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Life in the Gilded Age

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Chinese come to California during gold rush and work on railroad. Japanese went to Hawaii to work and ... To keep the machine running they falsified elections ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life in the Gilded Age


1
Life in the Gilded Age
2
Bellwork
  • Why is the Gilded Age called the Gilded Age?
  • What are inventors? Which inventions do you
    think have had the biggest impact on our lives?
    Why? How does technology affect our lives?

3
Gilded Age
  • Term is coined by Mark Twain
  • Famous author of the time
  • Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn

4
End of the frontier
  • Indians pushed into reservations
  • Wild West is tamed and settled

5
The Expansion of Industry
  • Changes in technology
  • Fuel
  • Kerosene
  • Oil
  • Coal
  • Iron and steel
  • Bessemer process

6
Steel
  • Steel is used for
  • Railroads
  • Plows, reapers, farm tools
  • Food cans

7
Edison
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10
Thomas Edison
  • Made power plant/light bulb
  •   With electricity factories can work more hours
    and be anywhere.

11
Other inventions
  • Typewriter
  • Telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell

12
"Mr. WatsonCome hereI want to see you"
13
Bellwork-Answer these if you were not here on
Friday. The rest of you BE QUIET OR YOU WILL GET
BELLWORK!!!!
  • Why do we have time zones?
  • What is a union? What is the benefit of having
    unions? What are some negative effects of unions?

14
The Age of Railroads
  • 1890more than 200,000 miles of track
  • 1888more than 2,000 railroad workers die and
    20,000 are injured.
  • Built by immigrants (Asians in the West and Irish
    in the East) also African-Americans
  • Earn very little

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16
Joining the nation
  • Railroads link the nation together
  • Travel and industry increases
  • Time zones are created to keep railroad schedules.

17
Industry grows
  • Railroads cause industry to grow
  • George Pullman invents a sleeping car known as a
    Pullman car

18
Corruption
  • Railroads were usually corrupt
  • Charged high prices
  • Bribed government officials
  • Made millions through trickery

19
Congress Acts
  • Congress tries to combat corruption
  • Supreme Court says they can regulate interstate
    trade
  • Congress passes the Interstate Commerce Act to
    regulate trade
  • Not strong enough to control the railroads

20
Big Business Emerges
  • Businesses consolidate into big industries
  • These are run by businessmen who become very
    wealthy and become known as robber barons.

21
Government practices
  • Government supported laissez-faire economics
  • Means hands off
  • Government does very little regulation
  • Resultvery wealthy businesses and lots of
    corruption and little competition

22
Social Darwinism
  • Idea that the best individuals will succeed
  • The survival of the fittest
  • Government should do very little

23
Robber barons
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Built a giant steel firm
  • Bought out competition and provides of raw
    materials and transportation of his goods
  • Known as vertical consolidation

24
Vertical consolidation
  • Buying out companies for every stage of the
    productive process from raw materials to
    marketing.

25
John D. Rockefeller
  • Another robber baron
  • Controlled Standard Oil
  • Bought other oil companies
  • This is horizontal consolidationcontrolling
    competition at one step in the process of a
    product.

26
Other robber barons
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt RR monopolist
  • J. P. Morgan banking monopolist
  • Robber barons did philanthropy work

27
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28
Monopolies and trusts
  • Robber barons created monopolies
  • Where a firm controls all the competition
  • Also created trusts
  • Companies agree to work together

29
Whats wrong with this?
  • Whats wrong with having monopolies and no
    competition?

30
Sherman Anti-trust Act
  • Congress passed the Sherman anti-trust act to
    outlaw trusts and monopolies
  • Difficult to enforce

31
Working conditions
  • Conditions were terrible
  • Long hours
  • Dangerous conditions
  • Poor living conditions
  • Child Labor
  • To improve conditions formed labor unions

32
Development of Labor unions
  • Labor Movement unions illegal until 1840's for
    interfering in commerce, black lists Federal
    Government kept unions weak
  •  

33
Unions
  • Knights of Labor unskilled/skilled workers
    demanded reforms in child labor, safety, hours (8
    hr day), equal pay for women
  • American Federation of Labor skilled workers
    demanded higher pay, shorter work weeks.

