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Identity and Conflict in the Balkans

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Identity and Conflict in the Balkans. Twelfth Week. News. Presidential visit: NATO expansion ... He played 22 days in front of the bakery to commemorate the victims ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Identity and Conflict in the Balkans


1
Identity and Conflict in the Balkans
  • Twelfth Week

2
News
  • Presidential visit NATO expansion
  • Romania and Croatia
  • Exam and study guide

3
Identity Issues in the News
4
Ismail Kadare (1936- )
  • Prilli i Thyer (1978) ("Broken April", 1980)
  • Numerous novels
  • Status as major writer of the Balkans

5
Themes of Broken April
  • Urban vs. mountain culture
  • Past affects the present
  • Tenacity of old moral codes Kanun, blood feud

6
Film types Heroic (Behind Enemy Lines)
  • Overcome obstacles
  • Good guys victorious
  • Black and white characters

7
Non-heroic
  • Uncomfortable
  • No clear answers
  • No easy solutions

8
Both
  • Strong images
  • Action, suspense, romance

9
(No Transcript)
10
Serbian Orthodox Church (Sarajevo)
11
Jewish Cemetery
12
Inside Sarajevo Synagogue
13
Bey Mosque in Sarajevo
14
Assassination of Archduke 1914
15
Welcome to Sarajevo
  • Directed by Michael Winterbottom
  • 1997 film

16
Whats Happening?
  • Reporters trying to understand
  • Different reporting styles question of
    objectivity, taking sides
  • Relationship with locals

17
Struggles with objectivity
  • Food for locals the eggs
  • Double life dealing with strangers who dont
    have a clue

18
Who is the enemy?
19
What about the children?
20
UN Presence
  • What can the UN do?
  • What about priorities?
  • What are the top 14?

21
Documenting the horror
  • Concentration camps
  • Bombs, snipers, and soldiers

22
Personalizing the conflict
  • Woody Harrelson visits the father of prisoner
  • Stephen takes up the orphans cause
  • Promises
  • Taking sides?

23
Escape from Sarajevo
  • Departure
  • Stops along the way
  • Massacre remains
  • Serb patrol
  • Arrival in Split

24
Concert in Sarajevo
  • Vedran Smailovic
  • Bread line massacre in May 1992
  • 22 people killed
  • He played 22 days in front of the bakery to
    commemorate the victims
  • Albinonis Adagio in G Minor

25
Concluding Remarks
26
Moving on to Romania
  • Kaplan
  • More slides

27
Romanian Film
  • Check links on syllabus

28
Kaplan
  • Chapter 5-7
  • Romania

29
(No Transcript)
30
Romania Geography
  • Moldavia (Moldova)
  • Bucovina
  • Banat
  • Wallachia (Walachia)
  • Transylvania
  • Maramures
  • Crisana
  • Dobruja (Dobrogea)

31
(No Transcript)
32
Romania-3 (Romanian spelling)
33
Language
  • Official language is Romanian
  • Spoken by approximately 89 of the 23m population
  • Hungarian is spoken by around 7 of the
    population, mainly in Transylvania
  • Population of German speakers who make up around
    1.5 of the national population

34
Romanian
  • Romance language
  • Slavic influence 9-12th
  • Re-Latinization in 19th century
  • Now French, English influences

35
Dominant Leader in 20th
  • Nicolae Ceausescu, President and Party head, 1965

36
Revolution
  • December, 1989 revolution against leadership
  • Demonstrations thousands in streets
  • Free elections since 1990

37
End of Era
  • Ceausescus flee captured, executed
  • Secret grave (see Kaplan description)

38
Communism Out, Capitalism In
39
New Romania
  • President Ion Iliescu until 1996
  • Succeeded by Emil Constantinescu, re-elected in
    2000
  • Now President Traian Basescu and PM Calin
    Tariceanu
  • EU membership a priority

40
Historical Periods
  • Roman (1st BC 10th AD)
  • Pre-WWI (10th-early 20th)
  • InterWar (1914-39)
  • WWII (1939-44)
  • Post-War (1945-1989)
  • Post-Communist (1989-Present)

41
Changing allegiances
  • Nazis (Antonescu)then Allies
  • Michael (Mihai) takes charge again
  • Soviet occupation
  • Post-War Soviet domination

42
Kaplan
  • To the Black Sea
  • Dams, canals Ceausescus projects
  • Bleakness, poverty of Wallachia
  • Ecological disaster now UNESCO biosphere reserve

43
Danube Delta
44
Post-War Developments
  • Communist rule Michael forced out in 1947
  • Soviet occupation until late 1950s
  • Policies determined in Moscow
  • Resistance grew in 1950s Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
  • Dependence on USSR
  • 1960s growing independence from Moscow

45
Microcultures (Kaplan)
  • Wallachia
  • Bucovina
  • Moldavia/Moldova/Bessarabia
  • Transylvania

46
Moldova-Moldavia
47
(No Transcript)
48
New Issues
  • Russia, Soviet Union new factor
  • WWII issues again
  • Role of Antonescu
  • Pogroms, Romanian Holocaust
  • Shift in policy
  • History Re-written

49
Slavenka Drakulic
50
Drakulic- Biography
  • Born 1949 lives in Sweden and Croatia
  • Essayist, Journalist and Fiction Writer
  • Non-fiction
  • Deadly Sins of Feminism
  • How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed
  • The Balkan Express Fragments from the Other Side
    of the War
  • Café Europa Life after Communism
  • Novels
  • Holograms of Fear
  • Marble Skin
  • The Taste of a Man

51
Drakulics S A Novel About the Balkans (1999)
  • Treatment of women in wartime
  • Conscious strategy deliberate policies
  • Moral blindness loss of inhibitions under
    extreme conditions

52
Drakulics Novel S
  • What is the historical basis for the work?
  • Did it offer any explanations? Motives?
  • What are the key events in Ss experiences? Her
    main challenges?
  • What are Ss key relationships?
  • What are the moral questions raised? Are they
    resolved?

53
What are the novels literary qualities?
  • Genre
  • Point of view
  • Structure

54
Drakulics Novel S
  • What is the historical basis for the work?
  • Did it offer any explanations? Motives?
  • What are the key events in Ss experiences? Her
    main challenges?
  • What are Ss key relationships?
  • What are the moral questions raised? Are they
    resolved?

55
What are the novels literary qualities?
  • Genre
  • Point of view
  • Structure

56
Rape
  • Phenomenon in many military conflicts
  • Ongoing discussion in international law
  • ICTY verdict systematic use of rape can be
    prosecuted as war crime
  • 25,000-60,000 Bosnian and Croatian women
  • How should we understand it?
  • Tactic of ethnic cleansing?
  • Related to genocide?

57
Theory 1
  • Woman as property rape devalues signals failure
    of her man to protect her

58
Theory 2
  • Rape represents violation of territorial
    integrity, means of establishing jurisdiction and
    conquest
  • Metaphor man bears generic stuff of nation
    female is property and vessel in which children
    of nation grow men become owners of territory
    and children

59
Theory 3
  • Rape degrades, pollutes nations symbol of
    fertility and purity threatens to cleanse the
    territory through birth of an enemy son
  • Demonstrates power of invading forces
  • Reward for victory

60
More theories
  • War removes inhibitions
  • Xenophobia, misogyny merge
  • Ethnic hatred is sexualized
  • Mass sexual abuse as genocide

61
Theory and Drakulics S A Novel About the
Balkans (1999)
  • Public humiliation effective way of scaring
    people away
  • Mass rape most horrifying public humiliation
  • Shame women, soil them
  • Rape intimidates enemy soldiers
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