigation

  • Honduras UNDP supported the formulation of a
    network of women living with HIV/AIDS to
    challenge their stigma and discrimination
    HIV-positive women are subjected to, and help
    them reintegrate into family and community life.
  • Ghana with UNDP support , women leaders and
    chiefs in some areas have prioritized reducing
    the spread of HIV, increasing support to orphan
    girls , and increasing the number of the
    income-generating activities for girls.

Resource Guide for Gender Theme Groups
This resource guide was developed to
  • Provide practical guidance to UN Theme Groups
  • Serve as a tool to strengthen the role of UN
    theme groups
  • The practical guidance and support comes in the
    form of tips, examples, and good practices
    summarized from theme groups work experiences
  • How to keep the resource guide alive
  • Share your analyzed experience with specific
    inter-agency processes
  • Send your feed back and comments
  • Provide new versions and updates of core

Gender Thematic Group
  • As of 2003, thematic groups on gender are the
    third most numerous of all theme groups
  • The work of the majority of thematic groups on
    gender is to facilitate dialogue on gender
    issues and encourage gender mainstreaming among
    partners undertake activities supporting womens
    empowerment focus on training, production of
    gender briefing kits and inputting into CCA/UNDAF
    processes, as well as work involving the MDGs and
  • Most participants in these groups are women,
    though they are gender focal points who have
    little access to decision-making
  • The 3 main aspects of the role and areas of the
    theme groups are
  • Consolidate coordinate the work of core
  • Devise and implement integrated strategies
  • Manage joint programming in support of results at
    the country level

The Work of GTGs
  • Specific Coordination Strategies for GTGs
  • Be pro-active, strategic and ensure that members
    of the GTG are participating in working groups
    that are used to coordinate the UNCTs inputs
  • Offer proficiency and excellence to the UNCT in
    gender aspects of economic decision-making and
    other high priority areas
  • Support partnerships between civil society
    organizations, the government and the UN
  • Use a results-based approach in your inputs
  • Advocate for improvements in availability and use
    of sex-disaggregated data
  • Get a seat at the decision-making table of the
  • Advocate for both womens empowerment and gender
    mainstreaming as key strategies
  • Focus your strategy on the most important
    presenting priorities

  • Possible Actions by GTGs
  • Monitor implementation of the PRSP with a gender
    lense and UN system niche in mind
  • Build capacity of and support national partners
    in mainstreaming gender equality in PRSPs
  • Ensure that professionals with combined expertise
    in gender equality and economics support to the
    PRSP process
  • Link gender-responsive budget (GRB) initiatives
    with PRSPs to the extent possible

  • ICT, Knowledge, Learning Methodology

How Effective Information Knowledge Management
supports Gender Mainstreaming
  • Effective Gender Mainstreaming requires
  • Good Information (timely access to research,
    capturing data in events, producing useful
    resources, managing information, eg. Gender
    training material)
  • Strategic Networking (regular exchange of info,
    locating knowledge, engaging in dialogue,
    collaboration, with stakeholders, raising
    visibility of Orgs activities, e.g.. emails,
    listservs, discussion groups, bulletin boards,
    internet web)
  • Continuous Learning (sharing good practices,
    broadening debate, e.g.. Learning Consultation
    Briefing LCB workshops, CD ROMs, listservs,
    discussion groups)
  • Using Information Communication Tools

We need to
  • Create databases (e.g. our womens list, WIDE
    Experts roster)
  • Identify target groups compile mailing lists
    such as gender focal point, UNV gender
    specialists, regional gender advisors)
  • Regularly share knowledge thru e-mails, meetings,
    weekly briefings
  • Cooperate with civil society orgs
  • Develop new skills competencies
  • use e-mail network daily,
  • participate in gender e-discussions,
  • use internet web search,
  • understand how to start, facilitate, set up an
    e-discussion list or virtual think tank,
  • Record, share use good practices
  • Use spread sheets word processing e-slide
  • Use multiple technologies tools to promote
    knowledge information sharing

As Change Agents working to Mainstream Gender, we
  • Contribute Gender perspectives to decision-making
    processes (esp. policy programme planning,
    personnel issues, advocacy)
  • Promote facilitate inter-agency dialogue on
    gender mainstreaming
  • Convince others of the need for gender
  • Analyze, collect, disseminate info on gender
    analysis gender mainstreaming practice
  • Network extensively with other gender focal
    points, womens organizations, the public
  • Intervene appropriately in policy advice
    dialogue, ensuring that gender equality
    consideration are taken into account in
    discussion decision-making
  • Record and find mechanisms for learning from
    programmatic organizational good practices

