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JSPs Lecture 8

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Title: JSPs Lecture 8


1
JSPsLecture 8
  • cs193i Internet Technologies
  • Summer 2004
  • Stanford University

2
Administrative Stuff
  • HW3 due today
  • HW4 due August 11
  • All local SCPD students must come to campus for
    final exam

3
Why JSPs?
  • Goal Create dynamic web content (HTML, XML, ...)
    for a Web Application
  • Goal Make it easier/cleaner to mix static HTML
    parts with dynamic Java servlet code
  • JSP specification ver. 2.0
  • Java Servlet specification ver. 2.4

4
JSP/ASP/PHP vs CGI/Servlets
  • CGI Servlets -- Mostly Code with some HTML via
    print out.println
  • JSP/ASP/PHP -- Mostly HTML, with code snippets
    thrown in
  • No explicit recompile
  • Great for small problems
  • Easier to program
  • Not for large computations

5
What is JSP?
  • Mostly HTML page, with extension .jsp
  • Include JSP tags to enable dynamic content
    creation
  • Translation JSP ? Servlet class
  • Compiled at Request time
  • (first request, a little slow)
  • Execution Request ? JSP Servlet's service method

6
What is a JSP?
lthtmlgt ltbodygt ltjspuseBean.../gt
ltjspgetProperty.../gt ltjspgetProperty.../gt
lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt
7
Advantages
  • Code -- Computation
  • HTML -- Presentation
  • Separation of Roles
  • Developers
  • Content Authors/Graphic Designers/Web Masters
  • Supposed to be cheaper... but not really...

8
Model-View-Controller
  • A Design Pattern
  • Controller -- receives user interface input,
    updates data model
  • Model -- represents state of the world (e.g.
    shopping cart)
  • View -- looks at model and generates an
    appropriate user interface to present the data
    and allow for further input

9
Model-View-Controller
JSP
View
Bean
Servlet
Controller
Model
10
Public class OrderServlet public void
doGet() if(bean.isOrderValid())
bean.saveOrder(req)
forward(conf.jsp)
Servlet
Pure Servlet
public class OrderServlet public void
dogGet() if(isOrderValid(req))
saveOrder(req) out.println(lthtmlgtlt
bodygt) private void
isOrderValid() private void
saveOrder()
lthtmlgt ltbodygt ltcforEach itemsordergt
lt/cforEachgt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt
JSP
isOrderValid() saveOrder() ------------------ pri
vate state
Java Bean
11
JSP Big Picture
Hello.jsp
GET /hello.jsp
HelloServlet.java
lthtmlgtHello!lt/htmlgt
Server w/ JSP Container
HelloServlet.class
12
A JSP File
13
lt_at_ Directive gt
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c" urihttp//java.sun.com/jstl
    /core gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtJSP is Easylt/titlegt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbody bgcolor"white"gt
  • lth1gtJSP is as easy as ...lt/h1gt
  • lt-- Calculate the sum of 1 2 3
    dynamically --gt
  • 1 2 3 ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/htmlgt

14
lt-- JSPComment --gt
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c" urihttp//java.sun.com/jstl
    /core gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtJSP is Easylt/titlegt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbody bgcolor"white"gt
  • lth1gtJSP is as easy as ...lt/h1gt
  • lt-- Calculate the sum of 1 2 3
    dynamically --gt
  • 1 2 3 ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/htmlgt

15
Template Text
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c" urihttp//java.sun.com/jstl
    /core gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtJSP is Easylt/titlegt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbody bgcolor"white"gt
  • lth1gtJSP is as easy as ...lt/h1gt
  • lt-- Calculate the sum of 1 2 3
    dynamically --gt
  • 1 2 3 ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/htmlgt

16
lt expr gt
  • Java expression whose output is spliced into HTML
  • lt userInfo.getUserName() gt
  • lt 1 1 gt
  • lt new java.util.Date() gt
  • Translated to out.println(userInfo.getUserName())
    ...