34
Strikes
  • Strikes resulted and usually ended in violence.
    Government usually sent in troops against the
    unions

35
Notable Strikes
  • Great RR Strike of 1877 RR shut down, Hayes used
    army to end strike
  • Haymarket Square Riot bomb killed 7 policeman,
    police fired on strikers
  • Homestead Strike Carnegie hired Pinkertons to
    violently end strike
  • Pullman Strike RR shut down, federal troops
    brought in and people get hurt and lose their
    jobs.

36
Business leaders react
  • Unions were prevented by
  • Not hiring union workers
  • Banning union meetings
  • Using the courts and troops to stop unions

37
Bellwork
  • On a piece of paper, in 50 words, answer the
    following questions
  • Why do people leave their homelands?
  • Why do people immigrate to the US?
  • What problems do immigrants face?

38
Bellwork
  • On a half sheet of paper answer the following
    question
  • Is America a melting pot or a salad bowl?
    Explain your answer.

39
Immigration
  • Change from
  • Western and Northern Europe
  • Germany, Ireland, and Great Britain
  • To Southern and Eastern Europe
  • Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia

40
Ellis Island
  • Europeans enter through Ellis Island
  • See Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island
  • Usually stay 5 hrs
  • Undergo mental and health tests
  • Requirements to enter pass health tests,
    literacy test, prove they can work, and have at
    least 25
  • 20 are detained for a day or more
  • 98 allowed to stay in the US

41
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43
Asian Immigrants
  • Chinese and Japanese come to the US
  • Chinese come to California during gold rush and
    work on railroad.
  • Japanese went to Hawaii to work and gradually
    went to the west coast (California).

44
Angel Island
  • Asian immigrants came through Angel Island
  • Different from Ellis Island
  • Harsh questioning
  • Long detention
  • Filthy, ramshackle buildings
  • Confined like prisoners
  • More sent back

45
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47
Problems for Immigrants
  • Culture shock
  • Confusion and anxiety from being in a new culture
    they didnt understand
  • Jobs
  • Housing

48
Survival
  • Settle in neighborhoods with people from their
    culture
  • Little Italy, China, etc.
  • Good makes transition easier
  • Bad excluding themselves, slows down
    assimilation
  • Americanization movement use schools and
    volunteers to teach immigrants English and how to
    be American.

49
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51
The Great Melting pot
  • Melting pot theory that US is a mixture of
    people of different cultures and races who blend
    together to become American.
  • Truth-many do not give up their customs
  • Might be more like a salad bowl

52
Nativism and xenophobia
  • Anti-immigration feelings grow
  • Nativism-idea that native-born Americans are
    better
  • Xenophobia-fear of foreigners

53
Nativism ideas
  • Wanted immigration from the right countries
    Britain, Germany, Scandinavia
  • Not wrong Slav, Latin, Asian
  • Natives Anglo Saxon and Protestant
  • New Immigrants Jewish, Catholic, and Slav and
    Asian

54
Anti-Asian Sentiments
  • Chinese look different physical features, hair,
    dress
  • Feared they were taking jobs away from Native
    born Americans

55
Limiting Immigration
  • 1882 passed the Chinese Exclusion Act-banned all
    entry of Chinese except students, teachers,
    merchants, tourists, and government officials
  • 1902-banned all Chinese immigration until 1943.
  • Asians went to segregated schools
  • 1907-08 Gentlemens Agreement-limits Japanese
    immigration

56
Urbanization
  • Immigrants moved to the cities this produced
    urbanization rapid growth of cities
  • People also moving from the country to cities

57
Urbanization problems
  • Housing
  • Row housing-houses built so that they are
    connected and share walls
  • Dumbbell houses-housing that is shaped like a
    dumbbell (includes air vents in the middle)
  • People use air vents to dump sewage
  • Crime increases