ICT promotes womens empowerment, however!
  • Theres a need to
  • Identify processes that restrict womens full
    participation in ICT sector (labor market
    segmentation, unequal access to education)
  • Encourage governments integration of gender
    consideration into national ICT policies,
    improvement of social economic environment for
    girls to be able to use technologies,
  • Encourage Private Sector Orgs such as ICT
    suppliers to be responsive to women as consumers
    and employees
  • Encourage the funding of programmes that being
    Civil Society orgs to participate in ICT
    policy-making and trainings

LCB Methodology
  • Is a competency-based learning support strategy
    which sees learning as a sustained change in
    behavior performance in the capacity to do a
  • Combines education techniques with research on
    capacities for Gender Mainstreaming
  • Develops the skills to act effectively as change
    agents within UNDP
  • Has the skills of leadership from below as well
    as from above
  • Is made up of 4 elements
  • Learning (to build the competencies required for
    gender mainstreaming)
  • Consultation (internally externally to analyze
    experience on gender mainstreaming, identify
    lessons learned, issue recommendations to reach
    organizational change capacity building)
  • Briefing (on the latest info, data, decisions,
    research, tools, techniques, methodologies)
  • Linkages to the workplace (thru transferring
    decisions, strategies, activities back to the
    workplace of the workshop participants)
  • LCB workshops last for 5 days

Gender Mainstreaming Resources Tools
  • Thousands of resources (handbooks, studies,
    toolkits, guides, exercises, manuals, papers,
    policy documents, checklists, modules, reports,
    online courses, training packs, information kits,
    e-libraries, books, etc.) exist online on
  • Gender Mainstreaming Strategies
  • Gender Analysis
  • Training
  • Gender Mainstreaming UN Coordination
  • Energy Environment
  • Governance
  • Crisis Prevention Recovery
  • Poverty
  • Budgeting
  • MDGs
  • Human Development
  • ICT
  • The Role of Men Boys
  • Miscellaneous

  • Gender Thematic Practice Area

Gender in Water Management
  • Ensuring the integration of a gender perspective
    is part of UNDPs commitment to SHD
  • What is meant by a gender approach in IWRM
  • 3 elements of gender approach in IWRM
  • 1) we should understand the differences and
    relations among and between women and men
  • 2) Womens and men perspective should be
  • 3) Participatory approach should be used to
    facilitate the equitable participation

Gender and Energy
  • Linkages between Gender Energy
  • What are the Energy Needs of women
  • Gender and Energy in MDGs
  • What can be done to create Gender Sensitive
    Energy Policies
  • - Build Awareness of different energy Needs of
    Men and Women
  • - Remote gender mainstreaming Approach
  • - Increase Womens participation in energy

Gender and ICT
  • Gender and communication focused on three broad
  • 1) The equitable access of women and womens
  • 2) Women access to professional careers and
    decision making positions
  • 3) Portrayals of women reinforcing or changing
  • ICT as tools for womens Right to development

Gender Local Governance
Criteria for good gender-sensitive governance
  • Participation Equal participation in government
    institutions processes, freedom space for an
    active womens movement
  • Transparency Equity in resources allocation
  • Legitimacy Legislation for gender equality
    promotion protection of womens rights
  • Effectiveness Gender-sensitive policies
    institutional structures

Gender-sensitive LG has these objectives
  • To increase womens participation in politics and
    civic engagement
  • To strengthen gender-awareness capacities among
    both F M politicians civil servants
  • To deliver services that address specific needs
    interests of women men in community, which
    requires engendered economic development,
    planning allocation of resources
  • To create awareness of women s rights

Reasons for Women Participation in Politics
  • Justice Women are ½ the society and should
    contribute to decision-making bodies. Society
    without women in the political system is unjust.
    Women shall be locally elected.
  • Efficiency A political system that doesnt
    exploit both women mens experiences and
    resources is inefficient.
  • Diversity Women have different political
    interests (allocating local resources water,
    fuel, electricity) and can change political
    agenda (child care, reproductive rights, violence
    against women...). Men dont automatically
    represent women interests.
  • Changing the political system More women in
    political system may have major benefits for
    society (women are less likely than men to behave
    opportunistically). Women led to better
    democracy, transparency improved governance.
    (Survey of Inter-Parliamentary Union).

