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The Cold War Begins


Thomas E. Dewey from New York and Earl Warren from California. Upset Victory, cont... Secret elections in union meeting. Civil Rights for African Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War Begins

The Cold War Begins
  • Truman to Kennedy

Truman and the Postwar World
The presidency of the
television age begins
The plain talking President from the Plains
The Ashes of War
  • Wartime deaths at 50 million (probably more)
  • 40 million homeless in Europe
  • Japans and Germanys economies in ruin
  • Political restructuring
  • Social disorder
  • Great Britain and France were devastated nations

Proud nations needing a new start
Ashes, cont.
  • Soviet Union
  • 20 million dead
  • 25 of property was destroyed
  • 60 of transportation facilities destroyed
  • 70 of industry destroyed
  • Expanded Territory
  • Poland, Finland and Baltic states
  • Positions in China, Mongolia, Manchuria and North
  • United States
  • 330,000 dead
  • American output doubled
  • Occupations in Europe, North Africa, Asia and

Celebrations and gains in the United States
Friction Between the Superpowers
Soviet Union
United States
Soviet Goals
  • Soviet spheres of influence in Eastern Europe and
  • Pro-Soviet governments in both regions
  • Rebuild its economy
  • Weaken countries on Soviet borders
  • Extend communism
  • Keep Germany and Japan weak

American Goals to Promote Atlantic Charter
  • Collective Security through the United Nations
  • Elimination of spheres of influence
  • National self-determination for all nations
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Free Trade
  • Demobilize arm forces but Truman not experienced
    with foreign affairs

Origins of Cold War
  • Journalist Walter Lippman called Soviet American
    relations a cold war
  • Hostilities just short of war
  • Distrust and accusations
  • Churchills Iron Curtain speech
  • Anti-communist
  • Capitalism v. Communism

1949 Europe
Great Britain
Soviet Union
Territorial Conflicts in Europe
  • Soviets wanted control of the Dardanelles
  • U.S. wanted Soviets out of Iran
  • Communism spreading toward the Middle East
  • Germany
  • Soviets wanted large reparations
  • Great Britain and United States were rebuilding
    the German economy
  • Great Britain and the United States merged
    holdings in Germany
  • Soviets and France refused total reunification

From War to Peace on the Home Front
The Problems with Reconversion
Rosie the Rivetor
Changing the Economy and Military from Wartime to
  • Shortage of low and middle-income housing
  • African Americans wanted to keep employment
    gains, but were laid off with women from defense
  • Unions wanted deregulation of production
  • People wanted more consumer goods

Truman had to Prevent Inflation and Depression
  • Slowed demobilization
  • GI Protests
  • Bring Daddy Home campaign
  • GI Bill
  • Veterans Benefit Program
  • Education
  • Employment Act of 1946
  • Selling War Plants
  • Durable Goods
  • 140 billion saved by the people during the war
  • Expanded factories

Labor Union Strikes
  • Increased Prices reduced buying power
  • 5,000 strikes in 1946
  • Truman threatened to draft strikers
  • Truman was the strikebreaker

Truman and Congress
  • Congress supported his foreign policy but not
  • In 1946 Republicans controlled both Houses
  • Eightieth Congress disliked New Deal Legislation
  • 22nd Amendment
  • Taft-Hartley Act
  • Forbade secondary boycotts
  • Truman vetoed but overridden
  • Truman liked by unions
  • Civil Rights President

Jackie Robinson April
10, 1947 broke the color barrier in major
league baseball
Into the Depths of the Cold War
Joseph Stalin
Nikita Khrushchev
Leonid Brezhnev
Truman and Containment
  • Truman wanted to establish leadership in the
    world by containing Soviet expansion
  • Soviets are aggressive and dont negotiate
  • United States should build situations of
  • Containment Policy
  • Military Aid
  • Truman wanted 400 million to Turkey and Greece
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • Seriousness of the soviet threat
  • support people resisting subjugation by armed
    minorities or outside pressure

