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Innovation in Sustainability Policy Development and Implementation in Asia : Taiwan as a Model

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Title: Innovation in Sustainability Policy Development and Implementation in Asia : Taiwan as a Model


1
Innovation in Sustainability Policy Development
and Implementation in Asia Taiwan as a Model
Winston Dang, Ph.D. MPH Minister, Taiwan EPA
At Brussels February 18, 2008
2
Contents
  • Taiwans Environmental Loading
  • Taiwans Environmental Quality
  • Taiwans Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas
    Mitigation Strategies
  • Taiwans Environmental Achievements in Municipal
    Waste Management
  • How Chinas Pollution Impacts Taiwan
  • Conclusion

3
Taiwans Environmental Loading
4
Taiwans environmental loading(1/2)
  • A subtropical island country
  • Total 36,000 km2
  • Hillside Mountains 26,500 km2
  • Average Temperature
  • summer ? 30?winter ? 17?
  • Population 23 million

Rapid Economic Development
5
Taiwans environmental loading (2/2)
Rapid Economic Development
  • Economic Development
  • Labor-Intensive ? Technology/Capital-Intensive
    Industries.
  • Per capita GDP USD 24,980 in 2005 (based on
    PPP)
  • GDP growth rate 5.46 in 2007
  • Worlds 18th largest economy (World Bank, 2006)
  • Major industries Electronics (22),
    Petrochemical (19), Steel (10), IT (7), Food
    Processing (5), Textile (5).

6
Taiwans environmental loading
7
Taiwans environmental loading
8
Taiwans Environmental Quality
9
Taiwans environmental quality - Air
  • Steady decrease in percentage of poor air quality
    days (except 2 increase in 2003-2004)
  • Rate resumed downward trend by 2007

10
Taiwans environmental quality - Waste
  • In the past ten years, average daily garbage
    clearance volume gradually reduced
  • Average daily per capita garbage clearance volume
    decrease from 1.143 to 0.584 kg

11
Taiwans Climate Change and GHG Mitigation
Strategies
12
Taiwans Overview
  • 2005 GHG Emissions
  • The Energy-related CO2 emissions of 261.28
    million tons, about 0.96 of the global total,
    ranking 22 (IEA 2007)
  • ( Population 23 million, about 0.356 of
    global population )
  • ( 98.24 of energy supply depended on import
    in 2006 )
  • Major Emission Index
  • Per capita emission is 11.41 tons of CO2, ranking
    16
  • Per unit GDP (2000 US PPP) emission is 0.46kg of
    CO2

13
Energy Supply Structure in Taiwan
  • 98.24 of energy supply depends on import.
  • Imported crude oil is the major portion of energy
    supply, 76.7 of it from the Middle East.
  • Energy supply increasing rapidly, with average
    annual growth rate of 6.2

Source Taiwan Energy Statistical Hand book 2006
14
Taiwans Position
  • International Politics
  • Taiwans observer status limits its role in
    negotiation in global emissions reduction, thus
    not feasible to adopt Kyoto-style targets.
  • Reduction obligations are negotiated
    multilaterally, and are not set by one country
    alone.
  • National Environmental Interests
  • Taiwans environmental loading is much higher
    than most countries (e.g., factory and motor
    vehicle densities)
  • GHG reductions may drive environmental
    improvements
  • Replacing energy-intensive industries with less
    energy-intensive and high value-added industries
    may improve energy infrastructure and reduce
    pollution loads.

15
Global Warming is getting worse
  • Rate of temperature rise in Taiwan even as high
    as 1.43C (1998) in the last century, almost
    twice the global average (about 0.6C ).

16
Taiwans Energy-related CO2 Emissions
  • Taiwans annual mean temperature is getting
    higher.
  • The main CO2 emission is from the electricity
    generation due to fossil fuel combustion. It has
    steadily increased from 1990 to 2006. The
    emission trend is still not decoupled with
    economic growth.