  • Individual factors individual characteristics
    favoring political participation. Most women lack
    confidence in their political capabilities. Lower
    level of education, professional experience,
    income time are disadvantages to women.
  • Institutional factors related to society norms
    values Women lack support from families
    husbands. Limited access to leadership,
    managerial skills, female models mentors.
    Religious patriarchal culture excluding women
    from public life. Lack of gender balanced
    policies women organizations to support the
    elected ones.
  • Institutional factors related to political
  • Registration procedures Norms prevent women from
    taking photos for voter registration cards or
    show their face to male officers.
  • Voting procedures Women might be controlled by
    their husbands and have less accessibility to
    polling stations
  • State education Women are less informed about
    electoral process, meaning of elections and right
    to vote.

Increasing Women Participation
  • Legislation legal rights
  • International conventions
  • Civic voters education
  • Awareness
  • Electoral system and access to voting
  • Capacity building to candidates
  • Networks
  • Partnerships
  • Conference and seminars
  • Influence of civil society
  • Support NGOs that organize support to women
    candidates and lobby for change in electoral
  • Database and access to information
  • Moral support
  • Gender audit and budget
  • Engendering local governments
  • Media and communication
  • Publications and documentation

Common Legal Issues for Women
  • Equality, human, civil political rights
  • Forced or premature marriage, heading families,
    child custody guardianship, divorce
  • Women endemic diseases, health entitlements,
    reproductive health
  • Unequal pay working conditions, job
    discrimination, social security, maternity
    benefits, protective legislation
  • Land access, ownership control of property,
    inheritance credit
  • Rape other forms of violence, prostitution
  • Constitutional
  • Family
  • Health
  • Labor
  • Economic
  • Violence and exploitation

  • Gender Poverty

GovernanceOperational Definition
  • System of values, policies and institutions to
    manage societys affairs
  • Various definitions of governance
  • UN, USAID, DFID, EC social and political aspects
    (participatory democracy)
  • WB and IMF economic governance (public sector
  • For UNDP, Food scarcity doesnt alone explain
    famines, but absence of a free press and
    multi-party democracy (Amartya Sen, 1998)

Governance Indicators
  • A measure of status of governance
  • Levels of governance indicators
  • Input/commitment level
  • Process/responsibility level
  • Output/performance level

Gender-Sensitive Indicators
  • Engender data in which differences between men
    and women are taken into account
  • Governance indicators should consider
    differences between men and women at every stage
  • Focus on gender equality to bridge the gap
    between de facto and de jure
  • When development is not en-gendered it is
  • Goal 3 in the MDGs is gender-sensitive - MDGs

Poverty and Gender
  • Feminization of Poverty
  • Women have a higher incidence of poverty than men
  • Their poverty is more severe
  • Trend of greater poverty, particularly associated
    with FHHs
  • A need to consider differences in accessing
    income, resources and services

  • Gender NHDR

  • The worldwide trends towards achieving gender
  • The international and global commitments on
    gender equality.
  • The gender and human development (GHD) approach.
  • Specific steps on producing NHDR focusing on
    mainstreaming gender

  • Gender Thematic Guidance Note
  • Draws on the conceptual frameworks of human
    development and gender outlined in global HDR,
    UNDPs strategy, and global commitments regarding
    gender equality.
  • Examines NHDRs addressing the issue of gender
    equality within the human development

Challenges to achieve Gender Equality
  • There have been profound changes in the status
    and role of women over the recent decades as
    noted during the Beijing5.
  • There has been also a recognition and a growing
    awareness regarding the place of men in gender
    and human development paradigm.

The International Commitments
  • Challenges associated with issues related to
    gender equality remains despite of the
    international conventions, global agreements, and
    the national constitutional laws affirming the
    right of all people to be free of gender
  • Member countries of the United Nations have
    committed to various international platforms and

Gender in the GHDR
  • UNDP developed a theoretical frameworks and
    concrete tools to both further the understanding
    of the interrelationship between gender equality
    and human development, and to support countries
    in redressing gender inequalities

Gender Mainstreaming
  • The process of assessing the implications for
    women and men of any planned action including
    legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas
    at all levels. It is a strategy for making
    womens as well as mens concerns and experiences
    an integral dimension of the design,
    implementation, monitoring and evaluation of
    policies and programmes in all political,
    economic and societal spheres so that women and
    men benefit equally and inequality is not

Gender and NHDR process
  • DOC (4) Presentation TA.pdf

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