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Truman issued an address before a joint session
of Congress highlighting the need to protect
Greece and Turkey
The development which affected the Truman
administration most markedly was the British
government's official notice in February 1947
that it could no longer afford to supply military
and economic aid to Greece and Turkey. These were
key Mediterranean countries which the U.S.S.R.
sought to bring into its orbit. In what became
known as the Truman Doctrine, the President
announced that the U.S. would give economic and
military aid to the area.
National Security Act, 1947
  • Provided for a single Department of Defense to
    run the formerly independent military services
  • Established the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • Created the National Security Council to advise
    the president on foreign and military policy
  • Established the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    to coordinate spying

The Marshall Plan
  • Foreign Aid was second pillar of containment
  • European economic recovery was very slow
  • 125 million starving in Europe
  • Communists were using this situation as
  • Secretary of State George C Marshall promised to

Secretary of State George C Marshall
Secretary of Defense Dean Acheson
The Marshall Plan
  • Aid if all nations cooperate in planning a
    European recovery program
  • 17 nations sent delegates
  • 17 billion appropriation requested
  • Soviets left the meeting
  • Their idea of independent recovery program was
  • Molotov Plan for Eastern European Recovery
  • Rumania was under complete communist control
  • Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland going to fall soon
  • Communist purges in Czechoslovakia
  • Congress then appropriated 13 billion for Europe

Marshall Plan for European Map - interactive
The Cold War Grows Colder
  • France joined Great Britain and the United States
    in occupation zones of Germany creating the
    Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 (West
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Soviets refused aid to reach West Berlin to force
    western powers out of East Germany
  • United States sent atomic bombers to England as
    a warning
  • By May 12, 1949, 277 flights and 2.5 million tons
    were airlifted when Stalin lifted blockade

The Berlin airlift marked the first major
confrontation in the Cold War. For 11 months,
beginning in June 1948, the Western allies took
part in an unprecedented attempt to keep a city
alive -- entirely from the air. Despite Soviet
harassment, poor flying conditions and official
discouragement, the air crews performed what many
thought was impossible.
The Cold War Grows Colder, cont.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Created in 1949
  • 12 nation coalition
  • Soviets formed Warsaw Pact
  • German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

Foreign Affairs and Domestic Politics
  • Middle East Policy
  • Jewish refugees had flooded into Palestine
  • Great Britain lost control of the area and left
  • May 14, 1948, Israel was created and the United
    States officially recognized its authority in the
  • Palestinian Arabs protested and many wars resulted

The Election of 1948 and the Fair Deal
Sputnik 1 (1957)
Upset Victory
  • Republicans had good leadership and unification
  • Middle and upper class Protestants
  • Farmers
  • Skilled workers
  • Thomas E. Dewey from New York and Earl Warren
    from California

Upset Victory, cont.
  • Democrats were split
  • Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota adopted a strong
    civil rights platform
  • Southern Democrats opposed platform
  • States Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrats)
  • Strom Thurmond
  • Progressive Party
  • Henry Wallace
  • Peaceful relations with the soviets

Upset Victory, cont
  • Giveem hell, Harry!
  • Strong campaign
  • Attacked Republicans
  • Won 303 to 189 to 39

A Fair Deal
  • Increase minimum wage from 40 to 75 cents
  • Increase Social Security Benefits
  • Housing Act of 1949
  • 810,000 units
  • Only funded half
  • Very Little Accomplished

The Red Scare
  • House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Fight internal political threats
  • Alger Hiss
  • Whittaker Chambers
  • Soviets test A-bomb
  • Rosenberg's
  • McCarthyism

A Different World
Chiang Kai-shek
Mao Zedong
China and Japan
  • Chiang Kai-shek led the Chinese Nationalists
    trying to protect the existing government in
  • Mao Zedong led the Communist forces trying to
    overthrow the Nationalists
  • Despite being outnumbered 3 to 1 the Communist
    took control (desertion and betrayal)
  • Mao formed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC)
  • Chiang fled to Taiwan