WARNING Old School JSP! The new way is
introduced after break.... you may use either,
but Old School JSP is used sparingly nowadays
17
lt code gt
  • Scriptlet Add a whole block of code to JSP...
  • passed through to JSP's service method

18
lt_at_ page language"java" contentType"text/html"
gt lt_at_ page import"java.util." gt lt_at_ taglib
prefix"c" uri"http//java.sun.com/jstl/core"
gt lt // Create an ArrayList with test data
ArrayList list new ArrayList( ) Map author1
new HashMap( ) author1.put("name", "John
Irving") author1.put("id", new Integer(1))
list.add(author1) Map author2 new HashMap(
) author2.put("name", "William Gibson")
author2.put("id", new Integer(2))
list.add(author2) Map author3 new HashMap(
) author3.put("name", "Douglas Adams")
author3.put("id", new Integer(3))
list.add(author3) pageContext.setAttribute("aut
hors", list) gt lthtmlgt ltheadgt
lttitlegtSearch result Authorslt/titlegt lt/headgt
ltbody bgcolor"white"gt Here are all authors
matching your search critera lttablegt
ltthgtNamelt/thgt ltthgtIdlt/thgt ltcforEach
itemsauthors varcurrentgt
19
lt_at_ page language"java" contentType"text/html"
gt lthtmlgt ltheadgt lttitlegtBrowser
Checklt/titlegt lt/headgt ltbody
bgcolor"white"gt lt String
userAgent request.getHeader("User-Agent")
if (userAgent.indexOf("MSIE") ! -1)
gt You're using Internet Explorer.
lt else if (userAgent.indexOf("Mozilla") ! -1)
gt You're probably using Netscape.
lt else gt You're using a browser I
don't know about. lt gt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt
20
lt! decl gt
  • Turned into an instance variable for the servlet
  • What did I tell you about instance variables
    multithreaded servlets?
  • Serious Race Conditions Here!

21
lt_at_ page language"java" contentType"text/html"
gt lt! int globalCounter 0 gt lthtmlgt
ltheadgt lttitlegtA page with a counterlt/titlegt
lt/headgt ltbody bgcolor"white"gt This page
has been visited lt globalCounter gt times.
ltpgt lt int localCounter 0
gt This counter never increases its value
lt localCounter gt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt Declarat
ions have serious multithreading issues!
22
lt_at_ page language"java" contentType"text/html"
gt lt! int globalCounter 0 gt lthtmlgt
ltheadgt lttitlegtA page with a counterlt/titlegt
lt/headgt ltbody bgcolor"white"gt This page
has been visited lt globalCounter gt times.
ltpgt lt int localCounter 0
gt This counter never increases its value
lt localCounter gt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt Not
saved between requests...!
23
lt_at_ page language"java" contentType"text/html"
gt lt_at_ page import"java.util.Date" gt lt! int
globalCounter 0 java.util.Date startDate
public void jspInit( ) startDate new
java.util.Date( ) public void jspDestroy(
) ServletContext context
getServletConfig().getServletContext( )
context.log("test.jsp was visited "
globalCounter " times between "
startDate " and " (new Date( )))
gt lthtmlgt ltheadgt lttitlegtA page with a
counterlt/titlegt lt/headgt ltbody
bgcolor"white"gt This page has been
visited lt globalCounter gt times since
lt startDate gt. lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt No real need
anymore, since we don't use instance variables!
24
ltjspinclude gt
  • ltjspinclude page"trailer.html flush"true" /gt

25
Five Minute Break
26
Big Picture Web Apps
Database
Legacy Applications
End User 1
Java Applications
Web Service
Other?
Web Server (Servlets/JSP)
End User 2
27
Invoking Dynamic Code(from JSPs)
  • Call Java Code Directly
  • (Expressions, Declarations, Scriptlets)
  • Call Java Code Indirectly
  • (Separate Utility Classes, JSP calls methods)
  • Use Beans
  • (jspuseBean, jspgetProperty, jspsetProperty)
  • Use MVC architecture (servlet, JSP, JavaBean)
  • Use JSP expression Language
  • (shorthand to access bean properties, etc)
  • Use custom tags
  • (Develop tag handler classes use xml-like
    custom tags)

