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EvidenceBased Education Preventing Reading Failure in America Presentation to the American Psycholog

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Title: EvidenceBased Education Preventing Reading Failure in America Presentation to the American Psycholog


1
Evidence-Based Education Preventing Reading
Failure in AmericaPresentation to the American
Psychological Association
  • G. Reid Lyon, Ph.D.
  • President and CEO
  • Synergistic Education Solutions
  • Dallas, Texas
  • learning4all_at_tx.rr.com

2
Reading FailureAn Educational and a Public
Health Problem
  • Reading Proficiency is Critical to Academic
    Learning and Success in School
  • (Lyon, 1998 2002, 2003, 2004 Snow, Burns
    Griffin, 1998)
  • The Ability to Read Proficiently is Significantly
    Related to Quality of Life and Health Outcomes
  • (Lyon, 1997 Lyon Chhabra, 2004 Thompson, 2001)

3
Percent of 4th Grade Students Performing Below
Basic Level - 37
White
27
Black
63
Hispanic
58
Poor
60
Non-poor
26
Percent Performing Below the Basic Reading Level
National Center for Educational Statistics, 2003
4
Research Questions
  • How do children develop language abilities?
  • How do children develop social competencies?
  • How can we foster childrens emotional health?
  • How do children learn to read?
  • Why do some children have difficulties learning
    to read?
  • How can we prevent reading difficulties?
  • How can we remediate reading difficulties?

5
The Scientific Investment
  • Number of Research Sites
    44
  • Children and Adults Studied
    48,000
  • Proficient Readers
    22,000
  • At-Risk/Struggling Readers
    26,000
  • Average Years Studied/Followed
    9
  • Max Longitudinal Span to Date
    24
  • Current Prevention/Intervention Trials
    12
  • Schools Currently Participating
    266
  • Classrooms Currently Participating
    985
  • Classroom Teachers Participating
    1,012

6
NIH-NICHD Multidisciplinary Research Program
(North America Lyon, 1985-2005)
Childrens Hospital/ Harvard LDRC Waber
U of Washington Berninger
U of Massachusetts Rayner
Emerson College Aram
Toronto Lovett
Beth Israel Galaburda
Mayo Clinic Kalusic
Tufts Wolf
Yale Shaywitz
Syracuse U Blachman
Haskins Labs Fowler/Liberman
U of Michigan Morrison
SUNY Albany Vellutino
U of WisconsinJohnson-Glenburg
Stanford Reiss
Carnegie-Mellon
Northwestern UBooth
Boys Town Smith
Rutgers UScarboro-ugh
Johns Hopkins Denckla
U of Southern California Manis/Seidenberg
Purdue U Hynd
D.C./Houston Forman/Moats
Colorado LDRC Defries
Duke UGoldston
U of KansasShumaker
U of Missouri Geary
Georgetown U Eden
U of Louisville Molfese
Univ of California IrvineFilipek
ColoradoMoats
Gallaudet ULaSasso
San FranciscoHerron
Bowman Gray Wood
U of California San Diego, Salk
Institute Bellugi
U of Arkansas Med Ctr Dykman
Georgia State R. Morris
U of GeorgiaStahl
U of Houston Francis
Yale Methodology Fletcher
Florida State Torgesen/Wagner
U of Texas Med Ctr Foorman/Fletcher
Univ of Florida Alexander/Conway
NICHD Sites
U of TexasVaughn
7
Some Reasons Why Reading Instruction Has Not Been
Helpful
  • Untested Theories and Assumptions Regarding
    Reading Development and Instruction
  • Romantic Beliefs About Learning and Teaching
  • Fads
  • Appeals to So Called Authority

8
Our Youngest Citizens Will Surprise Us
  • Infants, Toddlers, and preschoolers can learn
    more than we ever thought possible
  • From birth to age 3 the brains of children are
    rapidly forming connections between neural cells
  • The quality and degree of connections between
    neural cells are established through the the
    quality of interactions the child has with
    adults, other children, and the environment
  • Infants before the age of 6 months can perceive
    and express all sounds of all languages spoken on
    the planet