China, cont.
  • United States spent 2 billion supporting Chiang
    and the Nationalist
  • Controversy over the use of military aid
  • Rumors of communist in the State Department
  • Soviets threat to all Asia

  • The United States were rebuilding Japan
  • Punish war criminals and outlaw Shinto
  • Southeast Asia to provide raw materials for
    Japanese manufacturing
  • Resist Chinese pressures
  • National Security Council Document- 68
  • U.S. would defend freedom

Korean War
Korea is a mountainous nation with extreme
climate conditions
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • Joint occupation of Korea during WWII by the
    Soviets and Americans
  • Nation divided along the 38th Parallel
  • Soviets and Chinese influence in the north
  • American influence in the south
  • Soviets and Americans left Korea in 1949
  • Syngman Rhee was an ardent anti-Communist leader
    of the south
  • North Koreans stronger military
  • North Korean Nationalist wanted unification

Korea, cont.
  • June 25th, 1950 North Korea invaded the South
  • North Korea pushed far south to the port city of
    Pusan in just days
  • Truman committed U.S. help on June 27th
  • United Nations Security Council condemned action
    of the North Koreans
  • Soviets not at Council
  • Demanded removal of North Korean troops
  • Police Action

Korea, cont.
  • Korean Peoples Army
  • Kim Il-Sung Commander
  • Premier Kim
  • Republic of South Korea
  • President Rhee
  • United States
  • President Truman
  • Douglas Macarthur - Commander

President Harry S. Truman, to members of
Congress, June 30, 1950 "If there is any
necessity for Congressional action, I will come
to you. But I hope we can get those bandits in
Korea suppressed without that. A Washington
ambassador cabling skepticism to his government
three days after North Korea invaded South
Korea. "The time has come when Uncle Sam must put
up or shut up and my guess is it will do
neither. President Harry S. Truman, two days
after the invasion "I'm more worried about other
parts of the world. The Middle East, for
instance. Iran is where they will start trouble
if we aren't careful. "Korea is the Greece of the
Far East. If we are tough enough now, if we stand
up to them like we did in Greece three years ago,
they won't take any next steps. But if we just
stand by, they'll move into Iran and they'll take
over the whole Middle East. There's no telling
what they'll do, if we don't put up a fight now."
A Poem
Listening Post - John Kent Cold bones, numbed
brain, blackened sockets hide two eyes. Frozen
fingers swell through gloves, cradled weapon
held with love. Fetching memories gone astray,
wondering will it ever end...
Korea, cont.
  • July 7, 1950 the United Nations name Macarthur to
    lead Forces
  • Landing at Inchon and the Offensive
  • Ping Pong War
  • By September, half of the North Korean invaders
    were captured or killed
  • Unification of Korea under non-Communist
  • New Truman goal

Korea, cont.
  • Macarthur had pushed the North Koreans to the
    Yalu River
  • Chinese involvement of 400,000 troops
  • By Christmas, U.N. forces were south of 38th
  • Stalemate
  • 12 offensives
  • Macarthur was relieved for criticism of limited
    war policy
  • Replaced by General Ridgeway
  • Panmunjom

Korean War Facts
6.8 million served on active-duty during the
Korean War 1.8 million served during period of
hostilities 36,940 died in theater during the
war 4,793 died while missing in action 92,100
service members were wounded in theater, some
several times 8,176 are still listed as missing
in action 7,140 were POWs of whom 4,418 returned
131 Korean War participants received the Medal
of Honor
Worldwide Effects of the Korean War
  • Confirmed Soviet aggressiveness
  • Increased aid to Chiang Kai-shek
  • Aid to France in Indochina
  • Security treaty with Japan
  • Trumans approval rating decreased because of

