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Hydrogen Production and Storage

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Title: Hydrogen Production and Storage


1
Hydrogen Production and Storage
  • The time has come to do something about the
    United States' addiction to oil…
  • -George W. Bush

2
George Bushs 2003 State of the Union Address
  • President Bush called for a plan to invest in
    alternative energies and for the development of a
    national hydrogen infrastructure

3
Proposals in the State of the Union address
  • 15 percent reduction in the amount of Mid-east
    oil imports
  • Increase the average number of miles per gallon
    in a vehicle
  • Mentioned the possible use of ethanol, wood chips
    and switch grass as biofuels that show a
    promising future
  • An increase in research regarding the hydrogen
    industry, specifically in producing
    pollution-free hydrogen powered automobiles

4
Funds
  • Allocated 1.2 billion towards his
    environmentally protective initiative
  • Main goal pollution-free hydrogen powered
    automobiles by the time a child born in 2003
    reached driving age
  • The hydrogen economy initiative has progressed
    much slower than many would have liked in terms
    of funding

5
Figures
  • 23 million appropriated by Congress in 2004 for
    biological petrochemical hydrogen production
    research
  • DOE Hydrogen program that heads the developmental
    studies only received 10.1 million from Congress
    out of the 23 million originally planned
  • DOE received 8.5 million in 2006 from Congress
    out of the 32.1 million originally appropriated
  • Hydrogen projects stagnant because of budget
    constraints

6
DOE Hydrogen Program Timeline
  • A successful hydrogen economy will take a long
    time to achieve. The government is expected to
    play a larger role initially to allow for
    industry growth by providing technology
    readiness

7
Hydrogen Production
  • Coal Gasification
  • Cyanobacteria and Microalgae
  • Photosynthetic Bacteria
  • Nuclear

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rized/shec_labs_solar_h2_4.jpg
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8
Coal Gasification
  • Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC)
    Technology
  • Coal Oxygen Steam ? Synthesis Gas
  • Synthesis Gas ? Hydrogen

9
Cyanobacteria and Microalgae
  • Oxygenic Photosynthesis
  • CO2 H2O ? 6 CH2O O2
  • Hydrogenase Hydrogen Production
  • Nitrogenase Hydrogen Production

http//universe-review.ca/I11-30-cyanobacteria.jpg
10
Hydrogenase Hydrogen Production
  • Discovered in 1942
  • Hydrogenase Used As a Catalyst
  • 2H 2Xreduced ? 6 H2 2Xoxidized
  • Conversion Efficiency of 10 to 20

http//www.chem.ox.ac.uk/icl/faagroup/dgigasx.gif
11
Nitrogenase Hydrogen Production
  • Discovered in 1974
  • Molecular Nitrogen to Ammonia
  • N2 6H 6e- ? 2HN3
  • Nitrogenase Catalyzes in Absence of N2 Gas
  • 2H 2e- ? H2
  • Conversion Efficiency of 3.5

12
Photosynthetic Bacteria
  • Light Energy Not Required
  • Higher Efficiency than Cyanobacteria
  • Conversion Efficiency of 6 to 8

http//www.sciencenews.org/articles/20030816/a3901
_153.jpg
http//www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/librar
y/onlinebio/84150f.jpg
13
Nuclear
  • Currently Day Nuclear Reactors
  • Electrolysis
  • 2H2O(l) ? 2H2 (g) O2 (g)
  • Utilize Off-Peak Hours
  • Generation IV Nuclear Reactors
  • High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE)
  • Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycles (TWSC)

14
CSIRO Home Fueling Station
  • Variety of Power Supply Options
  • Can Fit in Garage
  • Produce 100 miles worth per day
  • Relatively Inexpensive

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_solarpowere.html
15
GM Fuel Cell Vehicle
  • Bob Lutz, GM Vice Chairman, shown with GMs
    Chevrolet
  • Sequel Hydrogen Fuel Cell vehicle, which is
    fueled by compressed
  • hydrogen

16
GM Fuel Cell Vehicle
  • The HydroGen3 is fueled by hydrogen and has a 249
    mile
  • range (liquid storage) 168 mile range
    (compressed)
  • Part of the Clean Energy Partnership in Berlin

17
Hydrogen Storage

18
Hydrogen Storage
  • Hydrogen Storage plays a vital role in the
    advancement of fuel cell and hydrogen
    technologies critical for the future success of
    the overall hydrogen economy
  • DOEs primary focus is to have storage systems
    that allow for a driving range of up to 300
    miles
  • Hydrogen storage needed in areas such as hydrogen
    delivery, refueling infrastructures, stationary
    power generation vehicular applications
  • Challenges DOE has met regarding storage include
    safety, durability, refueling time, cost,
    efficiency and performance of on-board hydrogen
    storage

19
Hydrogen Storage Technological Aspects
  • Current technological aspects to on-board
    hydrogen storage include liquid hydrogen
    tanks compressed hydrogen gas tanks chemical
    hydrogen storage carbon-based materials high
    surface area sorbents metal hydrides
    reversible on-board storage systems refill of
    hydrogen occurs on-board vehicle

