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Dr Dawn Skelton PhD

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Control: exercise of upper arm. Falls risk (Brisk walking control) Beware uneven pavements! ... Exercise-only intervention 9 months ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dr Dawn Skelton PhD


1
The Role of Exercise in Falls Prevention
Dr Dawn Skelton PhD Reader in Ageing and Health,
HealthQWest, Glasgow Caledonian
University Co-ordinator of Prevention of
Falls Network Europe, University of Manchester
2
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3
Falls in the UK
  • 11 million people aged gt 65 yrs
  • 28,000 women aged gt 90 yrs
  • Fractures costs 1.8 billion
  • 1 Hip Fracture every 10 mins
  • Cost 12-15K
  • 1 Wrist Fracture every 9 mins
  • Cost 500
  • Changing site of fracture gtage
  • 500 admitted to Hospital every day
  • 33 never go home

Bandolier and Annual European Home and Leisure
Accident Surveillance Survey (EHLASS) Report UK
2000
4
Studies assessing fall risk factors per se
Rubenstein Josephson 2002
Individual risk factors 16 controlled studies
Summary of 12 major studies of fall causes
  • Accident /Environment 31
  • Gait /Balance /Weakness 17
  • Dizziness vertigo 13
  • Drop attacks 9
  • Confusion 5
  • Postural hypotension 3
  • Visual disorder 2
  • Syncope 0.3
  • Other 15
  • Unknown 5
  • Weakness 11/11
  • Balance deficit 9/9
  • Mobility limitation 9/9
  • Gait deficit 8/9
  • Visual deficit 5/9
  • Cognitive impairment 4/8
  • Impaired ADL 5/9
  • Postural hypotension 2/7

5
Time Disease - Disuse
EVEN HEALTHY OLDER PEOPLE LOSE...
  • Strength
  • Power
  • Bone density
  • Balance
  • Stamina
  • Flexibility
  • Cognitive Function
  • Maintenance of temperature control

Sedentary behaviour increases the loss of
performance...
6
International Consensus
  • World Health Organisation, 1996
  • regular physical activity helps to preserve
    independent living and postpone the age
    associated declines in balance and co-ordination
    that are major risk factors for falls
  • Surgeon General, USA, 1997 Sedentariness is a
    major public health issue

7
We are all trippers.but when do we become
fallers?
  • Community Dwelling gt65 years
  • Compared to non-fallers, fallers have
  • ? quadriceps and hamstring strength (NS)
  • ? ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion
    and eversion strength
  • ? lower limb explosive power
  • ? asymmetry between limbs in power and strength
  • Skelton, Kennedy, Rutherford Age Ageing 2002

8
Fear and avoidance of activity
  • Present in gt50 of fallers up to 40
    non-fallers
  • Predicts
  • decreases in physical and social activity
  • deterioration in physical functioning
  • higher risk of falling
  • Particularly common in people who cannot get up
    from the floor

9
Lessons that last a lifetime
10
Sensory Input ? Stability
  • Three main sources of input
  • Visual information
  • Vestibular information
  • Proprioceptive information

11
Falls Prevention Approaches
  • Individual Approach (high risk patients)
  • Multi-factorial (ie. Falls Clinics) Unclear
    evidence
  • Uni-factorial (ie. Exercise) Good evidence BUT
  • Population based approach (targeting communities)
  • Emerging evidence, Relative reduction in
    fall-related injuries 6 to 33
  • Most include increasing awareness and physical
    activity, medication and home hazard reviews

12
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13
Reviews of Exercise Evidence
  • 1995 Province MA et al. - J Am Med Assoc.
    2731341-1347.
  • 1999 Skelton Dinan Physio Theory
    Practice 15105-120
  • 2000 - Gardner M et al. - Br J Sports Med. 34
    7-17
  • 2001 - Skelton D - Age Ageing 30S4 33-39
  • 2002 Skelton Beyer Scand J Med Sports Sci
    131-9
  • 2004 - Chang et al. Brit Med J 328 680-687
  • Multifactorial interventions reduce risk (RR
    0.82)
  • Exercise only interventions reduce risk (RR 0.86)

14
Know what to avoid
  • Intervention Brisk walking
  • Control exercise of upper arm
  • Falls risk (Brisk walking gt control)
  • Beware uneven pavements!

