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Narrative Culture in a New Context: Constructing Collaborative Culture with ICT in Teacher Education

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Title: Narrative Culture in a New Context: Constructing Collaborative Culture with ICT in Teacher Education


1
Narrative Culture in a New Context Constructing
Collaborative Culture with ICT in Teacher
Education
  • Sólveig Jakobsdóttir, PhDassociate professor
  • Þuríður Jóhannsdóttir, M. Ed
  • project manager
  • Iceland University of Education (KHÍ)

2
Iceland
  • 280.000 people
  • Area half the size of Minnesota
  • Native language Icelandic
  • Midway between Greenland and Norway

3
(No Transcript)
4
ICT in education in Iceland(ICT information
and communications technology)
  • 1992 creation of the Icelandic Educational
    Network which connected most Icelandic schools to
    the Internet very early compared to other
    countries
  • The innovative practices of the early technology
    adopters were rather slow to spread
  • However, those practices probably influenced
    government and policy makers
  • 1996 a national policy was created that called
    for effective use of information and
    communication technology (ICT) at all levels of
    schooling.

5
KHÍ Iceland University of Education
  • 1500 students 2000-2001, now up to 180020
    increase this fall! (mainly distance learners)
  • B.Ed. program run on-campus and Net-based, the
    latter program started in 1993
  • Graduate program 93 of over 250 graduate
    students are distance learners
  • Most of the 100 staff members teach both on
    campus and at a distance
  • Through the distance education programs e-mail
    was adopted early at the university by most of
    the staff

6
Computer and Internet useFrom isolated
experiments....
7
...to allaround use
8
How have we tried to facilitate this change?
  • That is
  • Increase use of ICT in teaching and learning at
    KHÍ
  • Improve use of ICT in teaching and learning at
    KHÍ
  • E.g. action research study.....

9
Study
  • Study of professional development of teachers and
    their integration of ICT in education through
    case studies and interviews. Part of European
    Union funded project EUN (European Schoolnet)
    Research by teacher education institution in the
    UK, Iceland, Italy, and Portugal.
  • Action research model adopted by Icelandic team
    with goal to make successful experiences more
    visible and promote ICT within our university
    through concrete examples and sharing of
    experiences. Technology used to strenghten
    teachers capacities, skills and knowledge in how
    to use ICT in their teaching.
  • Stories, narratives collected on database driven
    web

10
Theoretical Background
  • Constructing collaborative culture(Michael
    Fullan 1999 Change Force. The Sequel)
  • Collaborative technologyKock, N. F. (1999).
    Process Improvement and Organizational Learning
    The Role of Collaboration Technologies. Idea
    Group Publishing.
  • Theories on distributed intelligence/cognitionPea
    , Roy D. 1993. Practices of distributed
    intelligence and designs for education.
    Distributed cognitions. Pshychological and
    educational considerations

11
In the spirit of social constructivism
  • We look at knowledge as a social construction
  • We stress the importance of the context to build
    a meaningful knowledge
  • We take advantage of the strenght of storytelling
    in the Icelandic culture
  • We bring in new ideas and new tecnologies but
    at the same time we respect an old tradition
  • We think that the knowlegde that are constructed
    within the institution can be especially useful
    for
  • Those who participate in it
  • Other teachers at KHÍ
  • Icelandic university teachers in general or those
    being in similar cultural situation
  • We are constructing a situated knowledge

12
Using Information technology to construct
collaborative knowlegde
  • The importance of constructing collaborative
    knowledge and using the most powerful tools
    available in the culture especially in times when
    changes are fast
  • Using the tools of ICT to help us gather
    knowledge otherwise tacit
  • Using ICT to classify and help to analyse the
    stories
  • Using ICT to present the result on an open
    web-site
  • The ICT-tools in that way serving the teacers in
    their own quest for new knowledge

13
Why narratives ?
  • The Icelandic culture builds on an old heritage
    of sagas
  • Norwegian settlers brought with them the Nordic
    mythology in form of oral stories back in the 9th
    century
  • Icelanders kept them alive by storytelling until
    Icelandic writers wrote them down in 12th - 13th
    century along with the famous Icelandic sagas.
  • We are proud of this heritage and still enjoy
    good narratives and storytelling.

14
Sagas of Eirik the red and Leif Eiriksson
Travelled West from Iceland to Vínland via
Greenland at the end of the first millennium
Picture from http//www.fva.is/vinland/kort/eiriks
stadir.html
15
Story-telling in KHÍ
  • A narrative culture is also strong within our
    institution and we enjoy many good story-tellers
    in social and professional activities.
  • By taking advantage of the strenght of
    storytelling in the Icelandic culture we tried to
    meet people were they were on a known and safe
    ground.
  • We wanted to bring in new ideas and new
    technologies but at the same time respect an
    old tradition.
  • New international research on language
    developement show that Icelanders are strong
    story-tellers while they are not so good in e.g.
    writing expository texts or ananlytical texts.