20
Future Hydrogen Storage Prospect Ethylene
  • A research report from Turkeys Bikent University
    and the National Institute of Standards of
    Technology said Ethylene would improve efficiency
    of hydrogen storage
  • Ethylene inexpensive molecule, resulting in two
    for deal (represented below)

21
Two for deal
  • Process where Ethylene molecule has titanium
    atoms attached at opposite ends ? potential net
    gain of 10 hydrogen molecules
  • After absorption of molecules onto
    ethylene-titanium complex ? total of 20 hydrogen
    atoms that would 14 of titanium-ethylene
    complexs weight
  • Minimal target for practical storage of
    hydrogen in a solid state set by the Department
    of Energy 6.5
  • The 14 projected for the absorbed hydrogen
    molecules is DOUBLE the minimum of 6.5

22
Future Hydrogen Storage Prospect Use of Icy
Material Compounds
  • Wendy Mao David Mao scientists from the
    University of Chicago
  • New hydrogen storage technique use of new icy
    material compounds for hydrogen storage that will
    call for lt pressure storage condition/ridged
    temperatures
  • Hydrogen clathrate hydrate holds most promise of
    new found compound feasible cheap to make
  • Remains stable at -320 degrees Fahrenheit,
    byproduct of H20 created by release of hydrogen
    from a clathrate after compound is heated to 207
    degrees

23
Future Hydrogen Storage Prospect MOFs
  • … They show excellent reversible uptake-release
    characteristics and appropriate capacities.
  • -Professor
    Martin Schröder
    (College of Chemistry at the

  • University of Nottingham)

24
Future Hydrogen Storage Prospect MOFs
  • A team of scientists from the University of
    Nottingham conclude that bigger pores arent
    always best for storing the most hydrogen fuels/
    fitting the most gas
  • Propose that hydrogen should be crammed into
    small spaces pack into porous materials (soak up
    gas)
  • Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) hydrogen gas put
    into molecular scaffolding structure filled with
    tiny cylindrical pores

25
Future Hydrogen Storage Prospect MOFs
  • After testing cylinder size, the scientists
    concluded that as tube sized increased ?
    interaction between hydrogen gas molecules
    weakened (middle-sized pores held highest density
    of hydrogen)
  • MOFs have already reached DOEs 2010 target for
    storage system capacity requirements (gt 6
    hydrogen by weight economically viable)
  • Frameworks have highest of hydrogen uptake in
    comparison to other materials being investigated

26
Environmentally Friendly
  • Hydrogen gas viable dominate energy carrier ?
    does not produce CO2 in combustion (the
    greenhouse gas many are concerned with because of
    global warming concerns)
  • Producing hydrogen from nuclear energy or
    renewable resources will reduce CO2 emissions ?
    near-zero greenhouse gas criteria emissions
  • Hydrogen fuel cell automobiles would output water
    vapor would not emit air pollutants or CO2
  • The byproducts of hydrogen gas converting fuel
    cells to electricity pure H20 potentially
    useful heat

27
Environmentally Friendly
  • the commercial feasibility of renewable energy
    resources would expand if hydrogen was used as a
    mainstream carrier because it would capture the
    full amount of wind or solar generated power

28
Conversion to a Hydrogen Economy
  • transitioning to a Hydrogen Economy it
    could take ¾ of a century if no incentives
  • are given for clean energy

29
Social Acceptance Safety
  • Dangerous?
  • Spills Wont Pollute
  • Hydrogen Tanks Withstand Impacts
  • If Ignited, Temperatures Remain Relatively
    Constant

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i2/img/s9i2_lg.gif
30
PSU Social Acceptance of Hydrogen
  • A hydrogen gas station was built at University
    Park in 2005 presently building a number of
    hydrogen-powered vehicles for use on campus by
    the OPP staff
  • Cost to convert the six OPP vans 15,000
  • PSU goal total use 40 kilograms of hydrogen per
    day out of the possible 100 kilograms per day the
    station is able to produce
  • PSU GEM electrical vehicle

31
PSU Social Acceptance of Hydrogen
  • Within weeks, a partially hydrogen-fueled
    (hydrogen-compressed natural gas 70 natural
    gas, 30 hydrogen) 80,000 CATA bus will serve
    students
  • Look for Bus No. 85 ?
  • CATA bus funded by donations and grants
  • PSU goal total use 26 kilograms of hydrogen per
    day
  • If beginning stages prove successful, more
    vehicles and buses planned to be purchased by
    Penn State

32
Conclusion
  • Possible Fuel
  • CSIRO Home Fueling Station
  • Two-For Deal
  • Environmentally Friendly
  • Social Acceptance Rising

http//www.hightowerlowdown.org/sites/hightowerlow
down.civicactions.net/files/images/cartoon_200201.
JPG
33
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34
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35
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