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HS4331 International Health Theory


Student University Network for Social and International Health ... 10th Annual National Conference. Global Health: At Home and Abroad. October 24-25, 2008 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HS4331 International Health Theory

HS4331 International Health Theory
  • Oct 6, 2008 - The Nature of Foreign Aid.

Educate Engage ConnectStudent University
Network for Social and International
HealthRéseau d'étudiants universitaires pour la
santé sociale et internationale 10th Annual
National ConferenceGlobal Health At Home and
AbroadOctober 24-25, 2008 University of
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • Join our student speakers and community-based
    experts for lectures, discussions, and
    skill-building workshops on the following topics
  • Social Determinants of Health Global Health
    Ethics Advocacy Microfinance Access to
    Essential Medicines Immigrant
  • Refugee Health Homeless Poverty
  • Friday Night- Movie Fundraiser Ubuntu Project
  • Angels in the Dust and Ubuntu Bracelet Fundraiser
  • Saturday- Panels and Sessions
  • See our website for further details!
  • Registration Cost 25
  • general_at_sunsih.ca www.sunsih.ca

  • Two kinds of foreign aid
  • Humanitarian aid primarily for emergency relief
  • Development aid aims to create long term
    improvement in
  • Health
  • Economic wealth
  • Other indicators of development
  • Eg, human rights
  • Eg, education levels
  • Eg, government stability

  • Two distribution models
  • Bilateral aid given by the government of one
    country directly to another.
  • Multilateral aid given from the government of a
    country to an international agency.

Note The term aid is misleading, because
almost all the World Bank and IMF aid is in the
form of loans
  • ODA Official Development Assistance
  • Its what we usually mean by official foreign aid
  • GDP Gross Domestic Product
  • total market value of all final goods and
    services produced in a country in a year
  • Traditional way to measure the size of an economy
  • GNI Gross National Income
  • GDP income received from abroad, e.g.
    investment interest similar payments made to
    other countries

Other (Debatable) Aid Categories
  • Private aid
  • Money given by private citizens to charities,
    which then effect aid
  • Remittances
  • Money sent home by foreign workers
  • World Bank estimates 1.2 billion transferred to
    developing world via remittances in 2004

-IMF thinks this may have neg. effect on
economies -remittances used by private families,
not countries
-free of government political agenda -may reflect
personal agendas (eg religious)
Specific Types of Aid
  • Project aid given for a specific purpose e.g.
    building materials for a new school.
  • Programme aid given for a specific sector e.g.
    funding of the education or health sector of a
  • Budget support A form of Programme Aid that is
    directly channelled into the financial system
  • Sectorwide Approaches (SWAPs) A combination of
    Project aid and Programme aid/Budget Support e.g.
    support for the education sector in a country
    will include both funding of education projects
    (like school buildings) and provide funds to
    maintain them (like school books).
  • Food aid Food is given to countries in urgent
    need of food supplies, especially if they have
    just experienced a natural disaster.
  • United Aid The country receiving the aid can
    spend the money as they chose.
  • Tied Aid The aid is used by the country donating
    it to build infrastructure, purchase goods etc.
  • Technical assistance Educated personnel, such as
    doctors are moved into developing countries to
    assist with a program of development. Can be both
    programme and project aid.
  • Emergency aid This is given to countries in the
    event of a natural disaster or human event, like
    war, and includes basic food supplies, clothing
    and shelter.

Humanitarian Aid
  • Humanitarian aid is material or logistical
    assistance provided for humanitarian purposes,
    typically in response to humanitarian crises
  • The primary objectives of humanitarian aid are to
    save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain
    human dignity.
  • (c.f. development aid, which seeks to address the
    conditions that may have brought about the crisis)

Humanitarian Aid
  • The Sphere Project was launched in 1997 to define
    a minimum set of standards for humanitarian
  • Care International
  • Caritas Internationalis
  • International Committee of the Red Cross
  • International Federation of the Red Cross
  • Oxfam
  • MSF
  • Etc

Humanitarian Aid
  • Sphere Project
  • produced the handbook, Humanitarian Charter and
    Minimum Standards in Disaster Response
  • Download it from here www.sphereproject.org
  • Decided upon 3 fundamental principles of
    humanitarian assistance
  • The right to life with dignity
  • The distinction between combatant and
  • The principle of non-refoulement

Humanitarian Aid
  • Sphere Project
  • non-refoulement
  • A principle in international law specifically
    refugee law which concerns the protection of
    refugees from being returned to places where
    their lives or freedoms could be threatened.
  • Not the same as political asylum, which is the
    idea of protecting individuals with proven
    threats to their safety rather, it involves
    large populations, generally in war zones or
    after disasters
  • Essentially, it forbids the repatriation of
    people to a place where they will again be
    subjected to persecution

Development Aid
  • Origins
  • Harry Truman, at end of WWII ...In addition, we
    will provide military advice and equipment to
    free nations which will cooperate with us in the
    maintenance of peace and security. Fourth, we
    must embark on a bold new program for making the
    benefits of our scientific advances and
    industrial progress available for the improvement
    and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than
    half the people of the world are living in
    conditions approaching misery. Their food is
    inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their
    economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their
    poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them
    and to more prosperous areas. For the first time
    in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and
    skill to relieve the suffering of these people.