UnitTemperature(?)
261.28 Mt CO2
Index(19901)
Year
17
Heat waves in the last century and future
predictions
Regional distribution showing average number of
days of maximum summer temperatures ?35? during
ten-year increments of 1990-1999 2020-2029
2040-2049 and 2090-2099
  • Heat wave means maximum temperature ?35?
  • Heat wave forecast Days on which maximum
    temperatures ?35? will increase in frequency
  • Taipei monitoring stations
  • Average number of heat wave days during 1990s
    22 12.5
  • in 2020s at 32 10.9
  • in 2050s at 44 13.3
  • in 2090s at 69 17.7

Source Liu Chung-ming, Analysis and Forecast of
the Occurrence of Abnormal Temperatures and
Extreme Rainfall Events in Taiwan
18
Taiwans Energy-related CO2 Emissions
Unit10,000 t CO2e
unitmillion tons
Trend of CO2 Emissions
Energy-related CO2 emissions
19
Taiwans GHG Strategy Progress
Legislation for GHG Mitigation Act
Legislation
General Energy Conference (GEC) GEC 1 1998 GEC
2 2005
Global Environmental Change Task Force (1992)
Voluntary Agreements
GHG Act CAP
Industry Voluntary Reduction Initiative
Action
Urban GHG Management Strategies
Save Our Sky Program
20
Aggressive GHG Reduction Target for Taiwan
On May 7, 2007, Taiwan Parliamentary Committee
proposed a target the emission of CO2 in
2025-2030 below the level of 2005.
  • It was proposed the emission of CO2 in 2025 below
    the level of 2000. The action plans to more
    reduction of greenhouse gas are under
    construction.
  • In 2007, this goal was proposed by Task Force of
    Energy Policy and Technology headed by Dr.
    Yuan-Tseh Lee - 1986 Nobel Laureate.

Japans new proposal Cool Earth 50 on May 24,
2007 cutting global emissions by half from the
current level in year 2050
600
616
Business as usual
531
500
468
394
National Energy conference in 2005
402
361
400
A proposed target by Parliament in 2007
Million Ton
300
200
A proposed target by Task Force of Energy Policy
and Technology
100
Cool Earth 50
0
year
1995
2000
2003
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2050
Source Taiwan Energy Statistical Hand book 2006
21
Two large projects under EIA procedures
  • Two large entrant projects (a petrochemical plant
    and a steel plant) are currently proposing in
    Taiwan, estimated the CO2 emission approximately
    22 million tons per year (almost accounts for
    1/10 Taiwans total CO2 emissions per year) .

22
Taiwans Long-Term Efforts
  • Industrial Transformation and Structural Change
  • low-carbon economic, green production, renewable
    energy (solar photovoltaic)
  • Lifestyles in harmony with nature
  • eco-thinking, 6R, green building, LED
  • Promoting the use of public transportation and
    fuel - efficient cars
  • Taiwan High Speed Rail,
  • MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) system in main urban
    areas (Taipei, Kaohsiung City),
  • LPG vehicles (taxis and cars for public service)

23
Taiwans Climate Change Strategies
  • Phase I
  • To coordinate the inter-governmental mitigation
    strategies (2005)
  • To propose legislation of GHG Mitigation Act
    (2006)
  • Phase II
  • Implementation of the urban GHG action plan and
    national emissions reduction campaign (Save Our
    Sky, SOS)
  • Green Ocean Project (afforestation)
  • Energy Policy and Measures (Promote Renewable
    Energy, Expanding the Usage of Natural Gas,
    Improve Energy Efficiency)
  • Industrial Voluntary Reduction Initiative and
    Reporting System
  • Phase III
  • To establish National Reduction Target (based on
    cost analysis)
  • To join international dialogue and be a part of
    the global scheme

24
GHG Reduction and Management Office
phase I
  • Taiwan EPA set up a GHG Reduction and Management
    Office on Jan. 10, 2008.
  • Our Mission
  • Inter-government efforts
  • To coordinate Taiwans GHGmitigation strategies
    of government agencies
  • To enhance local governments effort on GHG
    reduction issues
  • To improve partnership between the government and
    private sector