Ebrahim et al. (1997)
15
Care and encouragement
  • Type of Exercise Reoccurrence of
    Vertebral Fracture
  • Back extension 16
  • Flexion (abd. curls) 89
  • Combined 53
  • No exercise 67
  • Sinaki 1987

16
Pitfalls of interventions that dont work
  • Insufficient duration
  • Insufficient intensity
  • Insufficient tailoring or specificity of training
  • Insufficient progression
  • Not enough time on feet!

17
Balance Principles
  • Changes of direction, pace and level, head
    position, weight (transference)
  • Sustained, controlled 3D moves
  • Progressively challenging tasks to improve
    gaze stabilisation
  • Obstacle courses
  • Floor work balances, crawling, rolling,
    shuffling in seated position
  • Ball games
  • Breakdown all moves into 'steps' or stages

18
Interventions that work..
Province, 1995 Group and individual balance and
strength training gt65s Wolf, 1996 Group Tai Chi
gt65s (NOT gt70s at risk, Wolf 2003) Campbell,
1997 Home-based exercise gt80s (OEP) Robertson,
2001 Home-based exercise gt65s and gt80s
(OEP) Day, 2002 Group exercise gt70s at
risk Barnett, 2003 Group exercise gt65s at
risk Lord, 2003 Group exercise gt60s retirement
village Skelton, 2005, 2008 Group Exercise gt65s
frequent fallers (FaME or PSI)
19
Tai Chi prevention of 1st fall?
  • Community Dwelling older people with mild
    deficits of strength/balance, 2x/week for 15
    weeks
  • Cut trip and fall rate by half

Wolf et al. (1996)
  • Frail older adults aged 70-97, 2 x/week for 48
    weeks
  • no significant reduction in risk of falls
  • Wolf et al. J Am Geriat Soc 2003 55 1693-1701
  • Community Dwelling older people aged 70
  • 3 x/week for 24 weeks
  • Increased Falls Self-Efficacy and Decreased
    Fear of Falling

Li et al. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2005
60P34-40
20
  • Campbell et al, BMJ, 1997
  • Robertson et al, BMJ, 2001

21
Effective Home Exercise (OEP)
  • Community Dwelling gt80 year old women
  • 1 Year duration - Physiotherapist support
  • home-based tailored progressive strength, balance
    and gait training (3x p/w)
  • 20-30 reduction in risk
  • Campbell J et al., BMJ, 1997
  • Then - Physiotherapist led nurse training
  • For over 65s cost effective
  • For over 80s saves money
  • Robertson C et al., BMJ, 2001
  • Then with Visually Impaired Older People
    - Not effective unless fully compliant
  • Campbell J et al., BMJ, 2005

22
FaME Group Exercise (PSI)
  • With evidence based activities
  • Dynamic balance training
  • Targeted resistance training
  • Targeted bone loading
  • Functional movements
  • Dynamic endurance training for balance
  • Backward chaining
  • Functional floor activities
  • Adapted Tai Chi cool down
  • Aims to
  • Increase balance
  • Increase functional capacity
  • Increase bone / muscle mass
  • Increase confidence
  • (reduce fear of falling)

Following Frequency, Intensity, Duration and
contraindication guidelines (ACSM)
23
DYNAMIC BALANCE TRAINING
24
DYNAMIC BALANCE TRAINING
25
Teaching Floor Skills
Teaching transfer skills
26
FaME managing frequent fallers
  • RCT - Women aged 65 with a history of 3 or more
    falls in previous year
  • Exercise-only intervention 9 months
  • Group exercise individually tailored, trained
    exercise instructors
  • Falls risk decreased by half RR 0.46
  • Significantly less people in exercise group had
    died, entered a nursing home or were in hospital
    after 3 years

Skelton et al. 2005
27
STRENGTH / POWER / ASYMMETRY FaME
  • Significant isometric and isokinetic improvements
    in the exercise group
  • Ankle Plantarflexion 60
  • Ankle Dorsiflexion 40
  • Ankle Inversion 25
  • Ankle Eversion 30
  • Hip Flexion 20
  • Lower Limb Power 25
  • Asymmetry reduced 15

