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PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION

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Title: PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION


1
.
  • PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION
  • Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of
    the
  • WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

SCHOOLS AS ENGINE FOR DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH, A
NEW WAY TO PROMOTE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WITHIN
THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF
HEALTH FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE MDGs Dr.
Sofialeticia Morales Senior Advisor Millennium
Development Goals Team Leader Education and
Health Unit of Health Determinants and Public
Policies
2
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
HIGHEST LEVEL POLITICAL CONSENSUS ON MEASURES TO
COMBAT POVERTY
1
WHY ARE THE MDGs IMPORTANT?
2
HEALTH OCCUPIES A CENTRAL PLACE OF IMPORTANCE FOR
DEVELOPMENT
  • Commitment to Action
  • Consolidate progress, resolve problems
  • Position health as a top public priority
  • Reduce inequities
  • Respond to national and regional needs
  • Inequity and Poverty
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Environmental Protection

GOALS, TARGETS AND INDICATORS ARE QUANTIFIABLE
AND AMBITIOUS / MEASURE THE PROGRESS AND DEMAND
PROGRESS
3
IT IS POSSIBLE TO CALCULATE THE COST OF ACHIEVING
THEM, WHAT IS AVAILABLE VERSUS
WHAT IS NECESSARY
4
GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT EMPHASIZES
HUMAN SECURITY AND GLOBAL PROSPERITY SAFETY AND
WORLD PROPOSPERITY
5
3
The Millennium Development Goals
  • A set targets indicators bound by a specific
    time frame for completion (1990 2015)
  • A synergic and indivisible unit that requires
    intersectorial action for their completion

4
PAHOs STAND ON THE MDGs
  • Highlight the challenge of inequity in the
    worlds most inequitable region.
  • Go beyond advocacy and monitoring to become
    directly involved on interventions at the
    municipal level.
  • Carry out a regional mapping exercises of the
    most vulnerable municipalities, based on MDG
    related local level indicators derived from
    National Censuses and Population.
    (ECLAC/CELADE/PAHO Agreement)
  • Consider the social, economic, political,
    environmental and cultural determinants and
    their impact on health.
  • Analyze and respond to the multi-dimensionality
    and multi-causality of the poverty particularly.
  • Work at the municipal level to work on all the
    MDGs respecting their indivisibility and synergy.
  • Launch the initiative Faces and Places of the
    MDGs

5
The Social Determinants, Health Promotion and the
MDGs
The social determinants refer to the social
conditions in which people live, study, work,
and develop The MDGs recognize the
interdependence of health and social conditions,
and offer an opportunity to develop health
policies that address the social roots of
avoidable human suffering arising from unjust
social conditions.
6
HEALTH PROMOTION PROTECTING RISK FACTORS
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
SCHOOLS ENGINES FOR DEVELOPMENT
  • SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

TWO WAY INTERACTION WITH THE MUNICIPALITY
7
THE SOCIAL NATURE OF HEALTH
Health is not exclusively a bio-natural
occurrence related to the individual, but the
result of complex and changing relations and
interactions between biological, individual,
environmental, and living conditions of economic,
environmental, cultural, and political order.
We get sick and we die in relation to the way we
live, eat, reproduce, work, relate to others,
educate, develop our capacities and face ours
limitations . This is the focus of SOCIAL
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
8
Declaration on the New Orientations for Primary
Health Care (Declaration of Montevideo)
  • Commitment to facilitate social inclusion and
    equity in health.
  • Recognition of critical roles of both the
    individual and community in the development of
    PHC-based systems.
  • Orientation toward health promotion and
    comprehensive and integrated care.
  • Development of intersectoral work.