25
Legislative Process for GHG Mitigation Act
phase I
Greenhouse GasMitigation Act (28 Articles)
GovernmentAgencyResponsibilities (Art. 5-10)
General Principles (Art. 1-4)
Penalties And Supplements (Art. 20-28)
Education Promotion (Art. 18-20)
Reduction Measures (Art. 11-17)
26
Taiwans Urban Action Plan
phase II
Taipei and Kaohsiung have joined ICLEI to learn
and share experiences of GHG management at local
government level . The initiative currently
comprises 630 local governments and organizations
around the world.
Green Transportation
LED promotion
Residential and Commercial Voluntary GHG
Reduction
Energy Service Company (ESCO)
Green Buildings
Landfill Methane Recovery
Low-Carbon or Clean Energy
27
2006 National Emissions Reduction Campaign (Save
Our Sky, SOS)
phase II
The campaign emphasizes that successful emission
reduction efforts require the participation of
all citizens participation is enhanced through
diversified and lively design of the campaign
reduction measures focus on household and
transportation measures that can be adopted by
both individuals and families.
  • Objectives
  • Promote energy conservation.
  • Change consumers habits toward green
    consumption
  • Task Forces(organized by communities, government
    agencies, industry)
  • Energy Efficiency, Green Consumption, Public
    Education, Green Transportation, Green Landmark,
    Promotion
  • Strategy Education and Reward

Create Low-Carbon Society
28
The Green Ocean Project
phase II
  • Follow the consensus of Asia-Pacific Economic
    Cooperation Forum (APEC) afforestation plan (at
    least 20 million ha. by 2020)
  • Taiwans Council of Agriculture (COA) proposed
    the Green Ocean Project, to plant 20,000 ha.
    from 2008 to 2012 (2.71 million tons CO2 emission
    reduction)
  • On February 14, 2008, Taiwan EPA invited
    ambassadors, foreign residents and students to
    participate in the festival of Plant a tree,
    Leave your roots in Taiwan, and offered our
    foreign friends a chance to express their love
    for the earth on Valentines Day.

29
Taiwans Energy Policies and Measures
phase II
  • Promote Renewable Energy
  • Legislating "Renewable Energy Development Bill
    shall provide a favorable framework for
    sustainable development of renewable energy.
  • The goals for renewable energy development in
    2010 3-5 of total energy supply, or 10 of
    power generation capacity (about 5,000 MW).

30
Taiwans Energy Policies and Measures
phase II
  • Expanding the usage of natural gas
  • Natural gas consumption is expected to be 13
    million tons by 2010, 16 million tons by 2020,
    2022 million tons by 2025.
  • Improve energy efficiency
  • Energy efficiency and energy productivity will
    increase over 2 per year.
  • Improve energy transformation efficiency
  • Applying high efficiency power generating
    equipment.
  • Enhancing efficiency of new coal-fired power
    plants from 35 to 40, new gas-fired power
    generating plants from 45 to 53.
  • Continuing promotion of co-generation system
  • The capacity of co-generation is expected to be
    8GW by 2010, and 10GW by 2025.
  • Promotion strategy of carbon dioxide reduction
    technologies

31
Industry Voluntary Reduction Initiative
phase II
  • Objectives
  • Government
  • Capacity building for promoting GHG reduction
    management
  • Establish scheme to verify and recognize
    voluntary reduction
  • Consistent with international standards
  • Industry
  • Reduce long-term cost through energy efficiency
    improvement
  • Respond to international trend
  • Improve corporate image
  • Industry Participants
  • Power, petrochemical, steel, cement, paper,
    manmade fiber, dyeing, semiconductor, TFT-LCD,
    electronics industries, and others with GHG
    reduction potential

32
Industry Voluntary Reduction Initiative
phase II
GHG Emissions Inventory
Voluntary GHG Reduction

Voluntary Reduction Projects (2006-2007) 170,000t
.CO2e by Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic
Affairs
Voluntary Reduction Agreement (2004-2010) about
28Mt.CO2e by Industrial Development
Bureau,Ministry of Economic Affairs
Taiwan EPA Industry Voluntary Reduction
Initiative
Integrate
Verification/ Validation Mechanism
Project Review Process
Energy Conservation
Energy Efficiency
Equipment Upgrading
Early action credits (VERs)
Build Emissions Reduction Capability
GHG Reduction Act Scheme (Cap)
33
Long-term Objective International Linkage
phase III
  • Inventory reporting
  • Verification
  • Voluntary reduction

Domestic voluntary scheme
Step1
VERs
  • Incentives
  • Pilot trading
  • Finanical system

Step2
Global voluntary schemes
  • Mandatory target
  • Emissions trading
  • Mutual recognition