28
FaME Bone improvements
Significant difference with time and group for
L2-L4 spine and Wards Triangle (F3.46, plt0.05).
Exercisers n32, Controls n14. Time between
visit 1 and visit 2 mean 10.9 (sd 2.7) months
Skelton et al. J.Aging Phys Act 2008, Abstract
29
Quality of Life adding life to years
  • Improvements in ALL domains of SF36 (QoL)
  • Self-reported improvements in
  • Caring skills
  • Playing with grandchildren
  • Bathing instead of showering
  • Using public transport again
  • Reduced fear
  • Increased activity outdoors
  • Confidence
  • Fallen Angels Club
  • Meet every two months in Starbucks, Oxford
    Street, London, UK!

30
Nursing Home Residents
Individually tailored GROUP exercise as part of a
multifactorial intervention (staff training,
environment modification, drug review
etc) Reduces falls - Becker et al. J Am Geriat
Soc 2003 51306-313 Improves mobility - Jensen
et al. Aging Clin Exp Res 2004 16
283-292 Reduces falls risk factors - Dyer et al.
Age Ageing 2004 33596-602
31
Nursing Home Residents 1 to 1 training
  • Whole Body Vibration vs Physical Therapy
  • 42 residents, RCT
  • 2 x/week for 6 weeks
  • Reduction in risk factors (Gait, Balance, TUG,
    QoL)
  • Bruyere O et al. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
    200586 303-307
  • 6 months training in post-menopausal women
  • Strength 15, Hip BMD 1
  • Verschueren SM et al. J Bone Miner Res 2004 19
    352-359

32
Patients in Hospital
  • Tai Chi reaching stepping transferring
    chair to chair
  • 1 physiotherapist to max 4 patients, 3 x p/w, 45
    mins.
  • 173 patients, 82 yrs, sub-acute ward
  • Halved the number of falls (participant days in
    hospital)
  • Haines et al. Clin Rehab 2007 21742-753

33
My residents are too frail?
  • Dose response curve
  • The lower the baseline level of physical
    activity, the greater the health benefit
    associated with an increase in physical activity.
    Exercise can be adapted for any medical condition
  • (Haskell 1994)
  • There would be no falls if there was no
    rehabilitation!
  • (Oliver, D 2006)

34
Confidence in instruction teaching to increase
effectiveness?
35
Provision of Effective Group Exercise
  • Physiotherapist

Postural Stability Instructor
Otago Exercise Programme Leader
  • Seniors Exercise Instructor

36
UKs FOUR EXERCISE GROUPS
REFERRAL
FALLS REHABILITATION GROUP
FaME GROUP (PSI) EXERCISE
CHAIR BASED EXERCISE GROUP
OTAGO HOME PROGRAMME
  Community Exercise for the Older Person
Sessions (Tai Chi, EXTEND, YFIT etc)
37
Service Evaluation PSI classes
  • Average age 82 years, n124
  • Average attendance 79
  • Improved functional reach (plt0.01) Timed up
    go (plt0.05)
  • Improved quality of life SF36 (plt0.05)
  • Confidence in Balance (plt0.05)
  • Timed Floor Rise (plt0.01)
  • Simey, Skelton, Dinan, Land Irwin (BMJ letter,
    2001)

I can walk upstairs now. I havent been able to
walk upstairs for four years. I do my exercises
every day at home. I know its doing me good
38
Recommendations for Exercise interventions to
reduce the risk of falls and injuries
  • Exercise works best within a multi-factorial
    intervention programme
  • Exercise should have components of balance, low
    impact aerobic and strength
  • To reduce fear, floorwork is recommended
  • To be effective the exercise must be specific,
    regular (2-3 p/w), progressive, and exceed 15
    weeks duration for those at risk of falls and 9
    months for those who are already falling regularly

39
www.profane.eu.org
40
www.helptheaged.org.uk/Health/HealthyAgeing/Falls
/_practitioners.htm
41
For information on Books, Videos and other
Resources on Falls Prevention including training
see www.laterlifetraining.co.uk
42
  • Man does not cease to play because he grows old.
    Man grows old because he ceases to play
  • George Bernard Shaw
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