The Eisenhower Era
Before winning election to the presidency in
1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower had spent most of his
adult life as an army officer, rising to the
highest military rank, General of the Army. Both
as a general and as president, Eisenhower aroused
an enormous affection in the people of the United
States and indeed in people throughout the world.
This was because in a time of national danger, of
changing values and uncertainty, he possessed the
virtues that most Americans feel represent the
United States at its best. He was brave, kind,
steadfast, idealistic, friendly, and so
completely honest that even his political
opponents never questioned his integrity.
The Return of the Republicans
President Dwight D Eisenhower
  • Decided to run for president out of disgust
  • Check growth of centralized federal government
  • New Deal Programs
  • Public Housing and Deficit Spending (Fair Deal)
  • Balanced budget needed
  • Better containment policy of communism
  • Republican Senator Robert Taft not opponent of
    Collective Security
  • Election of 1952
  • Eisenhower/Nixon v. Stevenson/Sparkman
  • 442 to 89 Electoral Votes
  • Republicans controlled Congress

Eisenhowers Cabinet
  • Chose to delegate, so he wanted businessmen not
  • Secretary of State John Dulles
  • Secretary of Treasury George Humphrey

Immediate Concerns
  • Use threats of atomic bomb to end settlements
    talks with Korea
  • Prewar borders accepted
  • Defense Spending
  • B-52s
  • ICBMs

Domestic Politics and Policies
Joseph McCarthy
Hollywood and Government
communism is everywhere
McCarthyism and the Hidden Hand President
  • Eisenhower wanted to give McCarthy enough rope to
    hang himself
  • Still on crusade against communism
  • Daily headlines
  • Executive Order on loyalty program in government
  • Dismissed 1500 federal employees
  • 6000 resigned

McCarthyism, cont.
  • Communist Control Act, 1954 defined the Communist
    Party as an agency of hostile foreign power
  • McCarthy attacked army
  • Congressional hearing
  • Senate dismissed McCarthy
  • He died of alcoholism three years later

Economy Takes Precedence
  • Ike followed traditional economic policies
  • Cutting taxes and federal spending
  • Balancing the federal budget
  • Controlling inflation
  • Limiting the role the federal government in the
    economy as much as possible
  • Oligopolies in many industries
  • Pro-business legislation

A Moderate Domestic Program
  • Modern Republicanism limit social programs
  • Actually expanded welfare slightly
  • Urban renewal

Eisenhowers Second Administration
The Real Civil Rights Movement
A Second Term and the Economy
  • Election of 1956 was a repeat of 1952
  • 457 to 73
  • Economy and Labor
  • Laissez-fair
  • Booms and Busts
  • Merger of the AFL-CIO
  • Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959
  • Limit racketeering in unions
  • Ex-convicts not allowed to have leadership roles
    in the union
  • Secret elections in union meeting

Civil Rights for African Americans
  • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
  • Reversed Plessy v Ferguson
  • Segregation is unconstitutional
  • Voting Rights
  • De jure and de facto
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Civil Rights Leaders
  • Grassroots campaign
  • Rosa Parks, Montgomery 1955
  • Thurgood Marshall
  • Brown v Topeka, BOE
  • 1967 Supreme Court Justice
  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Civil Disobedience, Sit-ins, and peaceful protests

Eisenhowers Foreign Policy
Aswan Dam
Soviet-American relations
  • Roll back the Communist tide
  • Liberating the captive peoples
  • Radio Free Europe
  • Propaganda broadcast into Eastern Europe
  • East Berlin Workers strike
  • Dulles threatens massive retaliation against
    Communist aggression
  • Brinkmanship
  • Scared Americans too
  • Nikita Khrushchev was softer on Cold War
  • Peaceful coexistence
  • Summit Conference at Geneva
  • Freedom of the skies
  • Disarmament

Nationalism in the Third World
  • United States and industrialized capitalist
    nations were First World
  • Communist nations were Second World
  • Developing nations were Third World
  • CIA used to overthrow foreign governments
  • Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh
  • Guatemalan president Jacobo Arbenz