9
Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas
  • Principles
  • Responsiveness to peoples health needs.
  • Quality oriented
  • Government accountability
  • Sustainability
  • Participation
  • Intersectoriality
  • Values
  • Right to the highest attainable
    level of health
  • Equity
  • Solidarity

10
The Causes of the Causes
SOCIAL CONTEXT
CULTURE, RELIGION, SOCIAL SYSTEM HUMAN RIGHTS,
LABOUR MARKET, EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS
PRODUCE SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND INCLUDE
TRADITIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS EDUCATION AND INCOME,
AS WELL AS GENDER, ETHNIC ORIGIN AND SEXULITY
HEALTH PROMOTION
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
SOCIAL PROTECTION
HEALTH SYSTEMS
GLOBALIZATION
INTERMIDIATE DETERMINANTS
ARISE FROM THE CONFIGURATION OF THE SOCIAL
ESTRATIFICATION AND DETERMINE THE DIFFERENCES OF
EXPOSITION AND VULNERABILITY TO THE CONDITIONS
UNHEALTHY CONDITIONS
BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES HEALTH/ILLNESS
11
Determinants of Health and the Millennium
Development Goals
12
DETERMINANTES SOCIALES DE LA SALUD Y SU IMPACTO
EN LA ESCUELA Y EN LA COMUNIDAD
  • Access to education and health services
  • Social Security and Protection Programs
  • Health and Education as a right

ECONOMIC
POLITICAL
  • Bad Quality Education
  • Bad Quality Health Services
  • Morbidity and Mortality
  • Materno-Adolescent Mortality

POVERTY MARGINATION MINIUMUM WAGE INCOME
COMPENSATIONS
COMMITMENT TO HEALTH, SOCIAL POLICYL,
LAWS REGULATIONS
FACES, VOICES PLACES SCHOOLS
SOCIALES Y CULTURALES
AMBIENTALES
  • Discrimination
  • Obesity
  • Prevention Culture
  • Stress
  • Sedentarism
  • Cardio Vascular and metobolic pathologies
  • Violence

STRATIFICATION FACTORS ETHNIC GROUP, GENDER,
SEXUAL ORIENTATION. HEALTH HABITS PERCEPTIONS
HEALTH/ ILLNESS
AIR AND WATER QUALITY SANITATION CHEMICAL
SUBSTANCES CONTAMINATION OZONE LAYER
DEPLETION, CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Poor basic sanitation
  • Parasites
  • Enfermedades infecciosas
  • Respiratory Infections
  • Diahreal Diseases
  • Malaria, Dengue
  • Skin Cancer
  • Lead Poisoning

13
SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND
EDUCATIONDiagnosis and Context
  • ECONOMIC
  • To what socioeconomic group the students belong
    to?
  • What economic problems have and how these affect
    their education and health?
  • SOCIAL
  • Are their parents are illiterate or university
    graduates?
  • Do they have access to culture at home?
  • CULTURAL
  • What is the value that their culture assigns to
    the education and health?
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • Where is the school located?
  • What are the environmental problems in the
    municipality?
  • How do these problems affect their health?

14
Quality Education and teaching capacities for life
Skills for Life
15
What is the role of Schools in community
development?
School Engines for Development play a key role
in community transformation.
  • They promote health through knowledge,
    understanding, and re-assessing the students
    immediate context.
  • The educational community is certain of the
    context where its everyday life takes place and
    can describe it by identifying the social
    determinants of health and analyzing how these
    social determinants play a key role in school
    life
  • An initial analysis takes place from the school
    and about the school to identify the interplay of
    the school and community and how its location
    limits or promotes educational quality and the
    school as motor for community transformation
    beyond classroom walls.

