Relationships Between Ecosystem and Environment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Relationships Between Ecosystem and Environment PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: acf1d-YWIxZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Relationships Between Ecosystem and Environment

Description:

6.1 Implications of Ecosystem for Humans. 6.2 Disturbance and ... Ecotourism, sport fishing, and other outdoor recreational activities ... Aquatic Succession: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:211
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: ACE592
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Relationships Between Ecosystem and Environment


1
Chapter 6
  • Relationships Between Ecosystem and Environment

2
Chapter 6
  • 6.1 Implications of Ecosystem for Humans
  • 6.2 Disturbance and Succession of Ecosystem
  • 6.3 Selection by Environment in Ecosystem
  • 6.4 Changes in Species and Ecosystem
  • 6.5 Ecological Responses to Environmental Change
  • 6.6 Human impact on Ecosystems

3
  • 6.1 Implications of Ecosystem for Humans
  • Forest biomes provide us with 3.3 billion
    cubic meters of wood annually for fuel, building
    material, and paper. Some 15 of the world's
    energy consumption is derived directly from plant
    material. We have converted almost 11 of
    Earth's land area from forest and grassland
    biomes to agricultural systems.

4
Figure 6.1 Conversion of grain to protein
5
Figure 6.2 One-directional nutrient flow in
human society
6
6.1.1 Ecosystem services and functions
7
(No Transcript)
8
(No Transcript)
9
(No Transcript)
10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
(No Transcript)
13
6.1.2 Ecosystem Management 1.clear operational
goals 2.sound ecological models and
understanding, 3.understanding of complexity and
interconnectedness 4.recognition of the dynamic
character of ecosystems
14
5.attention to context and scale 6.acknowledgment
of ignorance and uncertainty 7.commitment to
adaptability and accountability 8.acknowledgment
of humans as ecosystem components
15
6.2 Disturbance and Succession of Ecosystem
A stage of equilibrium which there is a dynamic
balance between all species and the physical
environment. This final state is referred to as a
climax ecosystem
16
  • 6.2.1 Ecological Succession
  • Primary Succession
  • If the area has not been occupied previously,
    the process of initial invasion and then
    progression from one biotic community to the next

17
  • Secondary Succession
  • When an area has been cleared by fire or
    artificial means and then left alone, the
    surrounding ecosystem may gradually reinvade the
    area through a series of distinct stages

18
  • Aquatic Succession
  • as lakes or ponds are gradually filled and
    taken over by the surrounding terrestrial
    ecosystem
  • Ecosystems that depend on the recurrence of fire
    to maintain the existing balance are now referred
    to as fire climax ecosystems

19
6.3 Selection by Environment in Ecosystem 6.3.1
Selection
  • Gene pool
  • All DNA sample from every individual of a
    species
  • The genetic differences that exist among
    individuals as genetic variation in the
    population

20
  • Some individuals reproducing more than others, a
    phenomenon called differential reproduction
  • A change in the gene pool of a species over the
    course of generations is the essence of
    biological evolution

21
  • The process is an arbitrary selection based on
    the breeder's choice and the breed is carefully
    maintained distinct from other breeds, we refer
    to it as artificial selection

22
  • A modification of the species' gene pool
    toward features that enhance survival and
    reproduction within the existing biotic community
    and environment. Since the process occurs
    naturally, it is known as natural selection

23
  • 6.3.2 Adaptations to the Environment
  • The phrase "survival of the fittest" from The
    Origin of Species by Natural Selection (Charles
    Darwin,1859).
  • Adaptations for coping with climatic and other
    abiotic factors

24
  • Adaptations for obtaining food and water in the
    case of animals, and nutrients, energy, and water
    in the case of plants.
  • Adaptations for escaping from or protecting
    against predation and for resistance to
    disease-causing or parasitic organisms

25
  • Adaptations for reproduction to find or attract
    mates in animal populations and for pollination
    and setting seed in plant populations
  • Adaptations for migration in the case of animals,
    and dispersal of seeds in the case of plants

26
Figure 6.3 Adaptation for survival and
reproduction.
27
6.4 Changes in Species and Ecosystem
  • AdaptationThe population of survivors may
    gradually adapt to the new condition(s) through
    natural selection
  • MigrationSurviving populations may migrate and
    find an area where conditions are suitable
  • ExtinctionFailing the first two possibilities,
    extinction is inevitable

28
Four key variables affect survive
1.geographical distribution 2.specialization to a
given habitat and/or food supply 3.genetic
variation within the gene pool of the
species 4.size of the organism
29
Figure 6.4 Vulnerability of different
organisms to environmental changes.
30
6.6 Human Impact on Ecosystems
  • Tampering with Abiotic Factors
  • Tampering with Biotic Factors
About PowerShow.com