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Energy and the Environent

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agriculture, small industry, homes, schools, and other community needs. ... All new residential buildings (2009), 14 % of household heating and hot water ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy and the Environent


1
Energy and the Environent
2
Outline
  • 1. Introduction
  • -- What is the challenge?
  • 2. Problems of energy
  • 3. Impetus/context to renewable energy
    regime/drive
  • 4. Energy resources
  • 5. Conclusion

3
Introduction
  • What is the challenge
  • - Dependence on fossil fuels. vs. desire
    low-carbon
  • - The problem of political will?

4
Energy Problems I
  • The Environmental Dimension
  • Transport- oil spills eg. 1989, 10 million
    gallons of crude oil leaked from Exxon Valdez
    tanker
  • off Alaska.
  • use -Greenhouse gas effects, from carbon dioxide
    produced in the burning of fuels has effect on
  • climate change
  • Disposal- fuel rods used in nuclear plants
    disposed of as radioactive wastes high exposure
    to
  • humans can cause birth defects, cancer, death

5
Energy Problems II
  • The Economic Dimension
  • Industrial economy,
  • Social conveniences
  • The National Security Dimenion
  • Rise of militant nationalism in worlds gas
    stations
  • Vulnerability among worlds leading oil
    consumers
  • Impact 1973 OPEC embargo

6
Energy Problems III
  • Depletion/supply concerns
  • - Oil-rich nations using more energy and
    cutting imports
  • - Not shortage
  • - Political sources energy indep.

7
Sources of Energy
8
Coal
  • Uses electricity, heating, cooking, industry?
  • Advantages abundant, cheap.
  • Environmental impacts of Coal
  • the high cost of cheap coal i.e. the politics
    of costing who counts
  • Air pollution
  • SO2, NOx,
  • CO2 emissions
  • Most carbon intensive fuel
  • High percentage of global CO2 emissions
  • Mining impacts
  • Safety.
  • Health water around the mines
  • Disposal of byproducts
  • Clean coal technology Carbon
    sequestration
  • Issues Cost escape and safety, diverts
    resources

9
Natural Gas
  • Cleanest burning of all fossil fuels
  • Most efficient
  • World production and reserves continue to rise
  • Largest reservoirs Russia former Soviet 31,
    Mid. East 31.
  • Known reserves 60 year supply at current use
    rates
  • Dependence on foreign countries
  • Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas
  • -Pipeline construction and leaks
  • -Emissions of greenhouse gas
  • - Flares

10
Nuclear Power
  • About 5 global energy consumption.
  • Problems in its development
  • - Decline in public acceptance
  • - High cost U.S., govt heavy subsidy,
    especially insurance liability
  • Env. impacts of Nuclear Energy
  • Does not emit NOx, SO2, CO2
  • Accidents
  • -Three Mile Island plant, PA (1979)
  • - Chernobyl (1989)
  • - Proponents 19th C. Britain over 100,000 died
    in coal mines.
  • Nuclear Waste big debate, but also, source of
    revenue to some
  • On site storage
  • Russias Far East
  • Yucca Mountain site?
  • Nuclear waste trade

11
Oil
  • Global world production
  • e.g.- Saudi Arabi 25 Iraq 9 UAE 9Iran 9
    Kuwait 10 Venezuela 7 US 2.8 Mexico 4.7
  • Environmental Impacts of oil
  • Gas flaring
  • Pipeline leaks
  • CO2 emissions
  • Air pollution SO2, NOx, O3
  • Oil spills Exxon Valdez 1989
  • - almost assured because of distributional
    conflicts e.g. Niger Delta Oil

12
Alternative Energy Sources/Practices
  • Demand Side Logic of efficiency
  • -renewable energy energy efficiency
    improvements, could provide up to 50 of U.S.
    electricity needs by 2030.
  • - Energy efficiency would account for about 57
    of national emissions reductions required by 2030
    (renewables would provide the rest).
  • - 40 of efficiency-related reductions be from
  • buildings,
  • -30 percent from both the industry and
  • transportation sectors.

13
Energy Efficiency
  • Constraints on Energy Efficiency
  • Policy Failures
  • - Subsidies and artificially low prices
  • - Not regulating externalities e.g. pollution
  • - Electoral politics-special interests problem
  • Limited access to ICT Information,
    Communication, and Technology
  • - Income/markets, information flow
  • Collective action problems
  • -hence policy failures persist

14
Alternative Energy/practices cont.
  • 2. Supply side Renewable Sources
  • - Includes
  • - Hydropower, biomass, solar PV, Wind, Hydrogen,
    Tidal, geothermal, waste
  • -Services
  • - electricity, heat, motive power, and water
    pumping for millions in dev. countries.
  • - Sectors
  • -agriculture, small industry, homes, schools,
    and other community needs.

