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A Brief History of Microprocessors

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Title: A Brief History of Microprocessors


1
A Brief History of Microprocessors
  • Lecture L12.0

2
The FirstPoint-Contact Transistor1947
Bell Labs Museum
3
Bell Labs
The FirstJunction Transistor1951
M1752 Outside the Lab
Lab model
4
Texas Instruments First IC -- 1958
Jack Kilby
Robert Noyce Fairchild Intel
5
1965 PDP-8 first mass-produced Mini
6
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7
Electronics, Volume 38, Number 8, April 19, 1965
8
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9
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10
Moores law
  • Wow
  • This growth rate is hard to imagine, most people
    underestimate
  • How many ancestors do you have from 20
    generations ago
  • i.e., roughly how many people alive in the 1500s
    did it take to make you?
  • 220 more than 1 million people

11
Graphical illustration of Moores law
1981
1984
1987
1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
10,000 transistors
150,000,000 transistors
Leading edge chip in 1981
Leading edge chip in 2002
  • Something that doubles frequently grows more
    quickly than most people realize!
  • A 2002 chip can hold about 15,000 1981 chips
    inside itself

12
This years transistors are just twice the size
of a virus
Nick Tredennick Gilder Technology Report
13
1968 Apollo Guidance Computer
14
A Typical Computer System
15
Some Microprocessors
  • Intel 4004
  • Intel 8080
  • Motorola 6800
  • MOS Technology 6502
  • Intel 8088/8086
  • Motorola 6809
  • Motorola 68000
  • Intel Pentium

16
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17
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18
Intel 4004
source Computer Museum
19
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20
(No Transcript)
21

January 1975 cover of Popular Electronics

http//www.blinkenlights.com/pc.shtml
22
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23
The 8080 Microprocessor
  • 40-pin chip
  • Developed by Intel in 1974
  • 16 Address Lines
  • Can address 216 64 Kbytes of memory
  • 8 Data Lines
  • Required 5V, 12V and -5V
  • First microprocessor to become widely used

24
The 8080 Microprocessor
Program Status Word Primary Accumulator Secondary
Accumlators/ Data Counters Stack
Pointer Program Counter
PSW
A
C
B
E
D
L
H
SP
PC
25
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26
The 6800 Microprocessor
  • 40-pin chip
  • Developed by Motorola in 1975
  • 16 address lines and 8 data lines
  • Used only 5V

27
The 6800 MicroprocessorRegisters
Accumulator A Accumulator B Index register
X Program counter Stack pointer Condition code
register
A
B
X
PC
SP
CC
28
1978 Industrial Holographics
29
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30
The 6502 Microprocessor
  • 40-pin chip
  • Developed by MOS Technology, Inc. in 1976
  • 16 address lines and 8 data lines
  • Based on the Motorola 6800
  • Used in many home computers including the
  • Apple II
  • Commodore PET
  • Atari

31
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32
The 6502 MicroprocessorRegisters
Accumulator Index register X Index register
Y Program counter Stack pointer Status register
A
X
Y
PC
SP
Status
33
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34
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35
Time's Man of the Year (1982)

36
The 8088/8086 Microprocessor
  • 40-pin chip
  • Developed by Intel in 1978
  • 20 address lines
  • Can address 220 1 Mbyte of memory
  • 8/16 multiplexed data lines in 8088/8086
  • 8088 used in the first IBM PC in 1981

37
8086 Registers
38
Computing 20-Bit Address
16-bit segment address
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
16-bit offset address
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
20-bit actual or effective address
39
8086 Segments
Segment address
Offset addresses within segment
40
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41
The 6809 Microprocessor
  • 40-pin chip
  • Developed by Motorola in 1979
  • 16 address lines and 8 data lines
  • Used in the Radio Shack Color Computer
  • Widely used in industrial controllers

42
Radio Shack Color Computer
43
The 6809 MicroprocessorRegisters
Accumulator AB D Index register X Index
register Y System stack pointer User stack
pointer Program counter Direct page
register Condition code register
A
B
X
Y
S
U
PC
DP
CC
44
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45
The 68000 Microprocessor
  • 64-pin chip
  • Developed by Motorola in 1979
  • 24 address lines
  • Can address 224 16 Mbytes of memory
  • 16 data lines
  • Used in the original Macintosh Computer

46
1984 -- Apple MACINTOSH 128
47
1986 -- Apple MACINTOSH Plus
48
The 68000 MicroprocessorRegisters
31 16 15 8
7 0
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
Data Registers
31 16 15
0
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A7
Address Registers
Program Counter
Status/CCR
49
1981
IBM PC