  • French were losing control of region
  • United States paid 78 of war
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Vietminh
  • French surrender on May 8, 1954
  • Geneva Accords
  • All fighting stopped in Indochina
  • Vietnam divided on 17 parallel
  • Vietnamese given choice of sides
  • One million move south, 100,000 move north
  • Independence of Laos and Cambodia
  • Ngo Dinh Diem in South
  • United States sent military advisors to Diem
  • Diems leadership was corrupt

Suez Canal
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arab Nationalist)
  • Resented Israel
  • Bought arms from Czechoslovakia
  • Dulles rescinded offer to finance the Aswan Dam
  • Anti-Israeli alliance between Egypt, Saudi-Arabia
    and Syria
  • Recognition of Communist China

Suez Canal, cont.
  • Soviets financed project
  • British removed from control of Suez Canal
  • British, French and Israeli forces seized canal
  • Eisenhower called for a cease fire
  • December, 1956, all nations backed off

The End of the Eisenhower Era
  • American Confidence Shaken
  • Sputnik I and II
  • Gaither Report
  • United States in grave danger
  • Executive privilege
  • Drop in Public Opinion
  • NASA

Foreign Events Plague Eisenhower
  • Eisenhower Doctrine To secure and protect the
    territorial integrity and independence of such
    nations.against overt armed aggression from any
    national control by International Communism
  • Protect Middle East
  • Blanket permission to use armed forces
  • Sent 14,000 Marines into Lebanon

Latin America
  • United States companies produced 10 of products
  • Controlled all oil in region
  • Depression and dictatorships made area unstable
    Fidel Castro ousted Fulgencio Batista in Cuba,
  • United States had great economic control
  • Castro anti-American
  • Seized 1 billion in American Industry
  • Leaned toward the Soviet Union
  • January 3, 1961 Eisenhower cut-off relations
  • Panned assassination

Khrushchev and Eisenhower
  • Better Relations
  • Khrushchev came to the U.S. in September of 1959
  • Paris Summit, May 1960
  • U2 plane shot down over Soviet Union
  • Francis Gary Powers
  • Khrushchev denounced Eisenhower

The Affluent Society
54 Thunderbird
Dimensions of Prosperity
  • Widespread Economic Prosperity
  • GNP doubled
  • Credit Cards Diners Club
  • Consumer Culture
  • Not saving
  • advertising
  • Planned Obsolescence
  • Model changes
  • Intentional poor quality
  • Five-day work week and two vacations

Nature of Work Changes
  • In 1956, white-collar jobs outnumbered blue
  • Postindustrial economy
  • Health
  • Education
  • accounting
  • Automation of factories
  • RD increased 400
  • Agribusiness
  • 600,000 small farms disappeared
  • Machinery and capital

Changes in Population
  • The Baby Boom
  • Marriage rates increase from 1944 to 1948
  • Birthrates increase
  • Advances in obstetrics
  • 3 and 4 children families increase
  • Americans on the move
  • Immigration
  • Sun belt regional migration
  • Move to the cities

Suburban America
  • Grew by 58 in the decade
  • Automobiles
  • Levittown
  • Cape Cod
  • Two bedrooms
  • Ready made
  • 7,000
  • Malls
  • Light industry

American Social Life
Two Views of the American Charter
  • Gave individuality and conform to advertising
  • Criticism of suburbia
  • Architecture is mundane
  • Greed
  • Monotony
  • Organizations
  • Little League
  • Scouts
  • Religious Revival

Women in the Suburbs
  • Men traveled great distances to work
  • Women raised children and ran the household
  • PTAs and child centered needs
  • Increase in drug and alcohol use
  • Sought careers not jobs

Problems of the Inner City
  • Less money from taxes due to suburbs
  • Jobs were gone
  • Slums
  • Housing segregation

Culture in the Fifties
Television Captures Americans Interest
  • Advertising increased
  • 9 of 10 homes had TVs
  • Movie industry was hurt by TV
  • Live TV gone
  • Spectator sports

Other Forms
  • Movies
  • Music
  • Alan Freed
  • Rock and Roll
  • Elvis Presley
  • Art and Literature
  • Abstract expressionism
  • Beatniks