16
Tale of Palli Silfertail (travelled east from
US to Iceland at the end of the second millenium)
17
The process of our analyses, interpretation and
presentation ?
  • Analysis in EUN context Sólveig
  • Presentation on the European Schoolnet
    http//www.khi.is/soljak/eunwp165/ /
  • Analysis in KHÍ context Þuríður (M.Ed. Thesis)
  • Presentation
  • workshop for teachers in KHÍ
  • An Icelandic conference on ICT 2001
  • A web-site - Net-teaching scaffolding for the
    teacher staff at KHÍ http//ust.khi.is/netkennsla

18
Course tools and conference systems we have been
using
  • Conference systems web editors (component
    applications)
  • From 1998 - Webboard
  • 2000-2001 an increasing use of Webboard along
    with web-sites (open or closed). Most teachers
    use the FrontPage editor
  • Course tools (integrated applications)
  • 1998 Web course in a Box ( a home made
    program)
  • 1999-2000 Learning space
  • 2000-2001 Web CT

19
How did the use of ICT affect the teaching ? The
interpretation of the narratives
  • We were interested to see how the teachers used
    the affordances of the Internet in their teaching
    and research
  • One way of interpretation was using this four
    categories or questions
  • How are teachers using
  • Internets easy access to information and
    knowledge for themselves and their students ?
  • the possibilties Internet affords to
    communication and connection making ?
  • Internet as a easy and cheap way to publish their
    own and their students material ?
  • taking advantage of the Internet as an
    international medium ?

20
Access to information
  • Lilja Jónsdóttir, assistant professor,
    instructional methods
  • I look at the Internet as an important addition
    to other resources which my students can use,
    both at the primary school level and in the
    teacher education program. I expect my students
    to look for information on the Internet as well
    as in books or in traditional ways.

21
Access to information
  • Another teacher stresses the advantages of
    diversity and multi-vocality on the Internet
    compared to one dominant voice of the traditional
    course book which seems to be on its way out.
  • A typical development (?)
  • Ingvar Sigurgeirsson, professor, curriculum and
    instruction When the course book we had used
    was sold out we decided to give up the use of
    course books and instead use more diverse
    resources, handbooks, articles, chapters of books
    and especially web-materials of different kinds.

22
Communication
  • The importance of human communication in learning
    an increased stress on learning to participate
    in the discourse of the subject ?
  • The lack of discussion tradition in Iceland
    problematic
  • Gunnhildur Óskarsdóttir, assistant professor,
    instructional methods I thougt that some
    students were not at all taking active part in
    the discussion and I would like to control that
    part better next time, making clearer rules about
    how to take part in discussion. I would even like
    to make it part of the course assessment. Some
    students did only participate in social chat
    while others really were more professional
    pointing out and asking for things that matters
    in academic discussion.

23
Publishing teaching material on the Internet a
good model
  • Thorunn Blondal, assistant professor, Icelandic
    and linguistics
  • I sent in (in LearningSpace) subject for
    discussion which I expected my students to
    respond to and discuss
  • I wrote notes or letters or articles which were
    part or extention of the reading material
  • I made them write notes and respond to one
    another
  • I published presentations (Powerpoint) and
    annotations regarding the material
  • I published a video with a new TV- program that
    was directly connected to our discussion
  • I planned a workshop on Icelandic language policy
    where I dealt out discussion subjects for 6
    groups and each group should send an article to
    which the others could respond and all this was
    supposed to happen as close to real time as
    possible.

24
Publishing teaching material other than texts
  • Slow evolution
  • The music teacher publishes melodies
  • http//www.ismennt.is/not/sigpalm/
  • The biology teacher publishes photos and drawings
  • Some teachers are using PowerPoint with narration

25
Internet for international communication
  • Discussions between international groups at fora
    e.g. European schoolnet
  • To get any participation have to be moderated
    to some degree, organised at certain times,
    certain groups (e.g. graduate students with their
    teachers)

26
Banks to share work
  • Use of database connected webs (e.g. Frontpage
    Access)/banks to publish
  • Concept definitions
  • Information about software and experience,
    software evaluation
  • Information about interesting reading materials
    (annotated bibliographies and references)
  • Research findings, e.g. qualitative descriptions
    on Internet use
  • Information and evaluation of childrens
    literature

27
Barnung a web on childrens literature
Þuríður
  • Effort is being made to build up a rich
    educational environment in Icelandic, but is
    simultaneously intended to provide general
    information about childrens and young peoples
    literature for teachers, students and even
    parents.
  • Site continuously growing by contributions of
    students and teachers at the University of
    Education
  • Joint working area where schools and Iceland
    University of Education will be able to build up
    a body of knowledge in the field of childrens
    literature.
  • Url http//barnung.khi.is

28
Designing learning environmentin the spirit of
social constructivism
  • the learning task is to collaboratively construct
    knowledge
  • hypothesis
  • important for students (teachers) to participate
    in knowledge construction
  • a web with subject-related material will enhance
    enculturation of students into the field
    (situated learning theories) and their
    professional development

29
hypothesis
  • important for students (teachers) to choose their
    own learning paths (differentiation)
  • important to enhance a school-culture on the
    Internet by stressing meaningful interaction and
    cooperation
  • ideology of the social constructivism applies
    well to the Internet
  • See http//barnung.khi.is

30
Spring 2001The developement continues
  • Inrerest in publishing students work increases
  • Motivation for the students
  • Making their work visible outside the university
  • Making schoolwork useful meaningful in social
    context
  • Giving students the feeling that they participate
    in social construction of knowledge in their
    field
  • Students feel they are preparing for their job as
    schoolteacers by publishing their materials

31
Publishing students material examples from
history education
  • students collect primary resources and publish it
    on the Internet http//saga.khi.is/torf
  • students publish teaching material for primary
    school students
  • A new method in history teaching presented in a
    new creative way on the Internet

32
Current situation future ?
  • More teachers gain Internet literacy
  • Have their own home-page
  • Make web-sites for their courses alone or in
    collaboration with other teacers
  • Use conference systems and course tools in their
    distance teaching
  • Still need support - technically and coucelling
    about how to teach in this new environment of the
    Internet
  • We continue to use ICT to support them on both
    frontiers hopefully
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