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THE TERRORIST ATTACKS OF 911: A BRIEF REVIEW OF IMPACT AND RESPONSE

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Close to 200,000 jobs were destroyed or relocated to other cities ... The twin towers collapsed... COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER. at West Point ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE TERRORIST ATTACKS OF 911: A BRIEF REVIEW OF IMPACT AND RESPONSE


1
THE TERRORIST ATTACKS OF 9/11 A BRIEF REVIEW OF
IMPACT AND RESPONSE
Dr. James JF Forest Director of Terrorism
Studies Combating Terrorism Center U.S. Military
Academy West Point, NY
2
The Terrorist Attacks of 9/11
Agenda 1) The Events of 9/11 2) The
Psychological Impact 3) The Economic Impact 4)
The Response Building Community Resilience 5)
Recommendations and Conclusion
3
DoD Disclaimer
Please Note The views expressed herein are
those of the author and do not purport to reflect
the position of the United States Military
Academy, the Department of the Army, or the U.S.
Department of Defense.
4
1. The Events of 9/11
5
1. The Events of 9/11
  • On a beautiful, clear day in September . . .
  • Four planes hijacked three flown into office
    buildings in NYC and DC
  • NYC attacks (2nd plane crash) shown on live
    television American attention riveted other tv
    shows replaced by 9/11 coverage
  • All airplanes grounded schools closed sports
    cancelled
  • WTC towers collapse, shown on live television
  • Close coverage of whereabouts of Pres. Bush,
    other national leaders
  • Lots of commentary and questions few informed
    answers lots of emotion, Congressional
    Representatives spontaneously singing patriotic
    songs on the steps of Capitol Hill

AB95-5.PPT //
6
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7
2. The Psychological Impact of 9/11
8
2. The Psychological Impact
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Individuals who have been exposed to a traumatic
    event may experience at least one recurrent
    symptom related to the event (such as intrusive,
    repeated recollections or dreams of the event)
  • Persistently avoids people, activities or places
    associated with the event
  • Cannot recall important aspects of the trauma
  • Shows disinterest in their usual daily activities
    and a sense of foreboding about the future
  • Hyper arousal (difficulty in falling or staying
    asleep, outbursts of anger, hyper vigilance, an
    inability to concentrate, or exaggerated startle
    responses)
  • May lead to significant impairment in social,
    occupational or other important areas of the
    individuals life

AB95-5.PPT //
9
2. The Psychological Impact
  • Common Themes in the Research on 9/11
    Psychological Impact
  • Living closer to the attack scene, direct
    personal loss, and children were more likely to
    exhibit symptoms of PTSD
  • Sadness was the most frequent reaction among New
    Yorkers, followed by anxiety and fear
  • Almost 20 of Americans across the country
    reported symptoms of distress
  • constant news coverage, replays of video footage
    showing the second plane hitting the World Trade
    Center, helped all Americans feel closer to the
    event
  • Americans did not withdraw from others
  • Stress and uncertainty produces social behaviors
    people seek out others, perhaps to enhance social
    support, or to help to affirm ones cultural view
    of the world and the threat (Brandon Silke)
  • Increased participation in religious services,
    memorials, vigils

AB95-5.PPT //
10
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11
9/11 Towers of Light Tribute
12
9/11 Taps Vigil at West Point
13
3. The Economic Impact of 9/11
14
3. The Economic Impact
  • Confusion/Disagreement on Total Economic Impact
  • NY City Economic Impact
  • Total Loss 83 billion (NYC partnership
    Chamber of Commerce Nov 2001)
  • Total Cost 54 billion (NY Governor Oct 2001)
  • WTC Replacement Cost Cleanup 2529 billion
    (FEB NY April 2002)
  • Total Cost 83 billion (quoting NYCP-COC) but
    67 billion covered by Insurance (US GAO May
    2002)
  • NY City Jobs Lost
  • 108,500, 115,300, 105,200, 125,000, 84,000,
    78,200, 129,000….
  • NY State Jobs Lost
  • 99,000 in 2001, 78,000 in 2002, 77,000 in 2003
    (NYS Senate Finance Committee DRI-WEFA January
    2002)
  • Resulted at peak loss of 78,200 (DRI-WEFA
    March 2002)
  • 50,000 immediately, 70,000 in 4th Quarter Much
    of this loss is likely linked to WTC attack
    (FEB NY April 2002)

AB95-5.PPT //
15
3. The Economic Impact
  • Immediate and Short-Term Economic Impacts
  • Financial Sector
  • 40 of WTC casualties
  • NYSE, NYME closed
  • Aviation Sector
  • planes grounded for a week or more
  • 20 drop in passengers
  • 100,000 jobs lost several airlines went bankrupt
  • Insurance Sector
  • loss of life and property estimated at 40-50
    billion

