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Title: Speak Up 2007 for Students, Teachers, Parents


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Speak Up 2007 for Students, Teachers, Parents
School Leaders Selected National Findings -
April 8, 2008 Participation Overview Surveys
submitted from schools in all 50 states, American
DOD schools, Canada, Mexico and Australia. Top
participating states in 2007 TX, CA, AZ, IL, AL,
MD, NC, PA, FL, MI 319,223 K-12 students -
25,544 teachers - 19726 parents - 3,263 school
leaders 3,729 schools and 867 districts About
the 2007 Speak Up schools o 97 public schools
3 private schools o 32 Urban 40 Suburban
29 Rural o 43 Title I eligible 29 majority
minority student population
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A growing body of research has begun to reveal
that video games and computer games have
tremendous educational value.
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Dr. Jim Gees book, What Video Games Have to
Teach Us About Learning and Literacy James Paul
Gee is the Tashia Morgridge Professor of Reading
at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He
received his PhD in linguistics in 1975 from
Stanford University and has published widely in
linguistics and education. 18 of 36 principles
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Gaming, Cognition, and Education
  • Video games are set up to encourage active, not
    passive, learning
  • All video games require participants to be
    actively involved in their own learning. Gamers,
    particularly those in role-playing games, rarely
    sit passively and receive information. Instead
    they must actively explore, hypothesize,
    experiment, reflect upon, critique, move about,
    interact, etc. As children navigate complex
    gaming spaces, they learn to think of these
    gaming environments as spaces that both
    manipulate them and can be manipulated by them.

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Gaming, Cognition, and Education
2. In video games, learners can take risks where
real-world consequences are lowered Video
games provide places where participants can
safely take risks. When a gamer fails, at worst
she loses a life or has to start over, often
not at the beginning but in a slightly reduced
state that allows her to retain nearly all of the
skills, knowledge, power, capabilities, progress,
etc. that she has gained thus far. This gaming
principle entices children to try, even if they
(rightly) believe that they will fail at first.
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Gaming, Cognition, and Education
3. Gaming environments are compelling to
participants The proof that gaming environments
are compelling to those playing them lies in the
fact that gamers are willing to play a game
repeatedly and often. Gamers put in a lot of
effort as they try different ways of doing
things, try to get further than they did before,
explore new variations in areas where they
already have been successful, etc. Gamers are
mentally engaged - often quite deeply - with the
learning environment as they try, fail, try
again, fail again, try yet again, fail yet again,
and so on.
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Gaming, Cognition, and Education
4. Video games give a lot of output for just a
little input One of the key characteristics of
video games is that they operate according to
what Gee calls the amplification of input
principle. In a video game, you can push a few
buttons here and there, or type a few words with
your keyboard, and an entire immersive
environment springs forth to engage you.
Amplification of input is a powerfully
motivating feature of video games because
learners can put in just a little and still get a
lot back out. This encourages them to put in a
little more to see what else they might get.
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5. In video games, learners get rewards from the
very beginning Another significant feature of
video games is that participants get rewards from
the very beginning. These rewards, both intrinsic
and extrinsic, send messages of success to
learners and encourage them to continue to play
to gain additional rewards. Extrinsic rewards
might include new character lives, greater
wealth, more points or coins, etc. Examples of
intrinsic rewards include satisfaction with
character progress or growth, expanded
interconnection with other characters, greater
understanding and knowledge, and so on.
Importantly, these rewards are individually
customized to each learner as he or she
progresses further through the gaming environment.
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Gaming, Cognition, and Education
6. Gamers get lots of non-boring practice As Gee
notes, people need to practice what they are
learning a good deal before they master it (p.
68). Moreover, if they dont continue to
practice, they lose much of their
previously-acquired skill and knowledge (e.g.,
how much do you remember about sine, cosine, and
tangent?). Because they provide opportunities,
for active, interactive learning, video games do
an excellent job of allowing learners to practice
skills and mentally ingrain existing knowledge in
ways that are engaging, not boring. One of the
keys to this is the fact that video games embed
learning within meaningful contexts rather than
being decontextualized like drill and kill
worksheets or homework problem sets. Video games
also facilitate learners acquisition of
self-selected goals rather than goals that are
externally imposed by others.
