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Underwater Detection and Tracking Systems

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Title: Underwater Detection and Tracking Systems


1
Underwater Detection and Tracking Systems
  • Naval Weapons Systems

2
QUIZ 2
1. What are the 3 types of tracking gates in the
Track While Scan System 2. List at Least 4
advantages of a Phased Array Radar System 3.
Name and give a brief description of the 3
components of Electronic Warfare 4. Extra
Credit What Local Company was Dick Cheney CEO
of prior to becoming the Vice President?
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Objectives
  • Understand basic theory and operation of active
    and passive sonar systems
  • Comprehend the basic principles of MAD
  • Know the 3 basic types of transducers
  • Comprehend the theory and operations of
    hydrophones
  • Know the differences between active and passive
    sonar systems including the differences between
    active and passive systems, including adv/disadv
    of each.

12
Objectives (cont.)
  • Know various sonar systems TACTASS/Sonobuoys/Dipp
    ing Sonar/ SOSUS
  • Comprehend the fundamentals of sound energy
    doppler and how it is used to determine target
    aspect and motion
  • Know the methods of acoustic countermeasure
  • Know the basic ASW capabilities of the major U.S.
    Navy platforms

13
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Surface Ships
  • Advantages (versus helo/airplane)
  • more available manpower
  • greater time on station
  • variety of detection equipment
  • variety of available weapons and better fire
    control systems
  • ability to operate in foul weather
  • embarked LAMPS aircraft

14
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Surface Ships
  • Disadvantages
  • In submarines environment
  • Relatively Slow
  • Noisy
  • ASW prosecution is protracted
  • ASW Capabilities
  • Ticonderoga, Arleigh Burke, Spruance
  • Sensors Bow MountedSQS-53, TowedSQR-19
  • SQQ-89 ties sensors together
  • Weapons MK-46 torp being replaced with MK-50
  • Oliver Hazard Perry
  • SQS-56 or 53 bow mounted, same towed

15
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Aircraft Carriers
  • Advantages
  • NONE
  • Disadvantages
  • Same as for Surface Ships
  • Aircraft Carrier is a High Value Target, its
    importance to naval operations requires many
    assets to be employed to protect it.

16
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Aircraft
  • Advantages
  • Speed
  • ability to deploy sensors over a large area
  • Surprise through use of passive detection systems
  • Not in submarines environment
  • Altitude increases radar horizon.

17
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Aircraft
  • Disadvantages
  • Low time on station
  • Limited weapons capacity
  • Limited range
  • Vulnerable to weather

18
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Aircraft
  • P-3 Orion
  • Sensors MAD and upto 100 sonobuoys
  • Weapons MK-4650 torps, MK-54 depth charges
  • S-3 Viking
  • Same but only 60 sonobuoys
  • SH-60 Seahawk / SH-3 Sea King
  • Sensors MAD, 25 sonobuoys, AQS-13F dipping sonar
  • Weapons Same

19
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Submarines
  • Advantages
  • Shares the advantages of the target
  • passive detection
  • concealment
  • less distracted by sound refracting properties of
    water
  • Speed vs. Surface Ships
  • Nuke subs can stay submerged for months

20
Introduction (Platforms)
  • Submarines
  • Disadvantages
  • To detect targets, subs must run deep
  • To communicate, subs must be in shallow water
  • Capable of high speed, but at the expense of
    increased noise levels
  • Diesel subs must snorkel to recharge batteries

21
Magnetic Anomoly Detection(MAD)
  • Principle A metallic submarine disturbs the
    magnetic lines of force of the earth.
  • The magnetic distortion - or anomoly - caused by
    a sub below the surface can be detected from the
    air above the sub.

22
Basic Sonar Systems
  • Active
  • Echo Ranging Systems
  • Passive
  • Listening Systems
  • Communications
  • Underwater telephone (WQC-2)

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Transducer Theory
  • Transducer Device for converting one form of
    energy into another.
  • In sonar, electrical energy is transfromed into
    acoustic energy (oscillation of water moloecules
    through which sound travels)
  • Three ways to change electrical energy into
    acoustic energy....

25
Transducer Types
  • Crystal Transducers
  • Piezoelectric(strain in crystal creates
    electricity/ reverse true as well)
  • Ceramic Transducers
  • Elecrostrictive(electric field apllied across
    dielectric gt deforms it)
  • Magnetostrictive Transducers
  • Magnetostrictive(magnet deforms many materials
    usually attached to a diaphragm)

26
Hydrophones
  • Transducers
  • Designed for reception only
  • Magnetostrictive or Electrostrictive
  • Lower power gt less temperature rise
  • gt smaller/lighter

27
Active Sonar Systems
  • Searchlight Echo Ranging WW II
  • Short Burst
  • Highly Directional
  • Physically Rotated
  • Slow search, One target at a time, must traingt
    small trans gtlow power, high f
  • Scanning Sonar
  • Electronic 3600 search each transmission
  • Larger transducers, more power, multiple targets

28
Passive Sonar Systems
  • Arrays
  • Cylindrical, Spherical
  • Conformal
  • Towed
  • Displays / Function Groups
  • DEMON
  • Broad Band
  • LOFAR

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Advantages Disadvantages of Sonar Types
  • Limitations of sonar due to the physical
    properties of sound travel in water
  • Limitations of active and passive sonar in
    detection
  • Limitations of active and passive sonar in
    tracking

31
Other Sonar Equipment
  • Tactical Towed Array Sonar (TACTAS)
  • Sonobouys
  • Passive
  • Active
  • Special purpose
  • Dipping Sonar/Variable Depth Sonar
  • Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS)

32
Doppler
  • How can you tell?
  • Reverb What is it and why get it?
  • Echo higher or lower freq
  • Thus Up or Down Doppler
  • Thus amount closing/opening

33
Cool Pictures in ASW Platforms
  • Narrated by,
  • LT Mazat

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Questions????
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