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Risk Communications: theory to practice including crisis communications

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Broadcast level media, or community forums, ... online media to capture what is being said by the citizens, not just reporters. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Risk Communications: theory to practice including crisis communications


1
Risk Communications theory to
practice including crisis communications
the Media
  • 24 July 2009
  • Adelle Springer, Risk Communication Officer, WHO
    SEARO
  • Chadin Tephaval, Communications Officer, WHO
    Thailand

2
Contents
  • Overview of risk communications
  • Role of risk communications in public health
    emergencies
  • Crisis communications and the Media
  • Theory to practice planning, audiences,
    messaging, ME

3
Broad Scope Of Risk Communications
Behaviour Change Comms Policy Advocacy
health Comms - - Comms Coordination
- Transparency
Strategic Comms Plan with Risk Assessment
Multi-faceted, integrated public health
emergency Campaign
Emergency Comms Plan
Evaluation, Feedback
Media Management
Integration of Findings into BCC
Sign posting to support services
Health Promotion
Health Promotion
Stakeholder engagement
Audience research profiling, base-lining
Listening
Monitoring Control
message development testing
Normalization/ Chronic Problem
Surveillance concern/ Pre-event
Prevention/ migration
Event decline
Event
RESPOND
PREPARE
RECOVER
(Public Health Continuum)
4
Risk Communication applied to Infectious Disease
Outbreak
CASES
Control Opportunity
DAY
5
Risk Communication applied to Infectious Disease
Outbreak
Proactive communication of real or potential risk
CASES
DAY
6
Communication Challenges of Public Health
Emergencies
  • Emergencies have unique characteristics,
    including
  • high human impact
  • Economic consequences
  • extreme time pressure
  • increased work load
  • Shift from national to international interest
  • Non-health media involvement
  • involvement of multiple organizations/departments
  • Direct involvement of senior political actors

7
Role of Risk Communication in Public Health
Emergencies
  • Risk communication for emergencies must be
  • skilled
  • coordinated
  • flexible and responsive
  • Risk communications are essential to builds the
    trust needed to prepare for, respond to and
    recover from serious public health threats

8
Crisis communications the media
9
??????????????????
  • Trust (?????????)
  • Early Announcement (??????????????)
  • Transparency (???????????)
  • The Public (?????????????)
  • Planning (?????????)

10
(No Transcript)
11
News THINK Government must come clean over
H1N1 By Apiradee Treerutkuarkul Published 13
May 2009 at 1200 AM Newspaper section
News The government has been heavily criticised
over its decision to control the release of
information regarding the two confirmed A (H1N1)
influenza cases involving Thai nationals. Its
decision to restrict the core details of the
cases such as the age and sex of the people
infected with the virus, and when they returned
to the country, infringes on the public's right
to know.
12
  • Chan denied WHO compromised science
  • TORONTO, 4 June 2009 The head of the World
    Health Organization has defended the agency's
    handling of the swine flu outbreak, insisting its
    credibility as a science-driven organization has
    not been compromised.
  • "There is no question of WHO compromising
    science," Chan told The Canadian Press.
  • "I did not compromise."

13
Crisis the Media
  • Emergencies are characterised by chaos and
    confusion
  • Our task during a crisis is to minimise these,
    otherwise fear will turn into panic
  • The media, whether you like it or not, is a key
    channel of communication with the public
  • Newspapers, TV, radio stations, wire services,
    and increasingly web-based journalists will all
    come at you in an emergency!

14
Work with the Media
15
Working with the Media
  • Disasters are media events the more catastrophic
    the disaster, the more press attention you will
    get.
  • First rule of engagement DONT LIE! The
    consequence can be a disaster in itself.
  • The media live on accurate and timely
    information.
  • Give them that by sticking with what you know.
    Dont speculate, give them the facts. But put
    these facts in context for them.
  • Dont let them speculate either. If you dont
    know the relevant information that they need
    find out.