28
Invoking Dynamic Code(from JSPs)
  • Call Java Code Directly
  • (Expressions, Declarations, Scriptlets)
  • Call Java Code Indirectly
  • (Separate Utility Classes, JSP calls methods)
  • Use Beans
  • (jspuseBean, jspgetProperty, jspsetProperty)
  • Use MVC architecture (servlet, JSP, JavaBean)
  • Use JSP expression Language
  • (shorthand to access bean properties, etc)
  • Use custom tags
  • (Develop tag handler classes use xml-like
    custom tags)

Simple Application or Small Development Team
Complex Application or Big Development Team
29
Servlets and JSPs
  • Core Servlets and JavaServer Pages, 2nd Edition,
    Volumes 1 2. Marty Hall Larry Brown

30
Java Beans
  • Purpose Store Data
  • Simple Object,
  • requires no argument constructor
  • Properties accessible via get set methods

31
Java Beans
  • For a "foo" property, a java bean will respond to
  • Type getFoo()
  • void setFoo(Type foo)
  • For a boolean "bar" property, a java bean will
    respond to
  • boolean isBar()
  • void setBar(boolean bar)

32
Java Bean
int getCount() void setCount(int c) String
getS() void setS(String s) int getFoo() void
setFoo(int f)
int count String s int foo
33
(No Transcript)
34
// MagicBean.java / A simple bean that contains
a single "magic" string. / public class
MagicBean private String magic public
MagicBean(String string) magic string
public MagicBean() magic "Woo Hoo" //
default magic string public String
getMagic() return(magic) public void
setMagic(String magic) this.magic magic

35
Java Beans
  • ltjspuseBean id"myBean" class"com.foo.MyBean
    scope"request"/gt
  • ltjspgetProperty name"myBean property"lastChang
    ed" /gt
  • ltjspsetProperty name"myBean property"lastChang
    ed" value"lt new Date()gt"/gt
  • Example
  • ltjspusebean id"bean" class"MagicBean" /gt
  • ltjspgetProperty name"bean" property"magic" /gt

36
lt!-- bean.jsp --gt lthrgt lth3gtBean JSPlt/h3gt ltpgtHave
all sorts of elaborate, tasteful HTML
("presentation") surrounding the data we pull off
the bean. ltpgt Behold -- I bring forth the magic
property from the Magic Bean... lt!-- bring in
the bean under the name "bean" --gt ltjspusebean
id"bean" class"MagicBean" /gt lttable
border1gt lttrgt lttd bgcolorgreengtltfont
size2gtWoolt/fontgt Hoolt/tdgt lttd
bgcolorpinkgt ltfont size3gt lttd
bgcolorpinkgt ltfont size3gt lt!-- the following
effectively does bean.getMagic() --gt
ltjspgetProperty name"bean" property"magic"
/gt lt/fontgt lt/tdgt lttd bgcoloryellowgtWoo ltfont
size2gtHoolt/fontgtlt/tdgt lt/trgt lt/tablegt lt!-- pull
in content from another page at request time with
a relative URL ref to another page --gt
ltjspinclude page"trailer.html" flush"true" /gt
37
public class HelloBean extends HttpServlet
public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,
HttpServletResponse response) throws
IOException, ServletException
response.setContentType("text/html") PrintWrite
r out response.getWriter() out.println("lthtmlgt
") out.println("ltheadgt") out.println("lthtmlgt")
out.println("ltheadgt") String title "Hello
Bean" out.println("lttitlegt" title
"lt/titlegt") out.println("lt/headgt") out.println
("ltbody bgcolorwhitegt") out.println("lth1gt"
title "lt/h1gt") out.println("ltpgtLet's see what
Mr. JSP has to contribute...") request.setAttr
ibute("foo", "Binky") MagicBean bean new
MagicBean("Peanut butter sandwiches!") request.s
etAttribute("bean", bean) RequestDispatcher rd
getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/bean.
jsp") rd.include(request, response) rd.include
(request, response) out.println("lthrgt") out.pr
intln("lt/bodygt") out.println("lt/htmlgt")
// Override doPost() -- just have it call
doGet() public void doPost(HttpServletRequest
request, HttpServletResponse response) throws
IOException, ServletException doGet(request,
response)
38
JSP Tags
  • Found in JSP Pages
  • Look like HTML Tags
  • ltblah attrvalgtFoolt/blahgt
  • Single Tag Format
  • ltblah attrval/gt