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Gaming, Cognition, and Education
7. Video game participants are constantly
learning, unlearning, and relearning In most
video games, particularly role-playing games,
participants must continually unpack prior
learning and undo previously-routinized behaviors
in order to learn new skills that allow them to
progress and be successful. In other words,
participants cannot function on 'autopilot' for
long before the video game requires them to do
something different to reach a new and higher
level. As Gee notes Several educators have
argued that this cycle of automatization of
skills through practice, rethinking this
automatization when faced with new conditions in
order to learn new skills and transform old ones,
and then perfecting these new skills through
further practice that once again leads to
automatization is the very foundation of
intelligent practice in the world. . . . A cycle
of automatization, adaptation, new learning, and
new automatization is a sine qua non of learning
for those who want to survive as active thinkers
and actors in a fast changing world. (pp. 69-70)
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8. Video games continually and appropriately
challenge learners Video games are structured so
that learners constantly operate at the outer
edge of their competence. Participants are
continually challenged but the challenges are not
so difficult that learners believe they are
undoable. Gee refers to this as the regime of
competence principle. Lev Vygotsky, a famous
developmental psychologist, called this concept
the zone of proximal development - the area in
which students are ready to grow. Video games are
similar to teachers in that they take the role of
what Vygotsky called the 'more knowledgeable
other,' the entity that helps students bridge the
gap between their current ability and new
capabilities. In education, we often call this
scaffolding - the idea that learners can progress
to new skill levels with structured,
individualized, just-in-time assistance. Video
games are very adept at scaffolding participants'
learning. One of the reasons that video games are
so compelling / engaging / 'addictive' is that
participants are continually faced with new
challenges that are neither too easy nor too
difficult. This motivates them to move forward
because the next step is always in sight and is
perceived as being achievable.
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9. Video games foster active, reflective
investigation Gee points out that most good
video games require learners to probe the virtual
world by exploring, looking around, moving items,
clicking on something, etc. form a hypothesis
about what something in the game might mean based
on reflection while probing and afterward
reprobe the world with that hypothesis in mind
to see what effect occurs and treat this effect
as feedback from the world and accept or rethink
the original hypothesis. (p. 90) These four
stages reflect how expert scientists approach
their tasks and embody the process by which
children and adults learn when they're not in
school. In other words, this probe-hypothesis-repr
obe-rethink process is "central to how humans
learn things" (p. 91). This model of learning
is underutilized in schools, however, as
curricula and other pressures often result in a
focus on memorization of facts rather than on
teaching students how to discover, decode, and
test patterns of thinking and meaning. The
latter, of course, is an essential skill for
individuals living in an everchanging global
society.
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10. Video games allow learners to follow their
own paths There is more than one path to success
in most role-playing video games. The path that
some players follow, or the choices that they
make, can be different than the paths and choices
of others and yet still lead to the next level.
Those paths may take longer, or some choices
may be better, but eventually each player gets to
the next stage. By playing and replaying levels
repeatedly in ways that are not boring, players
can revise and refine their paths to success.
Video games allow for individualized learning
toward common outcomes.
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11. Gamers make meaning within embodied
experiences Because video games have the
capacity to create complex, experiential
simulations, participants learning is situated
within learning environments that are fairly
authentic, at least within the paradigm of the
game framework. In other words, learning is not
decontextualized, like a multiple choice item or
writing prompt might be, but instead is rooted
within the ongoing development of the skills,
knowledge, and behaviors necessary to be
successful in the game environment. For
example, instead of reading about a blacksmith or
watching a video about a blacksmith, gamers learn
by actually being blacksmiths. Participants
understanding is thus deeper because it is
embodied within simulated (and often very real)
experiences.
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12. Learning in video games is multimodal Most
educators know about the theories of multiple
intelligences and learning styles. The basic idea
is that students learn differently and have
different strengths. Teachers thus should try
to facilitate multiple paths to learning and
attempt to create different ways for students to
show their mastery of content material. Most
video games seamlessly integrate three of our
five senses sight, sound, and touch -
participants also may experience different smells
while gaming. Because they can simultaneously
utilize images, text, sound, interactions,
abstract design, and so on (Gee, 2003, p. 210),
video games are better able to simulate real-life
experiences than can printed text, audio, or
video. This makes learning more authentic, more
engaging, and more compelling.
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13. Video games can create subsets of a
domain One of the most powerful features of video
games is their ability to simulate worlds past,
present, or future real or fictional. The
multimodal capabilities of video games allow
participants to be immersed in rich, deep
learning contexts. For example, instead of
reading about the Civil War, learners can take
the role of soldier, general, medic, battlefield
photographer, news correspondent, and the like.
At the same time, however, dropping a new
learner into a complex world can be disorienting
and discouraging. Video games can create a
simplified subset of the real domain, a starting
place where participants can safely become
oriented to the new world before being exposed to
the entire learning environment. The value of
this cannot be understated. Imagine if you were
an English-speaking American who was about to be
dropped into the middle of South Korea. Wouldnt
it be nice if you had a chance for some safe and
structured, but authentic, practice first? Gee
(2003) sums this up nicely Learning is not
started in a separate place (e.g., a classroom or
textbook) outside the domain in which the
learning is going to operate. At the same time,
the learner is not thrown into the real thing -
the full game - and left to swim or drown. (p.
122)
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14. Video games effectively facilitate bottom
up learning of basic skills In early stages of
video games, learners are exposed to critical
fundamental skills that allow them to gradually
engage in more complex actions. As Gee (2003)
notes, early situations and problems are
designed in a quite sophisticated way to lead to
fruitful learning. When later the player is
confronted by harder situations and problems, he
or she has just the right basis on which to make
fruitful guesses about what to do. (p.