9
P. Kuhl, U. Washington
10
P. Kuhl, U. Washington
11
Our Youngest Citizens Will Surprise Us
  • Depending on the environment, vocabulary
    development accelerates rapidly during the second
    year of life.
  • Under the right circumstances, most 18 month olds
    (on average) learn 9 new words a day, every day,
    throughout the preschool years
  • By 3 years of age the child can speak in full
    sentences

12
Learning Begins Early
P. Kuhl, U. Washington
13
The Role of the Environment and Early Experience
on Language Development
  • Language development requires an interplay
    between genes, biology, and environmental factors
  • Poverty and disadvantage reduce the quantity and
    quality of interactions with language
  • Limited language interactions in the home
    environment place children at severe risk for
    school failure, particularly in reading
  • Cultural influences every aspect of human
    development and must be considered in the design
    and implementation of any program

14
Environmental Influences
  • By kindergarten a child from disadvantage
    typically has twice the vocabulary as a youngster
    born into poverty
  • The typical 5-year-old from an urban environment
    and disadvantaged home enters kindergarten at the
    5th percentile in vocabulary
  • By age 16 advantaged children have four times the
    vocabulary as children born into poverty

15
Major Sources of Reading Failure
  • Socioeconomic Factors Poverty
  • Biological Factors Genetics and Neurobiology
  • Instructional Factors Predominate

16
What Do Kids Need to Know to Read?
  • A HECK OF A LOT

17
In 1995, the U.S. Department of Education and
the National Institutes of Health
National Academy of Sciences
Report from the National Research Council 1998
18
In 1997, United States Congress
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development U.S. Department of Education
Report of the National Reading Panel
19
How Do Children Learn to Read?
Hart and Risley, 1995
20
How Do Children Learn to Read?The Influence of
Early Language and Literacy Experiences
  • Differences in exposure to words over one year
    can predict substantial difficulties in oral
    language and reading development
  • Children in Professional Families 11 million
  • Children in Working-class Families 6 million
  • Children in Welfare Families 3 million

21
Mean Number of Interactions Initiated per Hour
Mean Number of Minutes per Interaction per Hour
50
Professional
40
42
Professional
Working-class
Welfare
Working-class
30
33
29
28.5
26
Welfare
20
18
10
0
Hart and Risley, 1995
22
Cumulative Language Experiences
Cumulative Words Spoken to Child (in millions)
50
Professional
48
40
Working-class
30
30
20
12
Welfare
12
10
7.5
3
0
0
12
24
36
48
Age of Child (in months)
Hart and Risley, 1995
23
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on
Reading Growth
Reading Age Level
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
High Oral Language in Kindergarten
5.2 years difference
Low Oral Language in Kindergarten
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Chronological Age
Hirsch, 1996
24
How Do Children Learn to Read?
  • Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

25
What is Phonological Awareness?
26
How Do Children Learn to Read?
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonological awareness involves the understanding
    that spoken words are composed of segments of
    sound smaller than a syllable.
  • It also involves the ability to notice, think
    about, or manipulate the individual sounds in
    words.

27
How Do Children Learn to Read?
7
7
6
6
5.9
5.7
5
5
Reading Grade Level
4
4
3.5
3
3
2.3
2
2
Average
Average
1
Low Average
Low
1
K
K
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
Grade Level Corresponding to Age
Grade Level Corresponding to Age
Growth in word reading ability of children who
begin 1st grade in the bottom 20 in Phoneme
Awareness and Letter Knowledge
Growth in phonics ability of children who
begin 1st grade in the bottom 20 in Phoneme
Awareness and Letter Knowledge
Torgesen Mathes, 2000
28
Growth in Reading Comprehension of Children Who
Begin 1st Grade in the Bottom 20 in Phoneme
Awareness and Letter Knowledge
6.9
7
6
5
4
3.4
Reading Grade Level
3
2
Average
1
Low
K
1
2
3
4
5
Grade Level Corresponding to Age
Torgesen Mathes, 2000
29
How Do Children Learn to Read?
  • PHONICS
  • Oh My Gosh The F word