,
uses Intel 8088
1982
Motorola 68010
1982
Motorola 68008
1984
Intel 80286
10 MHz, 130,000 transistors
1984
Motorola 68020
32-Bit address and data busses Integrated
Microcontroller
1985
Motorola 68HC11
1986
Motorola 68020 -- 25 MHz
1986
Intel 80386
16 MHz, 275,000 transistors
1987
Motorola 68030
1988
Motorola 68030 -- 33 MHz
1989
Intel 80486
25 MHz, 1,000,000 transistors
1990
Intel 80486
50 MHz
1992
Intel Pentium
4,000,000 Transistors
1997
Motorola 68HC12
Enhanced 68HC11
50
Intel Microprocessors
  • 8086 -- 40-pin DIP (dual in-line package)
  • 80286 -- 68-pin PGA (pin grid array)
  • 80386DX -- 132-pin PGA
  • 80486DX -- 168-pin PGA
  • The Pentium -- 237-pin PGA
  • The Pentium Pro -- 387-pin PGA

51
80486DX -- 168-pin PGA
52
Some Intel Microprocessors
53
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54
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55
The 8086 - Pentium Pro Registers
56
The Segment Register in the Protected Mode
57
The Descriptor Formats
Base address starting location of memory
segment Limit last offset address in segment G
granularity bit G 0 Limit is length of
1 to 1M bytes G 1 Limit is any multiple
of 4K bytes Note 220 x 4K 220 x 212 232
4G bytes
58
DS register accesses memory locations 100000H-1000
FFH
59
1981
IBM PC

,
uses Intel 8088
1982
Motorola 68010
1982
Motorola 68008
1984
Intel 80286
10 MHz, 130,000 transistors
1984
Motorola 68020
32-Bit address and data busses Integrated
Microcontroller
1985
Motorola 68HC11
1986
Motorola 68020 -- 25 MHz
1986
Intel 80386
16 MHz, 275,000 transistors
1987
Motorola 68030
1988
Motorola 68030 -- 33 MHz
1989
Intel 80486
25 MHz, 1,000,000 transistors
1990
Intel 80486
50 MHz
1992
Intel Pentium
4,000,000 Transistors
1997
Motorola 68HC12
Enhanced 68HC11
60
1985 Motorola introduces the 68HC11
microcontroller
61
1997 Motorola introduces the 68HC12/HCS12
microcontroller
Additional PWM and CAN interfaces
62
The 68HC12(11) Registers
63
Develops WHYP a subroutine-threaded Forth for
the 68HC12
64
Chuck Moore, the inventor of Forth, reading
Haskells WHYP book
65
Some Current Microcontrollers
66
PIC16F84 Microcontroller
67
OOPic Microcontroller
68
Microcontroller JStamp
  • JStamp
  • Real-Time Native Java
  • 512 KByte SRAM
  • 512 KByte flash
  • 73 MHz External Clock
  • JStamp
  • Real-Time Native Java
  • 512 KByte SRAM
  • 2048 KByte flash
  • 73 MHz External Clock

Cost 119.00 1-4 109.00 5-9 99.00 10-99
Cost 149.00 1-4 144.00 5-9 139.00 10-99
69
MPC555 32-bit Microcontroller
70
MPC5200 Block Diagram
71
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72
(No Transcript)
73
(No Transcript)
74
CML-5282 Low Cost Development System
Axiom Mfg. 199.00
www.axman.com
75
CSE 480 Senior Design
  • Each group of 3 or 4 students designed a model
    car that simulated an automated highway system by
    following a black tape on the floor
  • Design should be suitable for a sophomore design
    course.

76
Project Autobahn
Final Presentation
CSE 480, Fall 2003Philipp Sam Michael
Daniel Lonce
77
Vehicle (25)
78
Microcontroller JStamp
  • JStamp
  • Real-Time Native Java
  • 512 KByte SRAM
  • 512 KByte flash
  • 73 MHz External Clock
  • JStamp
  • Real-Time Native Java
  • 512 KByte SRAM
  • 2048 KByte flash
  • 73 MHz External Clock

Cost 119.00 1-4 109.00 5-9 99.00 10-99
Cost 149.00 1-4 144.00 5-9 139.00 10-99
79
Modifications
80
(No Transcript)
81
Sophomore Design ClassAutomated Highway
Simulation
  • Group 2
  • Jeremy Sletten
  • Patrick Murphy
  • Michael Olson
  • Randa Ibrahim

82
Final Chassis Design
  • The original tracks created too much tension on
    the motors
  • The chassis was redesigned to drive solely from
    the wheels on the motors
  • A third, center-mounted pivoting castor was added
    to improve support, without causing drag when
    turning

83
Line Following Algorithm
84
Line Following Algorithm
85
Line Following Algorithm
86
Line Following Algorithm
87
The Minerva Project
  • Jeremiah F. Cowden
  • Carolin L. Karim
  • Jason H. Kummerl
  • Rachel A. Schaefer
  • Matthew P. Spahr

Final Presentation December 12, 2003 CSE
480 Senior Design Dr. Richard E. Haskell
88
The Minerva Project OOPic
89
The Minerva Project Real Picture of Car
90
Highway Automation Simulation Kit Electronically
Locating Lines
  • Presented by G4
  • Erik Church
  • Steve Nyquist
  • Michael Grady
  • Jennifer Miller

91
The Motorola MC9S12DP256 Chip on the Axiom
CML12S-DP256 Board
92
Overall Schematic
93
The Race
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