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Introduction to the German System of Higher Education Wedigo de Vivanco Freie Universitt Berlin


Approx. 34% of an age group go to college. October 29, 2007. Dr. ... Medicine. Fine Art and Music. Agriculture and Food. Sport. Veterinary Medicine. 610.836 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the German System of Higher Education Wedigo de Vivanco Freie Universitt Berlin

Introduction to the German System of Higher
EducationWedigo de VivancoFreie Universität
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Higher Education Framework ActHochschulrahmenges
  • education is in the area of responsibility of the
    Länder (federal states) governments
  • 16 Länder in Germany, 16 different education and
    higher education acts
  • a coordinating body Kultusministerkonferenz
    (KMK) secures mobility within Germany
  • the Hochschulrahmengesetz defines minimal
    standards binding for all states admission,
    tuition (free, not anymore), academic career

Statistics Institutions 2007
  • 383 Institutions of Higher Education
  • 124 Universities
  • 53 Music and Fine Arts Schools
  • 206 Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied
  • about 100 are private institutions financed by
  • 50 confessional, mostly training social workers
  • 50 private industry, mostly business schools

Statistics Students 2006/2007 1
  • 1.979.445 students
  • 1.377.444 Universities
  • 31.100 Music and Fine Arts Schools
  • 541.924 Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied
  • 295.091 Freshmen in 2006
  • Approx. 34 of an age group go to college

Statistics Students 2006/2007 2
  • 1.733.076 German Students
  • 1.197.930 at Universities
  • 22.636 at Music and Fine Arts Schools
  • 483.741 at Fachhochschulen (Universities of
    Applied Science)
  • 246.369 International Students
  • 179.514 at Universities
  • 8.464 at Music and Fine Arts Schools
  • 58.183 at Fachhochschulen (Universities of
    Applied Science)

Statistics Students 2006/2007 3
  • Social Sciences
  • Humanities
  • Math and Science
  • Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Fine Art and Music
  • Agriculture and Food
  • Sport
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • 610.836
  • 419.540
  • 358.541
  • 321.899
  • 111.202
  • 79.516
  • 40.013
  • 29.135
  • 7.794

Statistics Degrees 2006
  • 265.704 Awarded Degrees (25.971
    Foreigners)134.069 Women 50,46
  • 132.727 Diplom, Magister, BA/MA (17.448)
  • 26.451 Teacher Qualification (Staatsexamen) (473)
  • 82.239 Diplom Fachhochschulen (4.785)
  • 24.287 PhDs (3.266)
  • in 2001 1.097 Bachelor and Master Degrees (0,6)
    in 2003 11.491 Bachelor and Master Degrees
    (5,5)in 2006 26.318 Bachelor and Master
    Degrees (9,9)

Sovietization of Higher Education
  • growing tendency to separate research and
    teaching as it was organized in the USSR
  • most research funding goes to institutions such
    as Max Planck Gesellschaft, Fraunhofer
    Gesellschaft, Leibnitz Gesellschaft, Helmholtz
    Gesellschaft etc.
  • universities are overloaded with teaching and
    find less and less time to do research farewell
    to the Humboldt idea
  • BMBF funding 4.9 Bill. go to research
    institutions, 0.55 Bill. to university research
  • in the USA approx. 80 of the research is done
    within universities Humboldt is thriving

The Bologna Process
  • Signatory states of the Bologna Declaration (45
    by now) agreed to introduce
  • a two tiered system BA / MA
  • modularization of the curriculum
  • an European Credit Point System
  • accumulative grades GPA
  • quality control by accreditation
  • European wide introduction by 2010

The Bologna Process in Germany
  • Spring 2006 36 of the study programs have been
    altered into BA/MA programs
  • i.e. 2.317 BA/B.Sc
  • 1.319 at the University level (26 Arts)
  • 972 at the Fachhochschulen level
  • i.e. 1.777MA/M.Sc
  • 1.098 at the University level (23 Arts)
  • 656 at the Fachhochschule level
  • only 1.261(30,8 ) of 4.094 BA/MA programs are