39
lt-- JSPComment --gt
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c" uri"http//java.sun.com/jst
    l/core" gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtJSP is Easylt/titlegt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbody bgcolor"white"gt
  • lth1gtJSP is as easy as ...lt/h1gt
  • lt-- Calculate the sum of 1 2 3
    dynamically --gt
  • 1 2 3 ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/htmlgt

40
lt_at_ Directive gt
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c" uri"http//java.sun.com/jst
    l/core" gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtJSP is Easylt/titlegt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbody bgcolor"white"gt
  • lth1gtJSP is as easy as ...lt/h1gt
  • lt-- Calculate the sum of 1 2 3
    dynamically --gt
  • 1 2 3 ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/htmlgt

41
Page Directive
  • lt_at_ page import"package.class" gt
  • lt_at_ page import"java.util." gt
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt response.setContentType("text/html") gt

42
Include Directive
  • lt_at_ include file"Relative URL"gt
  • Included at Translation time
  • May contain JSP code such as response header
    settings, field definitions, etc... that affect
    the main page

43
ltjspinclude gt
  • Include Files at Request Time
  • ltjspinclude page"news/Item1.html"/gt
  • page attribute must point to a page that is HTML
    or a page that produces HTML (via JSP, CGI,
    etc)...

44
Scripting Element Tags
  • lt expr gt
  • lt! decl gt
  • lt code gt

45
Action Elements
  • Standard Actions
  • JSTL (tag library) Actions
  • Custom Actions

46
Standard Actions
  • ltjspuseBeangt
  • Makes a JavaBeans component available in a page
  • ltjspgetPropertygt
  • Gets a property value from a JavaBeans component
    and adds it to the response
  • ltjspsetPropertygt
  • Set a JavaBeans property value
  • ltjspincludegt
  • Includes the response from a servlet or JSP page
    during the request processing phase

47
Standard Actions
  • ltjspforwardgt
  • Forwards the processing of a request to servlet
    or JSP page
  • ltjspparamgt
  • Adds a parameter value to a request handed off
    to another servlet or JSP page using
    ltjspincludegt or ltjsp forwardgt
  • ltjspplugingt
  • Generates HTML that contains the appropriate
    client browser-dependent elements (OBJECT or
    EMBED) needed to execute an applet with the Java
    Plug-in software

48
Custom Actions (Tag Libraries)
  • Can Define Your own!
  • Description
  • Define
  • Install
  • Declare
  • Use
  • Details in JavaServer Pages 2nd ed found on
    Safari Techbooks

49
JSTL Tags
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c"
  • uri"http//java.sun.com/jstl/core" gt
  • ...
  • ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt

50
JSP Standard Tag Library
  • Built on custom tag infrastructure
  • lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt
  • lt_at_ taglib prefix"c" uri"http//java.sun.com/jst
    l/core" gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtJSP is Easylt/titlegt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbody bgcolor"white"gt
  • lth1gtJSP is as easy as ...lt/h1gt
  • 1 2 3 ltcout value"1 2 3" /gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/htmlgt

51
JSTL Control Tags
lt_at_ page contentType"text/html" gt lt_at_ taglib
prefix"c uri"http//java.sun.com/jstl/core"
gt ltcif test"2gt0"gt It's true that
(2gt0)! lt/cifgt ltcforEach items"paramValue
s.food" var"current"gt ltcout
value"current" /gtnbsp lt/cforEachgt
52
Expression Language Motivation
  • Limitations of MVC
  • lt ... gt, lt ... gt, lt! ... gt
  • jspuseBean, jspgetProperty
  • verbose
  • clumsy scripting expression elements to do more
    complicated Java things
  • With Expression Language
  • expression
  • Short and readable and fluid, like JavaScript