15
Renewable Energy in Developing Countries
  • 40 existing renewable power capacity,
  • - 70 existing solar hot water capacity,
  • 45 biofuels production.
  • Policy to promote renewable Energy growing.
  • - At least 60 countries
  • - 37 developed and transition countries
  • -23 developing countries

16
Polices to Promote Renewable Energy
  • Most common policies
  • 1.Feed-in law producers guaranteed sale to
    electric network.
  • - By 2007, at least 37 countries and 9
    states/provinces, more than half enacted since
    2002.
  • 2. Renewable portfolio standards (RPS)/ renewable
    obligations or quota a of generation sold or
    capacity installed is provided by renewable
    energy
  • - United States, Canada, India, Australia,
    China, Italy, Japan, Poland, Sweden, and the
    United Kingdom.
  • - U. S., five states enacted new RPS policies
    during 2006/2007 (Illinois, New Hampshire, North
    Carolina, Oregon, and Washington State), total US
    25 D.C (four states have policy goals).
  • - 9 U.S. states revised existing RPS targets,
    including California, which accelerated to 2010
    an existing target of 20 by 2017.

17
Other Forms of Policy Support
  • Capital investment subsidies or rebates,
  • Tax incentives and credits,
  • Sales tax and value-added tax exemptions,
  • Energy production payments or tax credits,
  • Public investment or financing.
  • Mandates for incorporating solar hot water into
    new construction.
  • Germany
  • All new residential buildings (2009), 14 of
    household heating and hot water energy from
    renewables
  • Existing German buildings be retrofitted to
    meet 10 of their heating energy from
    renewables.
  • Allocation of 490 million in 2008 for capital
    grants to homeowners.
  • Cape Town, South Africa,
  • - Draft 2007 bylaw undergoing review solar hot
    water in new houses for middle- and high-income
    groups.

18
Wind
  • Fastest growing worlds renewable energy resource
  • - 28 worldwide in 2007.
  • - Annual capacity additions increased 40
    higher in 2007 cf to 2006.
  • - Europe leads world in installed capacity
  • - 1991 US DOE three states N. Dakota,
    Kansas, and Texas had enough to satisfy national
    electricity needs. Advance in turbine tech.
    suggests more not just electricity
  • Issues and Impacts in Wind power
  • - No air emissions
  • - Impact on birds mountain ridges
  • - Cost competitive

19
Biofuels Ethanol and Biodiesel
  • Power and heating
  • - expanding in Austria, Denmark, Finland,
    Sweden, and the Baltic countries, and provides
    substantial shares (550 percent) of district
    heating fuel.
  • Developing countries, small-scale power and heat
    production from agricultural waste is common, for
    example from rice or coconut husks.
  • The use of bagasse (sugar cane after juice
    extraction) in countries with large sugar
    industry,
  • Australia, Brazil, China,Colombia,
  • Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand.
  • - Corn

20
The United States
  • By 2007, gasoline blended with some share of
    ethanol.
  • Production of ethanol less than demand (2006).
  • - U.S. Energy Bill.
  • - Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), set goals for
    the U.S. biofuels industry.
  • - production of 36 million gallons of
    biofuels mainly ethanol and biodieselannually
    by 2022.

21
Criticism/Fears of Biofuels
Long-term effects on agriculture.
  • And the environment
  • - process of producing biofuels cultivation,
    fertilisation, harvesting, transportation could
    introduce parallel carbon emissions.
  • What could a price war with fossil fuel mean?

22
Promising trends
  • Provisions in US Energy Bill.
  • - meet certain greenhouse gas emissions
    requirements.
  • -emission reductions have to be based on
    lifecycle studies
  • - administrator should re-evaluate conditions
    annually and adjust the fuel mandate and
  • emissions requirements
  • Similar views elsewhere mirror U.S. view
  • eg. Brazil Forum consensus
  • Other Example
  • - Jatropha

23
Conclusions
What policies are needed to advance renewable
energy? - reduce subsidies for conventional
energy and incorporate external costs (leveling
the playing field)
  • Question of Political will and the right policies
    who is the problem?.
  • - Promising examples
  • - Tanzanial Fuel briquettes.
  • - Chinas cow-dung
  • methane power plant
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