16
What is the role of Schools in development,
health promotion and addressing the determinants
  • The initial context analysis exercises is
    endogenous and centered around the school and
    mindful of the elements that promote or limit the
    provision of quality education.  
  • The secondary level analysis is exogenous in
    nature and centered on the municipality as a
    geographical, jurisdictional and political
    entity. The analysis is based on the history, its
    peculiarities, and its cycles sources of
    employment, economy, politics, and environment

17
SCHOOLS AS AN ENGINE FOR DEVELOPMENT
Human Development
Sustainable / Equitable
Millennium Development Goals
other relevant national agendas
Health Promotion,
Renewed Primary Health Care
Classroom gt School gt Family gt Comunity gt
Municipality gt
TARGET Children, Teenagers, Young Adults,
Social Determinants of Health
18
The Pedagogy of Development
  • Schools and Engines for Development base their
    strength in the pedagogy of development that has
    as its axiological foundation the value of human
    life as a fundamental right.
  • Takes on the paradigm of Education for Freedom,
    where education occurs through dialogue. This
    approach requires the development of alternatives
    and critical visions. Where the analysis of
    various points of view is essential for
    evaluating, transforming conceptions, attitudes,
    substantiate beliefs, and worldviews.   

19
The Pedagogy for Development and Education
  • The pedagogy of the development in the classroom
    where the educational act allows the
    transformation of the students understanding of
    communitys reality through dialogue and an
    analysis of the problems being faced.
  • The pedagogy of the development in the school
    implies a collegiate action that leads the
    students and the educator to develop a school
    project that involves the whole school.
  • Learning will take place by doing and the
    transformation of an aspect of the school.
  • The pedagogy of the development in the community
    through an action of co responsibility between
    the educational community and the key actors of
    the community.

20
Schools Engines for Development and Health
  • Arises from the analysis of the social
    determinants of health and aims advancing toward
    the achievement the Millennium Development Goals
    and other pertinent agendas with the
    understanding that schools are the engine for
    development.
  • The commitment implies first creating or
    consolidating the national, provincial and local
    networks of schools and later to promote the
    international networks.
  • The national Networks become solid foundations
    for the sharing of experiences, success stories
    and challenges in making that schools become
    promoters of development. It is necessary to
    link the schools with the first level of care
    within the framework of Primary Health Care to
    ensure that the local development is consolidated
    through the partnerships between schools and
    health services.

21
SUPPORTING TECHNICAL PARTNERSHIPS
EDUCATION
  • Health Promoting Schools(1995),
  • Programs Responding to Violence in Schools
    settings
  • HIV/AIDS prevention


Social Protection and Education Workers Health
UNESCO/OREALC/ PAHO/ILO Health and Occupational
Health Virtual Network
Educational Environments Healthy and Violence
Free Network of Healthy Environment For Children
LABOR
ENVIRONMENT
Health Promotion and Prevention Primary Health
Care Provision of Health Services Training and
Education Strategies
HEALTH
22
Other methods to promote health within the
framework of the determinants
  • The promising introduction of programs that
    combine financial assistance with the human
    resources development and the improvement of
    health and living conditions
  • Bolsa Familia - Brasil
  • Oportunidades - México
  • Chile Solidario/ Chile Puente
  • Barrio Adentro - Venezuela
  • Familias en Acción - Colombia
  • Bono de Salud - Bolivia
  • Beca escolar - Ecuador
  • Programa de Asignación Escolar - Honduras
  • Bono Alimentario y Escolar -Nicaragua.
  • Red de solidaridad y oportunidades - El Salvador
  • Plan Familia - Argentina

23
EMPHASIS
EQUITY IN THE RESPONSE TO THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS Education with gender and intercultural perspective
SCHOOLS ENGINES FOR DEVELOPMENT IN RELATION TO THE SCHOOL PROYECT AND THE MUNICIPALITY TO ADVANCE THE MDGs
THE PEDADOGY OF DEVELOPMENT

CAPACITIES FOR LIFE AS A TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

AND EDUCATIONS 4 DIMENSIONS LEARNING TO BE, LEARNING TO KNOW, LEARNING TO DO, AND LEARNING TO CO-EXIST
IN TERMS OF LEVELS THE EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON INITIAL EDUCATION, PRE-SCHOOL, PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND VOCATIONAL OR TECHNICAL. THE ROLE OF HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT PROMOTING UNIVERSITIES
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