53
Advantages of Expression Language (EL)
  • Simple Concise
  • Flexible (use in conjunction with tag libraries
    custom tags)
  • Robust against Error

54
Basic Arithmetic
  • 1.2 2.3 gt 3.5 lt 1.2 2.3 gt
  • 3/0 gt Infinity
  • \1 gt 1
  • 10 mod 4 gt 2

55
Basic Comparisons
  • 4.0 gt 3 gt true
  • 4.0 ge 3 gt true Not in Java
  • 100.0 100 gt true
  • (1010) ne 100 gt false Not in Java
  • 'hip' gt 'hit' gt false Not in Java
  • 'a' lt 'b' gt true Not in Java

56
Implicit Objects
  • param.foo gt booyah
  • param"foo" gt booyah
  • \param"foo" gt param"foo"
  • header"host" gt localhost8080
  • header"accept" gt /
  • header"user-agent" gt Mozilla/5.0
  • (Macintosh U PPC Mac OS X en-us)
    AppleWebKit/124 (KHTML, like Gecko) Safari/125

57
Functions
  • Implemented by Tag Libraries (Tag Libaries,
    implemented as Static Methods)
  • param"foo"
  • gt JSP 2.0
  • myreverse(param"foo")
  • gt 0.2 PSJ
  • myreverse(myreverse(param"foo"))
  • gt JSP 2.0
  • mycountVowels(param"foo")
  • gt 0

58
Conditionals
  • ltTD ALIGN"RIGHT BGCOLOR(oranges.total lt 0)
    ? "RED" "WHITE""gt

59
  • package coreservlets
  • public class Salesbean
  • private double q1, q2, q3, q4
  • public SalesBean(double q1Sales, double q2Sales,
    double q3Sales, double q4Sales)
  • ...
  • public double getQ1() return(q1)
  • public double getQ2() return(q2)
  • ...

60
  • package coreservlets
  • import java.io.
  • import javax.servlet.
  • import javax.servlet.http.
  • public class Conditionals extends HttpServlet
  • public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,
    HttpServletResponse response)
  • throws ServletException, IOException
  • SalesBean apples new SalesBean(150.25,
    -75.25, 22.25, -33.57)
  • SalesBean oranges new SalesBean(-220.25,
    -49.57, 138.25, 12.25)
  • request.setAttribute("apples", apples)
  • request.setattribute("oranges", oranges)
  • RequestDispatcher dispatcher
  • request.getRequestDispatcher("/el/conditionals.
    jsp")
  • dispatcher.forward(request, response)

61
  • package coreservlets
  • import java.io.
  • import javax.servlet.
  • import javax.servlet.http.
  • public class Conditionals extends HttpServlet
  • public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,
    HttpServletResponse response)
  • throws ServletException, IOException
  • SalesBean apples new SalesBean(150.25,
    -75.25, 22.25, -33.57)
  • SalesBean oranges new SalesBean(-220.25,
    -49.57, 138.25, 12.25)
  • request.setAttribute("apples", apples)
  • request.setattribute("oranges", oranges)
  • RequestDispatcher dispatcher
  • request.getRequestDispatcher("/el/conditionals.
    jsp")
  • dispatcher.forward(request, response)

62
  • ...
  • ltTD ALIGN"RIGHT" BGCOLOR(oranges.total lt 0)
    ? "RED" "WHITE""gt
  • ltTD ALIGN"RIGHT" BGCOLOR(apples.q1 lt 0) ?
    "RED" "WHITE""gt
  • ...

63
EL Examples
  • ltinput name"firstName value"customer.firstNam
    e"gt
  • ltcout value"order.amount 5"/gt
  • order.amount 5
  • order'amount' 5
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