The previous speech was given at the founding of
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). What
does this suggest?
Aid is often linked to other foreign policy
agendas, including security
Lets not forget
  • Canadas 1 recipient of foreign aid is

The USAs 1 recipient of foreign aid is
Criticism of Aid
  • Criticisms of intent
  • Aid is seldom given for reasons of pure altruism
  • Often given as a means of supporting an ally
  • Often given as a means of influencing the
    political process in a recipient country
  • Aid by capitalistic organizations, like the World
    Bank and IMF, seen as only meant to open up new
    markets for Northern countries

Criticism of Aid
  • Criticism of effectiveness
  • Much foreign aid is stolen by corrupt
    bureaucrats in recipient country
  • Much foreign aid is stolen by corrupt
    bureaucrats in donor country
  • Too much aid is absorbed by administration in
    donor country
  • No evaluation process, so we dont know what
    good were actually doing
  • Are we getting enough bang for our buck?

More Criticism of Aid
  • Ideology
  • Many aid programmes are ideologically driven, and
    not scientifically based
  • Focus on faith-based interventions
  • Focus on free market economics
  • Debt
  • Because so much aid is given in the form of debt,
    it actually causes more damage in the long term
    by increasing the indebtedness of recipient

Example of Agenda-Stricken Aid
  • The Marshall Plan

-post WWII (1947) -named for US Secretary of
State George Marshall -plan for the US to fund
the rebuilding of Europe, to make her profitable
and better able to fend off Communism in the
future -resulted in a very strong and wealthy
Western Europe
Criticism -not altruistic, but an attempt to
gain control over Western Europe, as the Soviets
gained control over Eastern Europe -not
effective, since nations with biggest investments
(Britain, Sweden, Greece) saw least growth, while
those with smallest investments (Austria) saw
most growth
More Criticism of Aid
  • James Shikwati (Kenyan economist)
  • Aid is ultimately damaging since in almost all
    cases of bilateral aid, the money is given to
    corrupt leaders to disburse, resulting in skewed
    distribution and damage to the local economy
  • Aid used by (African) politicians to manipulate
    people and influence votes
  • Food aid dumped at low cost on peasants, killing
    the indigenous food industry
  • Libertarian
  • Believes more trade is best way to alleviate

Opposing View
  • Jeffery Sachs (American economist)
  • Africas governance is poor because Africa is
  • 2005 report (hwww.unmillenniumproject.org/reports/
  • Calls for increased development aid
  • Calls for reallocation of aid priorities
  • Essentially opposite view to Shikwatis that we
    need to overwhelm poverty with serious aid
  • Read interview with him here www.motherjones.com/

Opposing View To The Opposing View
  • William Easterly (another American economist)
  • Read his response to Sachs plan here
  • www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A25562-200
  • Read his on-going correspondence war with Sachs
  • www.nyu.edu/fas/institute/dri/Easterly/SachsDebat
  • Poverty never has been ended and never will be
    ended by foreign experts or foreign aid. Poverty
    will end as it has ended everywhere else, by home
    grown political, economic, and social reformers
    and entrepreneurs that unleash the power of
    democracy and free markets.

Why Do We Have Aid?
  • Is it for altruistic purposes?
  • We want to do good in the world
  • Is it for strategic purposes?
  • We want to develop foreign markets for our
  • We want to bribe foreign governments to obey our
  • Reward our friends, punish our enemies
  • Prevent the creation of refugees, terrorists,
  • Is it for image purposes?
  • No one wants to look cheap
  • Is it for domestic purposes?
  • International development is a multimillion
    dollar industry
  • Keep highly paid consulting firms in business

Foreign Aid per capita, 2007 (from
nationmaster.com) -government aid only
Foreign Aid per GDP, 2007 (from
nationmaster.com) -government aid only
  • In 1969, Prime Minister Lester Pearson wrote a
    report for the World Bank called Partners in
  • Recommended that all developed nations should
    give 0.7 of GNI as foreign aid (ODA)
  • In 1970, the UN passed a resolution under which
    almost all developed nations agreed to the 0.7

0.7 contd
  • By 2005, the average committed nation was
    donating 0.47 of GNI
  • Canada was donating 0.34
  • Canadas highest donation was in 1975, when we
    gave 0.53
  • Countries who have met their commitments
  • Denmark (0.85)
  • Luxembourg (0.83)
  • Netherlands (0.73)
  • Norway (0.87)
  • Sweden (0.78)

From www.tbs-sct.gc.ca
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