135) These basic skills are learned in a bottom
up fashion - by playing the game, not through
decontextualized exercises. Indeed, the
structured learning environments of video games
typically are designed so effectively that by
the time new players are aware of what are basic
skills . . . the basic elements that are used
repeatedly and combined and often concentrated in
the earlier episodes . . . they have already
mastered them. (Gee, 2003, p. 136)
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15. Video games facilitate just in time
learning The artificial intelligences that
reside in video games can be structured to
respond in different ways to participant
activity. Computer-mediated learning environments
thus can be designed to provide information just
in time or on demand. There is a great deal
power associated with just-in-time learning or
resource acquisition. For example, in
manufacturing and industry, the concept of
just-in-time manufacturing allows companies to
reduce inventory and cut costs, making them more
efficient and effective. Similarly, just-in-time
learning environments allow participants to
acquire skills or knowledge when they need them
and not before. This facilitates greater
concentration in earlier stages on things that
are important (rather than extraneous or
unneeded) allows for greater individualization
and customization makes learning more fluid and
leads to more active, engaged, motivated learners.
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16. Gamers are discovery learners Virtually
every role-playing game requires participants to
actively investigate the learning environment. As
noted previously, this active learning aspect
replicates real-life learning contexts and
deepens overall knowledge and proficiency. Unlike
many K-12 classrooms, video games rarely tell
learners anything overtly. If games do, its
usually planful and related to something small.
All of the big discoveries - the conceptual
breakthroughs - are left for the learner to
discover in a structured, scaffolded way.
Educators have long recognized the value of
guided, inquiry-based learning methods,
particularly for problem-solving, even if they
have rarely implemented such methods on a large
scale.
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17. Gamers have many opportunities for learning
transfer One of the key outcomes that educators
try to achieve with students is the transfer of
learning from one context to another. In
rapidly-changing societies such as ours, the
ability to transfer and/or adapt existing
knowledge and skills to new situations is an
essential requirement for life success. Video
games give participants many opportunities to
practice already-acquired skills and to transfer
their learning to new and different challenges.
To succeed in video games, learners must not only
exhibit near transfer (i.e., replication of prior
learning to new, fairly similar, situations) but
also far transfer (i.e., adaptation and
modification of prior learning to substantively
different contexts).
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18. Gamers are producers and insiders, not just
consumers Like other modern technology tools
(e.g., digital cameras and camcorders, podcasts,
blogs, wikis), many video games allow learners to
be producers of original content, not just
consumers of pre-packaged material. Some of the
most popular role-playing games (e.g., Second
Life, EverQuest) have very sophisticated
economies built upon user-created content. These
video games have tools that allow for rich,
individualized customization of the learning
environment by participants. This stands in sharp
contrast to the one size fits all instructional
model that we see in many schools and classrooms,
where teachers and textbooks are the insiders and
the learners are outsiders who must take what
they are given as mere consumers (Gee, 2003, p.
194) Control of the learning path, and perhaps
the learning environment itself, can be
powerfully motivating and engaging for learners.
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Questions of the day Are our K-12 classrooms
set up . . . to encourage active rather than
passive learning? to be places where students can
safely take risks? to be mentally-engaging and
-compelling learning environments where students
will try repeatedly despite possible and/or
actual failure? Are our K-12 classrooms set
up . . . to give students a lot of output for
just a little input? to provide, from the very
beginning, both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
for learning? to allow students opportunities for
non-boring practice within meaningful contexts
and on self-selected learning goals?
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Questions of the Day Are our K-12 classrooms set
up . . . to allow students to continually learn,
unlearn, and relearn at higher levels? to have
students work at their own pace and
individualized levels of challenge? to foster
active, reflective investigation? Are our
K-12 classrooms set up . . . to allow students to
travel their individualized and unique learning
paths? to create embodied, authentic learning
experiences that are not decontextualized or
overgeneralized? to facilitate multimodal
learning as the dominant pedagogical model?
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Questions of the Day Are our K-12 classrooms set
up . . . to create safe but authentic subsets of
real learning domains? to help students invisibly
learn important skills from the bottom up? to
allow students to gain information only when they
need it (i.e., when it can best be understood and
put into practice)? Are our K-12 classrooms
set up . . . to facilitate discovery learning? to
facilitate learning transfer, both near and far?
to allow students to be producers and insiders,
not just consumers?
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Lets Explore http//21stcenturylearning.typepad.c
om
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World of Warcraft enables thousands of players to
come together online and battle against the world
and each other. Players come from across the
globe and leave the world behind and undertake
grand quests and heroic exploits in a land of
fantastic adventure.
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World of Warcraft
Tens of millions of people are honing their
leadership skills in multiplayer online games.
The tools and techniques theyre using will
change how leaders function tomorrowand could
make them more effective today. Harvard Business
Review
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WoW Stats
10 million players 15 per mo 22 hours per
week Avg age 27 85 Men
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Organization Strategies Used in WoW
  • IDing and capitalizing on organizational
    advantage
  • Analyzing multiple streams of data to make
    quick decisions that have wide-ranging and
    sometimes long lasting effects
  • Recruiting
  • Assessing
  • Motivating
  • Rewarding
  • Retaining talented and culturally diverse team
    members

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Demo of WoW- Noah Beach
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