Step3

Global mandatory schemes
RGGI
EU ETS
Global ETS
To join global carbon market (Clean Development
Mechanism)
34
CDM Opportunities for Taiwan
NOT a Party to the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol
  • Learning by doing is key to become familiar
    with global carbon market
  • Creation of domestic trading market would provide
    potential link with international carbon market
  • Investment or creation of carbon funds

source IETA (June 2007) Finance and Investment
to Address Climate Change UNFCCC
Investment and financial flows relevant to the
developme nt of effective and
appropriate international response to Climate
Change
35
Taiwans environmental achievements in municipal
waste management
36
Taiwans environmental achievements in waste
management
37
Recycling and reduction achievements Resource
recycling
Six-fold increase
38
Recycling and reduction achievements
0.584
39
Taiwans waste management policy
  • Waste management should aim for zero waste by
    minimizing generation of waste and maximizing
    recycling and reuse
  • In accord with the zero waste policy, the Taiwan
    EPA has announced the Waste Management Review
    and Outlook and is drafting the Proposal for
    Zero Industrial Waste

40
Zero Waste Policy of MSW
41
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42
6R Policies
1.Reducing 2.Reusing 3.Recycling
4.Refusing 5.Repairing 6.Replacing
43
Mandatory MSW Separation
  • The public are asked to separate refuse into 3
    categories

44
Zero waste goals for municipal waste
45
Source Reduction
  • Restrictions on the use of plastic shopping bags
    and plastic disposable tableware
  • Excessive packaging restriction
  • Restriction on the manufacture, import, and sale
    of dry cell batteries
  • Disposable paper cup reduction program in public
    sectors

46
Four-in-one Recycling Program
Waste Generators
Private Recycling System
(2) Recycling Companies Collect and recycle
recyclables from household, communities and
municipalities.
(1) Communities Establish Community- based
Recycling organization.
Community residents
Recycling company
Recycling Fund
Local Government EPB
(3) Local Government 1.Collect and advanced
sorting . 2. Revenues of selling recyclables feed
back to participants.
(4) Recycling Fund Establish effective
implementation programs.
Funding Sources
Municipal Collection System
47
Enforcement
48
Comparison of MSW recycling rates
49
Industrial Waste Control
50
IW Control Strategy
-From Cradle to Grave
Generator Management and Waste Flow Tracking
Control Center Report
Satellite
Satellite
GPS
GPS
Waste Generator
Final Disposal Facility
TSDFs
51
How Chinas Pollution Impacts Taiwan
52
Asian Dust
Air Pollutants
Biomass Burning
Aerial view of Lulin Atmospheric Background
Station, LABS (2,862 m)
NCU Astronomy Observatory
LABS
53
Long-range transport of Hg
  • Background monthly elemental Hg was about 1.1 ng
    m-3 when air mass comes from the Pacific Ocean.

54
Long-range transport of Hg
  • The highest Hg 5.4 ng m-3 was observed on
    2008/1/1, when air mass came from China.
  • Cu ranged from 42 to 103 ng m-3 is far higher
    than the background 15 ng m-3, while As was less
    than 0.3 ng m-3.

55
Chinas pollution impacts air quality on Taiwan
  • Taiwan has concerns about airborne mercury and
    arsenic pollution from China.
  • A high-altitude monitoring station on Taiwan's
    Lulin Mountain detected dramatically higher
    levels of mercury in the atmosphere due to coal
    burning and steel manufacturing in China.
  • If mercury is in food, you can refuse to eat it,
    but you can't refuse to breathe. It's a terrible
    thing.
  • China has to realize that it's not just their
    problem. It's a global problem.

56
(No Transcript)
57
Conclusions (1/2)
  • Taiwan is moving toward low-carbon economy.
  • Join international dialogue and be a part of the
    global scheme.
  • GHG reduction requires concerted global efforts
    in order to avoid leakage.
  • Situated across a narrow strait from China,
    Taiwan, on the basis of reciprocity, is willing
    to hold open discussion with China on
    environmental issues in order to improve regional
    environmental quality.

58
Conclusions(2/2)
  • In garbage reduction, after years of effort,
    Taiwan has made great progress and is willing to
    share its experience with other countries.
  • The establishment and operation of the National
    Industrial Waste Control Center has made possible
    an efficient surveillance program. As a result,
    illegal dumping has been reduced tremendously and
    waste treatment facilities promoted remarkably.

59
Thank you for your kind attention
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