30
What is Phonics?
It is a kind of knowledge
Which letters are used to represent which phonemes
It is a kind of skill
Pronounce this word
blit
fratchet
31
How Do Children Learn to Read?
  • FLUENCY

A common definition of reading fluency Fluency
is the ability to read text quickly, accurately,
and with proper expression National Reading Panel
32
The Most Common Method of Measuring Reading
Fluency in the Early Elementary
Grades Measuring the number of words per
minute a child can read accurately
33
Fluency
  • There is a strong relationship between how fast
    you read and how well you comprehend
  • Fluent and automatic reading frees up cognitive
    space so that conscious attention can be devoted
    to textual meaning
  • If decoding and word recognition are slow and
    labored, material will be forgotten before it is
    understood
  • The most powerful way to increase reading fluency
    is through
  • reading and reading and reading (see NRP)

34
Fundamental Discoveries About How Children Learn
to Read
The challenge of continuing growth in fluency
becomes even greater after 3rd grade.
4th, 5th, and 6th graders encounter about 10,000
words they have never seen before in print during
a years worth of reading.
Furthermore, each of these new words occurs
only about 10 times in a years worth of reading.
Sadly, its very difficult to correctly guess the
identity of these new words just from the
context of the passage.
Torgesen, 2001-2006
35
How Do Children Learn To Read?
  • VOCABULARY

36
VocabularyYou Cant Read Without
  • Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary
  • Relationship between Vocabulary Score (PPVT)
    measures in Kindergarten and later reading
    comprehension
  • Grade 1 - .45
  • Grade 4 - .62
  • Grade 7 - .69



37
VocabularyYou Cant Read Without It
  • The fourth grade reading slump reflects a
    language gap as much as a reading gap Why?
  • Reading tests (e.g., NAEP) in 4th grade are
    primarily measures of reading comprehension
  • It is impossible to comprehend what is read
    without the vocabulary relevant to what is being
    read

38
VocabularyYou Cant Read Without It
  • Reading comprehension, at a minimum, depends on
    decoding/word recognition accuracy and fluency,
    VOCABULARY, AND BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
  • A student must be able to read correctly
    approximately 95 percent of the words accurately
    in text to comprehend what is read
  • MOREOVER, to comprehend, a student must know the
    meanings of 90 to 95 percent of the words being
    read
  • The unknown 5 to 10 percent can be inferred from
    text

39
What Do Kids Need To Know To Read For Meaning?
Accurate and fluent word reading skills
Oral language skills (vocabulary, linguistic
comprehension)
Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge
Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive
strategies to improve comprehension or repair it
when it breaks down.
Reasoning and inferential skills
Motivation to understand and interest in task and
materials
Torgesen, 2000
40
Life Experience Content Knowledge Activation of
Prior Knowledge Knowledge about Texts
Oral Language Skills Knowledge of Language
Structures Vocabulary Cultural Influences
Reading Comprehension
Prosody Automaticity / Rate Accuracy Decoding Phon
emic Awareness
Motivation Engagement Active Reading
Strategies Monitoring Strategies Fix-Up Strategies
Florida Reading Initiative
41
Why Do Some Children Have Difficulty?
  • Deficient Word Level Reading Skills
  • Deficits in Fluency/Automaticity
  • Limitations In Vocabulary
  • Limitations in Background Knowledge
  • Limited Reading Comprehension Strategy Use

42
Early Intervention is Clearly Effective
  • Prevention studies commonly show that 70- 90 of
    at risk children (bottom 20) in K- 2 can learn
    to read in average range

