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13.2 Information Systems and Organisations


Understand the difference between an information system and a data processing system. ... How many extra staff do we hire for the Xmas period? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 13.2 Information Systems and Organisations

13.2 Information Systems and Organisations
  • www.ICT-Teacher.com

  • Understand the difference between an information
    system and a data processing system.
  • Understand the role and relevance of an
    information system in aiding decision making.
  • Definition of a MIS
  • Recall that an MIS is a system to convert data
    from internal and external sources into
    information. This is communicated in an
    appropriate form to managers at different levels,
    enabling them to make effective decisions for
    planning, directing and controlling activities
    for which they are responsible.

  • The development and life cycle of a MIS.
  • Recognise the existence of formal methods, the
    need for clear time scales, agreed deliverables
    and approval to proceed.
  • Success of failure of a MIS.
  • Understand the factors influencing the success or
    failure of an information system, e.g. inadequate
    analysis lack of management involvement in
    design emphasis on computer system
    concentration on low-level data processing lack
    of management knowledge of ICT systems and
    capabilities inappropriate/excessive management
    demands lack of teamwork lack of professional

Information System
  • A geographic information system designed to
    function as a Shoreline Management and Resources
    Tool was developed to produce a map-based
    presentation of Shoreline Erosion Monitoring
    Program (SEMP) data, collected by the Niagara
    Peninsula Conservation Authority.

Data Processing System
  • Records the daily transactions of an
    organisation, i.e. orders, deliveries, sales,
    payments, enquiries, purchasing etc.
  • All the above is operational data which an
    organisation needs to be able to continue in
  • Staff at the operation level in the
    organisations structure will deal with this data.

Data Processing System
What does a manager do?
  • There may be many managers in an organisation all
    managing different things at different levels.
  • A Junior manager may deal with management at an
    operational level.
  • A Middle manager may deal with decisions that
    involve their own area.
  • A Senior manager may deal with strategic matters
    and whole organisation decisions.

  • Managers make decisions using the information
    available to them at the time.
  • The functions of a manager are
  • Planning
  • Organisation
  • Coordinating
  • Decision making
  • Controlling

  • Two types of management decision
  • Structured
  • Repetitive, routine, procedure have been agreed
    to deal with them.
  • Unstructured
  • Judgement, insight and evaluation is necessary to
    deal with them.
  • These are usually important decisions that affect
    the future of the organisation, there are no set

Structured or Unstructured
  • In which town will the new branch be located?
  • How many extra staff do we hire for the Xmas
  • What can be done about an employee who has had
    too many sick days off after being warned about
    their attendance.
  • Should the stores adopt their own store card?

Information System
  • Allow managers to make effective and timely
  • An information system will supply the manager
    information from which to base their decision on.
  • These are known as Management Information Systems

Management Information Systems
Role of a MIS
  • To convert data from internal and external
    sources into information that can be use by
    managers to make effective decisions.
  • Information systems are designed primarily for
    the day-to-day operational decisions, there may
    be many in an organisation.
  • They are also used for tactical and strategic

Role of a Management Information System
Internal Data
Query Responses
External Data
Expert System Advice
Management Information System
Operational Systems
  • Provide the information and answers to routine
    events for the effective running of the
  • By reports daily, weekly, monthly, annually.
  • By on screen display.
  • Results may be displayed statistically.

MIS Should be..
  • Flexible for different ways of analysing data,
    and evaluating information.
  • Range of skills and knowledge catered for.
  • Assist the operational process through
    communication between staff.
  • Easy to extract the relevant information, it is
    presented in an appropriate way.

Development Lifecycle of an Information System
Defining the objectives and scope of the
management information system.
A detailed systems analysis.
The production of a detailed specification.
Choosing the software, then the hardware that
will run it.
  • Formal methods

Implementation of the system
Maintenance and review.
  • 1. Defining the objectives and scope of the
    management information system.
  • What are we attempting to achieve with the
  • What is the scope?

  • 2. A detailed systems analysis.
  • Examine what needs to be achieved, can it be
    done, what are the constraints?
  • Current system analysed, users asked what they
    require from the new system.
  • A list of requirements are collected and used as
    a guide for the design.
  • The new system is designed to the detailed
    specification produced from the analysis.

Systems Analysis Slides
  • 3. The production of a detailed
  • A systems specification is created in
    consultation with all the interested managers.
  • Managers detail their information requirements.
  • Other factors may contribute or influence the
    successful development and implementation.

  • Clear Time Scales
  • Agreed deadlines, milestones, progress checks,
    remedial action if time slipping.
  • Deliverables
  • Small bite size tasks that together make up the
    project, agreed upon with users, signed off at
    the end.
  • Approval to Proceed
  • Senior manager project leader, feasibility study
    with costs and benefits, go ahead.

  • 4. Choosing the software, then the hardware
    that will run it.
  • Specialist software bought and modified.
  • The computer system then bought or upgraded to
    the software specification.

  • 5. Implementation of the system.
  • Setting up the new system, transferring the data
    from old to new.
  • User documentation for general use and
    maintenance , staff training.

  • 6. Maintenance and review.
  • For upgrading and changes, more potential uses
    may be found, different information may be
  • Review and replacement if different
    organisational requirements are needed.

The Success or Failure of a Management
Information System
  • There are many reasons why information systems
    are not a success, this is mainly down to
    inadequate planning and control.
  • There is no use for a fantastic system that no
    one can use, or doesnt give the information

Formal Methods
  • Structured Systems Analysis and Design
    Methodology the system is developed in a formal
  • Avoids short-cuts by taking time and effort to
    create a good working system.

  • Experienced analysts to determine all of the
    information requirements.
  • Needed for a flexible and fully functional
    information system.
  • If inadequate analysis has been done the system
    will not be able to perform a key task, or may
    not perform to the original objectives.

Management Involvement
  • As part of the development team using their
    knowledge of business requirements as well as the
    information system.
  • The system must meet the business needs of the
    organisation as well as being technically good.

Computer Systems
  • Many systems analysts are self employed
    consultants who may have their own agenda as well
    as serving the organisation.
  • They could be more involved in their own career
    path, instead of designing a system that is
    suitable for the organisation.

Low Level Data Processing
  • Day to day data processing that is the basis of
    the organisation.
  • Management information is equally important
    (MIS), to give management the information for
    planning, directing, and controlling the

Management Knowledge
  • Management with limited knowledge of IT may place
    their trust in the IT specialists.
  • IT specialists cannot possible know what is best
    for all parts of the organisation.
  • The manager may get a system that does not
    benefit all parts of the organisation.

Management Demands
  • Too much management input may hinder the
    development as the designs may not be what the IT
    analyst/ manager has chosen.
  • Excessive demands may make the project too big or
    too complex to complete on time.

  • A project team will actually develop the system.
  • Each team member will be in a small group and
    they will be allocated a particular task/tasks.
  • Members have to work closely together, unequal
    division of work may result, some may work hard
    to carry others working less hard.
  • Agreed solutions, and timescales before
  • Customers need to be kept informed of the
    progress of their system.

Professional Standards
  • British Computer Society (BCS), sets minimum
    standards of practice.
  • Members ensure their work is done to a
    Professionals standard.
  • Financial rewards are high, professionals may
    take on jobs they have no experience of, to add
    to their cvs.

  • Doyle Pages 182-189.
  • Exercise Activity page 189, questions.
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