16
Lessons Learnt
  • If you dont already have one, name a
    spokesperson
  • Dont have too many spokespersons saying
    different things
  • Draft talking points for responsible officials so
    that they do not say contradictory things and
    confuse the public
  • Form alliances and coordinate with relevant
    agencies to come up with common key messages that
    they could hammer home

17
What Went Wrong?
  • Do an autopsy on your media communications
  • Why didnt people believe you? (trust)
  • Did somebody else get to them first? (early
    announcement)
  • Did your measures appear to be above board to the
    public? (transparency)
  • Was there feed back from the public? (listening)
  • Was media part of the broader communications
    strategy? (planning)

18
Risk Communications theory to practice
19
Planning communications
  • Theory Emergency communication planning
  • Emergency communications planning as part of
    broader risk communications and the overall PPR
    strategy, makes for an integrated response to
    public health emergencies.
  • Practice
  • Utilise simple good planning steps to form a
    strategic base from which to develop tactics -
    think
  • what, why
  • who, how…

20
What, why, who how
  • What do we want to tell people? - What they can
    do to protect themselves and prevent the spread
    of H1N1
  • Why are we telling people this? - Because we want
    people to take action and use preventative
    measures
  • Who are our audience(s)? Young people, office
    workers, pregnant women, tourists (not just
    general public!)
  • How will we reach them? What tools tactics,
    that is what materials and what channels?
  • Broadcast level media, or community forums,
  • Give people direct access to information
    themselves (eg on a website), and/or from other
    sources (eg from health professionals?)
  • The best solution is usually a combination of
    tools and tactics

21
Understanding reaching audiences
  • Theory Listening to affected groups and
    populations
  • Check that we are speak with people effectively
  • The general public comprises different audience
    segments identify and gain insights about them
    such as
  • family and gender dynamics
  • everyday language and literacy levels
  • socio-economic status and cultural norms
  • interaction with livestock
  • Practice
  • Communication should be a 2-way dialogue, provide
    opportunities for direct contact, listening and
    feedback.
  • Integrate messaging for consistency at all
    levels, building both mass awareness and driving
    specific action and behaviour change over time.

22
Integrated messaging
Audience groups targeted to particular groups,
overheard by those with a relevant interest
Backdrop or broadcast heard by and relevant to
the broadest audience
Specific target audiences relevant only to
those directly affected
23
Monitoring Evaluation
  • Theory Communication Evaluation
  • The capacity to effectively and efficiently
    evaluate communication during an event is crucial
    to inform the modification of communication
    strategies and messages so that public health
    objectives are met.
  • Practice
  • Set indicators of success against SMART
    objectives
  • S specific
  • M measureable
  • A achievable
  • R realistic
  • T Targeted and timed
  • Embed monitoring, control and evaluation
    indicators and feedback mechanisms in the
    planning stage

24
Listening understanding now
  • Monitor, adapt and evaluate during, not just
    after the event. Use techniques such as
  • provide feedback mechanisms such as your
    questions answered section on the website,
  • hold small, local QA sessions with senior MoPH
    and/or health professionals
  • Give VHVs postcards that they leave for people to
    write their concerns on, so at the next visit
    these can be discussed with the community.
  • Provide health centres with standardised, simple
    mechanisms for reporting back so that the
    incoming data is consistently formatted, making
    it easier to analyse and make use of the results.
  • Use the hotline to gather statistical data and
    importantly anecdotal concerns
  • Monitor print (local, not just national) and
    online media to capture what is being said by the
    citizens, not just reporters.
  • Conduct straw polls or rapid surveys (online,
    telephone or in the field) and observation
    studies understand not just what people think,
    but also what they are actually do.

25
Broad Scope Of Risk Communications
Behaviour Change Comms Policy Advocacy
health Comms - - Comms Coordination
- Transparency
Strategic Comms Plan with Risk Assessment
Multi-faceted, integrated public health
emergency Campaign
Emergency Comms Plan
Evaluation, Feedback
Media Management
Integration of Findings into BCC
Sign posting to support services
Health Promotion
Health Promotion
Stakeholder engagement
Audience research profiling, base-lining
Listening
Monitoring Control
message development testing
Normalization/ Chronic Problem
Surveillance concern/ Pre-event
Prevention/ migration
Event decline
Event
RESPOND
PREPARE
RECOVER
(Public Health Continuum)
26
Thank you
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