BA/MA in SS 2006
Student Total and Students in BA/MA Programs 1999
- 2006
BA/MA by Federal States SS 2007
Ranking of German Institutions
  • up to 1990 the common opinion was that all
    universities are equally qualified
  • then major German magazines such as Der Spiegel,
    Stern,Die Zeit, Focus publish annual ranking
    lists with different approaches
  • there was a tendency to rank the students
  • Der Stern/CHE now Die Zeit/CHE did not rank
    institutions but programs. Generally accepted as

Women in Academia
  • 27 of the full time teachers are female
  • 40 women in academia are childless
  • more women than men qualify for access to higher
  • more women than men start as students
  • more women than men achieve a degree
  • much less women achieve a Ph.D. degree
  • only a few achieve the Habilitation (second book)

  • until recently admission to higher education
    depended on the High School GPA only
  • exceptions are made at the Music and Fine Arts
    Schools as well as some Fachhochschulen
  • at present 60 of the students can be selected on
    grounds of additional criteria such as
    interviews, tests
  • in the future up to 90 shall be admitted
    according to university rules interviews, test

Admission of International Students
  • Foundation of ASSIST to outsource admission
  • strict language requirements i.e. DSH or TestDaF
    precondition for admission
  • there is an increasing number of courses taught
    in English

Student Housing
  • universities do not offer housing
  • 12.7 of all students are provided with student
    housing by the Studentenwerk
  • international students occupy approx. 12 of the
    publicly funded housing
  • in Berlin approx. 40 of international students
    and only 6 German students rent Studentenwerk

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The Excellence Initiative
  • The Excellence initiative by the German federal
    and state governments to promote science and
    research at German Universities
  • Some facts in short
  • Goals of the 3 funding lines
  • To promote 40 Graduate Schools (PhD Programs)
  • To promote 30 Clusters of Excellence
  • To identify approx. 10 Elite Universities in
  • The Excellence initiative in general
  • 2 funding periods 2005/2006
  • 2006/2007

The Excellence Initiative
  • 6 stages for each funding Period
  • Letters of intent of the universities
  • 3 months later draft (25 pages)
  • 4 months later first decision of the board of
    the national foundation on the basis of
    international panels 1/3 of the drafts will be
    encouraged for application
  • 3 months later delivery of the main application
    by the universities (75-120 pages)
  • 2 months later Site visits
  • 3 months later Decision by board (see above)
    consisting of 37 scientists and 32 politicians

Freie Universität Berlin An International
Network University
  • First decision in the Excellence
    initiativeFreie Universität Berlin has been
    asked for application in each of the 3 funding
  • Graduate School (PhD Program) North American
  • Cluster of Excellence Governance in a Globalized
  • Institutional Strategy to promote top-level
    research Freie Universität Berlin An
    International Network University

Freie Universität Berlin An International
Network University
  • Freie Universität proposes an integrated model of
    three centers
  • The Center for Cluster Development
  • the analysis of tendencies of development in
    various disciplines
  • the rigorous and regular self-evaluation of
    research at the Freie Universität
  • the creation of potential cluster groups

Freie Universität Berlin An International
Network University
  • The Center for Graduate Studies (Dahlem Research
  • Introduction of course work for Ph. D. Students
  • Very selective admission to Graduate School
  • Provision of scholarships for PhD students in the
    Graduate School
  • The Center for International Exchange
  • hosting high profile scientific and scholarly
    events and publicizing the work of the Freie
    Universität and its excellence clusters
  • attracting young scientists and scholars and
    motivate them to study at the Freie Universität
    and recruiting highly qualified scientists and
  • opening or expanding branch offices in Moscow,
    New York, Beijing, Seoul Abu Dhabi, Sao Paulo and
    New Delhi

Freie Universität Berlin An International
Network University
  • Thus the three centers complement each other
  • the Center for Cluster Development generates
    research topics and assembles research teams
    which are reflected in the PhD study programs of
    the Dahlem Research School, while the Center for
    International Exchange works as the international
    facilitator for the other two centers through
    recruiting excellent students and top scholars
    and scientists as well as publicizing the
    scientific achievement of the FU.