AB95-5.PPT //
16
3. The Economic Impact
  • Immediate and Short-Term Economic Impacts
  • Other industries were also badly affected, such
    as hotels, tourism, automobile rentals, travel
    agents, and civilian aircraft manufactures.
  • Hotels reported higher vacancy rates and
    employment in the sector as a whole fell by
    58,000 (about 3) in October and November, 2001
  • Nearly 18,000 businesses were dislocated,
    disrupted or destroyed by the attacks
  • Also, over 300 firefighters and nearly 100
    policeman were killed while trying to evacuate
    the World Trade Center before it collapsed

AB95-5.PPT //
17
3. The Economic Impact
  • Longer-Term Economic Impacts
  • Federal Reserve cut interest rates aggressively
  • Special financing incentives offered by the
    automobile companies led to record motor vehicle
    sales for October 2001
  • Securities market was only closed for four days,
    opening again after the telecommunications
    network in lower Manhattan became operational.
  • Stock market re-opened on September 17th within
    19 trading days, the SP 500 index had bounced
    back to its pre-September 11th level

AB95-5.PPT //
18
3. The Economic Impact
  • Longer-Term Economic Impacts
  • New York City lost a significant amount of its
    office space and a number of businesses ceased to
    exist.
  • Close to 200,000 jobs were destroyed or relocated
    to other cities
  • 34.5 million square feet of office space lost

AB95-5.PPT //
19
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20
The WTC burning…
The twin towers collapsed…
21
3. The Economic Impact
  • Longer-Term Economic Impacts
  • City-wide impact airports and midtown hotels not
    just south of Canal Street
  • Low-income workers bore the brunt (60)
  • People of color and immigrants (56) hard hit
  • Chinatown, economic ground zero, and other poor
    communities heavily affected
  • Insurance costs have risen on average 33 since
    2001
  • Diversion of resources and capacity toward
    security-related products and services
  • Short-term direct impacts were not as significant
    as the financial costs of the long-term response
    that is still underway

AB95-5.PPT //
22
3. The Economic Impact
  • Bottom Line
  • 9/11 events inflicted severe and immediate
    physical impacts to all businesses, government
    offices, and other organizations located in and
    around the WTC complex.
  • This event involved dead, injured, missing,
    physically displaced and traumatized employees,
    losses of data, information, and institutional
    knowledge, and an unprecedented uncertainty in
    market behavior

AB95-5.PPT //
23
4. The Response Building Community Resilience
24
4. The Response
  • Building Community Resilience
  • APA suggests that characteristics of resilient
    people include
  • Optimism maintaining hope about the future
  • Self-efficacy confidence in ones skills to
    manage or accomplish the task at hand
  • Intellectual mastery belief in ones ability to
    exert positive control over their environment,
    and to break down complex problems into smaller,
    more accomplishable tasks and goals
  • Social competency social skills help one deal
    with stress in a constructive and positive
    manner.
  • Cohesive family - family cohesion and support
    buffer the negative impact of stress in youth
  • Models Peers, parents, siblings, or others
    model effective coping with stress, providing
    important learning opportunities

AB95-5.PPT //
25
4. The Response
  • Building Community Resilience
  • How is the U.S. working to build resilience in
    its communities?

Four Common Themes
Preparation
Communication
Education
Social Capital
AB95-5.PPT //
26
4. The Response
  • Preparation
  • Equipping and training first responders and
    emergency personnel
  • For example, disaster drills in cities of all
    sizes throughout the U.S.
  • mock detonation of a weapon of mass destruction
    at a university
  • Simulation of mass vaccination event
  • Response drill involving simultaneous car bombs
    at multiple locations
  • Video training and computer simulations
  • National Incident Management System Capability
    Assessment Support Tool (NIMCAST), the first step
    in a process to reaching full National Incident
    Management System (NIMS), compliance
  • NIMS was established by DHS to provide a
    consistent nationwide template to enable all
    government, private-sector and nongovernmental
    organizations to work together during domestic
    incidents
  • Also, multi-state exercises held to foster
    state-state cooperation

AB95-5.PPT //
27
4. The Response
  • Communication
  • U.S. government is doing its best to communicate
    to its citizens all that was known about the
    attacks
  • For example, 9/11 Commission Report
  • Communicating all that can be shared about the
    threat of new attacks
  • Homeland Security Advisory System
  • DHS Alerts for specific sectors (aviation,
    financial, etc.)
  • Communicating suggestions for preparing
    communities and families
  • new emergency alert notification systems
    developed in several large metropolitan areas
  • New radio towers, transmitters, antennas,
    wireless information networks, etc.