58
Dumbbell tenements
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60
Transportation
  • Need public transportation for everyone
  • Horses create a mess in the street
  • 10lbs of manure per horse per day
  • Create street cars and later subways for cities

61
Sanitation
  • Need clean drinking water
  • Trash is in the street
  • Not uncommon to see a dead horse in the street
  • Children play in the street
  • Start insisting on indoor plumbing

62
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63
Fires
  • Water shortage, houses built together and of
    woodbig chance for a fire
  • Both Chicago and San Francisco had huge
    devastating fires

64
Reform movements
  • Settlement houses-community centers in slums that
    provide assistance, especially to immigrants.
  • Provided educational, cultural, and social
    services
  • Jane Addams founded Hull house in Chicago
  • An important settlement house.

65
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68
Social Movements
  • Women's Movement worked for suffrage, temperance
    (no alcohol), insane, poor
  •  E. C. Stanton/S. B. Anthony pushed for suffrage
    amendment
  •  Lucy Stone pushed suffrage state by state
  •  Wyoming 1st state to allow women's voting
  •   West more democratic Colorado (1893),
    Idaho/Utah (1896)

69
Racial Equality
  • Booker T. Washington self-improvement before
    racial equality
  • Racism will end if African Americans prove useful
    to society
  •  WEB Dubois established NAACP for work for
    racial equality

70
  • Dubois Washington

71
Racial Inequality
  • Plessy v. Ferguson established separate but
    equal clause in 1896
  • Made segregation legal
  • Jim Crow laws develop-separates public and
    private facilities

72
The Emergence of the Political Machine
  • Political machine was an organized group that
    controlled the activities of a political party in
    a city and offered services to voters and
    businesses in exchange for political or financial
    support.

73
Organization of the machine
  • Machine was run by a boss
  • It was like a pyramid
  • At the top was the city boss who controlled jobs
    in police, fire, and sanitation, and controlled
    the city government.
  • They tried to help immigrant problems and so won
    immigrant votes and loyalty.

74
Corruption
  • It was like the mob
  • You had to go through the boss to get things in a
    city new businesses, licenses, inspections,
    money for schools, hospitals, etc.
  • The machine then got paid for providing these
    governmental services

75
More corruption
  • To keep the machine running they falsified
    elections
  • Put in names of dog, children, and dead people
  • Had more votes than registered voters
  • Used kickbacks
  • Machine would chose a worker that contracted for
    a government job, the worker would charge more
    than necessary and kick back a fee to the
    political machine

76
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77
Boss Tweed
  • William Boss Tweed became one of the most
    powerful bosses
  • He headed Tammany Hall in New York
  • Democratic party in New York

78
William Boss Tweed
  • Tweed-le-dee and Tilden-dum A Harper's Weekly
    cartoon depicts Tweed as a police officer saying
    to two boys, "If all the people want is to have
    somebody arrested, I'll have you plunderers
    convicted. You will be allowed to escape, nobody
    will be hurt, and then Tilden will go to the
    White House and I to Albany as Governor."
  • Tweed ring pocket 200 million from the city in
    kickbacks and payoffs
  • Newspapers and cartoonists attacked him
  • Finally arrested and died in jail

79
Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Grant Administration (1869-1877) symbolizes
    Gilded Age corruption
  •     
  • Hayes Administration (1877-1881)
  • end of Reconstruction allowed Jim Crow laws
    such as grandfather clauses, poll taxes, literacy
    tests to restore white dominance
  •  
  • Garfield Administration (1881)
  •   shot by disappointed spoils system patron
    Charles Guiteau
  •   
  • Arthur Administration (1881-1885)
  • Pendleton Act required competitive test to fill
    certain federal jobs and made it illegal to force
    current federal job holders to contribute to
    campaigns
  •  
  •   

80
Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Cleveland Administration (1885-1889)
  •   only president elected to non-consecutive terms
  •    
  • Harrison Administration (1889-1893)
  • great grandfather signed D of I, grandfather was
    President WH Harrison
  •   
  • Cleveland Administration (1893-1897)
  •  Depression of 1893 severe financial crisis,
    government responded laissez faire
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