43
Early Intervention is Possible
  • Risk characteristics present in Preschool,
    Kindergarten and G1
  • Print awareness, Letter knowledge, letter-sound
    knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language
    development, vocabulary, background knowledge
  • Assess all children and INTERVENE

44
Outcomes from 67.5 Hours of Intensive LiPSTM
Intervention
Standard Score
100
30
90
80
70
Word Attack
Text ReadingAccuracy
Reading Comprehension
Text Reading Rate
Torgesen, 2003
45
How Can We Prevent and Remediate Reading Failure?
  • Evidence from one school that we can do
    substantially better than ever before
  • Elements of Curriculum Change
  • Movement to a comprehensive reading curriculum
    beginning in 1994-1995 school year (incomplete
    implementation) for K-2
  • Improved implementation in 1995-1996
  • Implementation in Fall of 1996 of screening and
    more intensive small group instruction for
    at-risk students

46
Hartsfield Elementary School Progress Over Five
Years
40
Proportion falling below the 25th percentile in
word reading ability at the end of 1st grade
30
20
10
1995 1996
Torgesen, Alexander et al., 2001
47
Hartsfield Elementary ProgressOver Five Years
40
Proportion falling below the 25th percentile in
word reading ability at the end of first grade
30
20
10
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Average Percentile 48.9 55.2
61.4 73.5 81.7 for entire grade
(n105)
King Torgesen (in press)
48
Proactive Intervention
  • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics, with
    emphasis on fluency.
  • Integrates decoding, fluency, and comprehension
    strategies.
  • 100 decodable text
  • Carefully constructed scope and sequence designed
    to prevent possible confusions.
  • Every activity taught to 100 mastery everyday.

Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, et al, 2005
49
Responsive Intervention
  • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics and in
    analogy phonics
  • Teaches decoding, using the alphabetic principle,
    fluency, and comprehension strategies in the
    context of reading and writing
  • No pre-determined scope and sequence
  • Teachers respond to student needs as they are
    observed.
  • Leveled text not phonetically decodable

Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al, 2005
50
Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, et al, 2005
51
Mathes et a., 2005
52
Mathes et al., 2005
53
Mathes, et al., 2005
54
Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al
55
Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al
56
Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al
57
Evidence-Based Assessment and Instruction
Interventions are more effective when they
  • Provide systematic and explicit instruction
  • Provide a significant increase in intensity of
    instruction
  • Provide ample opportunities for guided practice
    of new skills
  • Provide systematic teaching of appropriate
    learning strategies
  • Provide appropriate levels of scaffolding as
    students learn to apply new skills

58
How Effective Instructional Strategies Improve
Student Achievement
Good Brophy, 1986 Hattie, 1992 Lyon,
Fletcher, Fuchs, Chhabra, 2005 Marzanno, 2003
59
What Science tells us about Effective Instruction
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Percentage Point Gains
16 13 15 19 19
12
Individualization
Computerized Instruction
Mastery Learning
Application
Tutoring
Instructional Media
Marzano, 2003
60
Characteristics Of Effective Schools
  • Evidence-Based Curriculum
  • Continuous Evaluation and Accountability
  • Challenging Goals for Both Students and Teachers
  • Opportunity to Learn and Sufficient Time for
    Instruction
  • Parental Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Collaboration

61
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
  • TEACHERS ARE EXPERTS IN
  • Content Knowledge
  • Planning and Setting Goals
  • Scientifically-Based Curriculum Design and
    Instruction
  • Formative and Summative Assessment
  • Customizing Instruction for Individual Students
  • Classroom Management and Organization
  • Motivating and Engaging Students

62
Effects of Student Achievement of School and
Teacher Effectiveness with Student Entering
School at 50th Percentile
Avg. School Avg. Teacher