AB95-5.PPT //
28
4. The Response
  • Education
  • Education about terrorism and personal safety is
    also playing an important role in fostering
    resilience
  • Department of Homeland Security has launched a
    number of public awareness campaigns, including
    websites
  • For example, www.ready.gov
  • Many efforts focus on encouraging families to
    develop their own emergency plan and supplies
  • Other examples include programs in schools, where
    teachers talk to children about 9/11 and
    terrorism in general
  • Education of teachers, school bus drivers on how
    to look for suspicious activity which might
    indicate terrorism
  • Education of truck drivers on how to look for
    suspicious activity which might indicate terrorism

AB95-5.PPT //
29
4. The Response
  • Building Social Capital
  • Community Emergency Response Training (CERT)
    initiatives
  • developed throughout the United States, and
    designed to give ordinary residents the necessary
    skills and knowledge to react and control the
    situation for a period of 72 hours following a
    disaster
  • Draws from materials prepared by FEMAs Emergency
    Management Institute (EMI) and the National Fire
    Academy
  • Made available to anyone online via website
  • Other Citizen Corps-sponsored efforts
    (www.citizencorps.gov)
  • Goal Engage community members in meeting the
    challenges of a terrorist threat, such as
    volunteering to support local emergency
    responders, disaster relief, and community safety

AB95-5.PPT //
30
4. The Response
  • CERT Training
  • Session 1, Disaster Preparedness
  • Session 2, Disaster Fire Suppression
  • Session 3, Disaster Medical Operations Part I
  • Session 4, Disaster Medical Operations, Part II
  • Session 5, Light Search and Rescue Operations
  • Session 6, Disaster Psychology and Team
    Organization
  • Session 7, Course Review and Disaster Simulation

31
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
32
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
  • Provide New Forms of Public Education
  • There is much that could be done to educate the
    public at large about the true nature of the
    terrorist threat
  • Al Qaeda and affiliate terrorist groups seek to
    attack the United States because of our values
    or our way of life
  • Rather, they have a strategy and goals they are
    trying to achieve
  • The settlement of this overburdened account will
    indeed be heavy. We will also aim to continue,
    by permission of Allah, the destruction of the
    American economy. - Ayman Al-Zawahiri (6
    October, 2002)
  • Educate the public about the root conditions and
    facilitators of terrorism
  • Also, need more education about what average
    citizens can do to help foster resilience in our
    communities

AB95-5.PPT //
33
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
  • Build Social Capital and Strengthen Social
    Networks
  • Good relationships with close family members,
    friends, or others are important. Accepting help
    and support from those who care about you and
    will listen to you strengthens resilience.
  • It is a mistake to rely solely on the government
    to deal with the immediate impact of terrorist
    attacks. Community empowerment must play a
    prominent role in any national resilience
    strategy.
  • For example, the government could provide tax
    breaks and other incentives to individuals and
    families who join any number of local
    organizations and participate in
    community-building.

AB95-5.PPT //
34
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
  • Promote Greater Coordination
  • Several reports have highlighted a lack of
    intelligence sharing and organizational
    cooperation that exists throughout many federal
    and state agencies.
  • We must break down the barriers to interagency
    cooperationlike organizational culture,
    differing technologies, turf wars, personality
    clashes and parochial agendas.
  • Agencies at the federal, state and local levels
    need to be able to communicate effectively
  • 5 years after 9/11, the NYPD and FDNY still do
    not have common frequencies and protocols for
    communication

AB95-5.PPT //
35
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
  • Promote Greater Coordination (cont.)
  • Need greater public-private coordination in order
    to address many of the preparation and
    education-related dimensions of resilience
    described earlier in this essay.
  • Need to ensure critical infrastructure redundancy
    in case of future terrorist attack, since 85 of
    the nations critical infrastructure is owned by
    the private sector.

AB95-5.PPT //
36
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
  • Provide Bold Leadership
  • Leaders matter most in times of crisis
  • This is particularly true in fostering a nations
    resilience in the face of terrorism.
  • Leaders communicate challenges and strategies,
    and provide resources for preparation and
    education.
  • Much of the current administrations focus is on
    combating terrorism, specifically, locating
    terrorists, disrupting their networks, and
    bringing violent criminals and extremists to
    justice.
  • We also need leadership that is dedicated to
    public education, rather than to secrecy in all
    matters related to national security.

AB95-5.PPT //
37
5. Recommendations and Conclusion
  • Bottom Line
  • Leaders of a liberal democracy must enlist the
    support and assistance of the public, and enable
    them to be responsible contributors to the
    struggle against terrorism.

AB95-5.PPT //
38
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