Least Effective School Least Effective Teacher
100
50
Most Effective School Least Effective Teacher
20
Least Effective School Most Effective Teacher
10
Most Effective School Avg. Teacher
50 3 37 63 78
96
ACE Model Most Effective School Most Effective
Teacher
Achievement Percentile After Two Years
Glass, McGaw Smith, 1981 Marzano, 2000a
63
Why Effective Leaders and Teachers are Essential
Avg. School Avg. Teacher
100
90
Least Effective School Least Effective Teacher
80
70
Most Effective School Least Effective Teacher
60
50th percentile
50
Least Effective School Most Effective Teacher
40
30
Most Effective School Avg. Teacher
20
10
WIU Model Most Effective School Most Effective
Teacher
50 3 37 63 78
96
Glass et al. Marzano, 2003a
64
Reading stimulates general cognitive growth
particularly verbal skills
Simos, et al
65
Using Neuroscience to Guide Teaching and Learning
Lyon et al
66
(No Transcript)
67
Bookheimer - UCLA
68
Meanwhile, Back in the Brain
Simos et al
69
Why Do Some Children Have Difficulties Learning
to Read?
Kindergarten
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
S1 At risk
150-300 300-1000 ms
Time after Stimulus Onset
S31 Not at risk
Simos et al
70
Kindergarten
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
S1 At risk
150-300 300-1000 ms
Time after Stimulus Onset
S31 Not at risk
Simos et al
71
Fuchs et al
72
At Risk Reader
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
Kindergarten 1st Grade
Simos et al
73
(No Transcript)
74
Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific
Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And
Practices
  • Development of Consensus Reading Research
    Reports NRC/PRD (1998)
  • Development of Evidence-Based Synthesis of
    Reading Intervention Research NRP and the
    Current National Literacy Panel (2000)
  • Extension and Continuation of Evidence-Based
    Research Syntheses to Address Early Childhood
    Literacy Development, Biliteracy, and Adolescent
    Literacy (2003)
  • Development of Federal Legislation to Ensure the
    Use

75
Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific
Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And
Practices
  • Explicitly Base Federal Educational/Reading
    Legislation on Converging Evidence
  • Reading Excellence Act (1998)
  • No Child Left Behind/Reading First (2001)
  • NRC Report on Scientific Research in Education
    (2002)
  • Education Sciences Reform Act/The Institute OF
    Educational Sciences (2002)

76
Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific
Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And
Practices
  • The Establishment of The What Works Clearing
    House (2002)
  • The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy (2002)
  • The Federal Partnership for Reading (2001)
  • The National Center for Reading First Technical
    Assistance (2004)
  • The Establishment of The Review Of Teacher
    Preparation (2004)

77
Progress and Promise Does Not Mean Its Easy Why
does Resistance Persist?
  • A Lack of Understanding of Scientific Principles
    and Practices (evidence is in the eye of the
    beholder)
  • An Anti-Scientific Culture Within the Traditional
    Reading Community
  • Fragmentary Training in Research Design and
    Methods at Both Preservice and Graduate Levels
  • A Tendency Among Policy-Makers to Base Policies
    and Initiatives on Beliefs and Anecdotes Rather
    Than Scientific Evidence

78
(No Transcript)
79
Applying What We Know from Neuroscience to
Improve Education and Student Learning
Motivate
Evaluate
Student Achievement
Modify
Teach
Apply
Assess
80

The ACE/EC CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT MODEL
ENSURING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH RESEARCH AND
EVALUATION
1
2
3
4
Quality Assurance Through Comprehensive Evaluation
Instructional Methodology
Learning Objectives
Content
81
WIU Multi-Level, Outcomes-Based Assessment
A COMMITMENT TO CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
THROUGH ONGOING EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT
82
ACE NON-NEGOTIABLES FOR IMPROVING STUDENT
ACHIEVEMENT
Marzano et al, 2001Walberg, 1999 Walberg
Waxman, 1983
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