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Classical Greece 4: Panhellenic Sanctuaries

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Function: places for poleis to advertise and display themselves, to construct ... Poleis built them to show off wealth and booty. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical Greece 4: Panhellenic Sanctuaries


1
Classical Greece 4 Panhellenic Sanctuaries
  • CNE/ART 354
  • 3/28/06

2
Panhellenic Sanctuaries
  • Standard Features
  • Temple to deity (often a later feature)
  • Theater
  • Stadium
  • Treasures
  • Function places for poleis to advertise and
    display themselves, to construct their identities
    for other poleis.

3
Delphi
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Delphi
  • On the south side of Mt. Parnassos
  • Nearly 1900 feet above sea level
  • Polis the size of a village
  • Held the most famous Greek oracle
  • First traces of cult here date around 1500 BCE,
    when the goddess Gaia was worshipped here.
  • By 8th c., god Apollo had taken over.
  • Oracle of Apollo most powerful from 8th-4th c.,
    the main spiritual center of Greece.

6
Delphi, Continued
  • Boundaries of the sanctuary enclosed a roughly
    rectangular area 430 x 600 ft.
  • Had only one major temple, in the center of the
    sanctuary (rebuilt a number of times).
  • Famous sacred way led to the oracular sanctuary,
    which housed the temple of Apollo. Pythia delived
    gods oracles there.
  • Pythia first a maiden from Delphi, then a
    married woman at least 50 years old.

7
Oracles
  • Delivered on the 7th day of each month.
  • Special consultations could be had daily, if the
    omens were good.
  • Festival at Delphi originated primarily as an
    artistic competition and celebration (as befits
    the god of song and poetry). Athletic events were
    added later, such as those held at Olympia.
  • Pythian Games were held every 4 years, in the 3rd
    year of each Olympiad.

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Treasuries
  • Had more than Olympia.
  • Poleis built them to show off wealth and booty.
  • Cluster around the first turn of the Sacred Way
    include Thebans, Athenians, Sicyonians,
    Siphnians, Corinthians, Syracusans, Cnidians
    (Asia Minor), Rhodians.

10
Treasuries of the Athenians Siphnians
  • The buildings were votive offerings themselves,
    and held the spoils of war. Athenian one
    dedicated after Battle of Marathon.
  • Competitive emulation was a striking feature of
    the ancient Greek world.

11
Votives from War
  • Helmet of Miltiades
  • Helmet of Persian warrior

12
Function of Sanctuaries
  • Symbols of state achievement and identity to be
    noted and copied.
  • Contexts for controlled expression of inter-state
    rivalries.
  • Earliest treasures at Delphi and Olympia built
    by western colonies and states located in the
    Isthmus area.
  • Wanted to reinforce their socio-political
    identity by reference to the cult of their
    mother-city, while emphazing their practical
    independence.

13
The Sacred Way
  • Packed with art
  • At least 100 statues lined the 1st 35 meters
  • Votive offerings of marble, bronze, ivory, gold,
    silver
  • Commemorated the victories of the Greeks over
    barbarians, and Greeks over Greeks.
  • Stoa of the Athenians held flax cables taken
    from the bridge that Xerxes threw over the
    Hellespont on his way to fight the Greeks in
    480/479.

14
Stoa of the Athenians
15
Temple of Apollo
  • Polygonal support wall (very expensive, luxury
    item). Built after destruction of temple in 548,
    to support terrace for new temple.
  • Covered with over 700 inscriptions recording
    slave emancipations (contracts of the slaves sold
    to the gods, who freed them).
  • In order to gain freedom, slaves often had to
    provide 1-2 slaves to take their place, either by
    giving birth to them, or purchasing them.

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6 Temples of Apollo (3 mythical, 3 historical)
  • 1st laurel branches
  • 2nd wax and feathers (made by bees) the Pythia
    is called melissa, the bee.
  • 3rd bronze
  • 4th mudbrick/ wood (burnt down in 548)
  • 5th Archaic temple (6 x 15 plan), marble
    pediments, built by Athenian family, the
    Alkmaionidai (exiled at the time) funds were
    contributed from all over the Greek world, and
    even from Egypt. 190 ft. x 72 ft. Ruined by
    earthquake in 373, rebuilt.
  • 6th final temple, completed in 330. Stone
    columns, temple entered by ramp, metopes without
    sculpture.

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Delphi Charioteer
  • Bronze original statue, gift from a Sicilian
    Greek, Polyzalos, tyrant of Gela
  • In thanks for and in honor of his victory in the
    chariot race in 478 or 474.
  • Nearly 6 feet tall, originally part of a group of
    horses, chariot, charioteer, groom.
  • Cast in 8 pieces head in 2, body in 2, 4 limbs.
    Eyes inlaid with stone and glass, copper added to
    lips, silver on headband.

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21
Theater
  • Built in the 4th century, later restored and
    refurbished in the 2nd c. BCE by Eumenes of
    Pergamon.
  • Inscriptions on the theater walls are more slave
    emancipations.
  • Theater seated 5,000.

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Stadium
  • Best preserved stadium in Greece.
  • Stone seating dates from Roman times.
  • Herodes Atticus refitted the stadium in the 2nd
    c. CE with seats of local rock.
  • Held about 7,000 people.
  • Track 178 m long
  • In the 5th c., there was an earlier stadium here,
    where footraces were held.
  • Horse races were held down in the valley. Havent
    found the Hippodrome yet.

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Sanctuary of Athena Pronaos
  • 1st cult remains at Delphi were found in this
    area, Mycenaean female clay figurines.
  • 6 monuments oriented to the S because of the
    shape of the terrace.
  • Stone (tufa) Doric Temple of Athena (6 x 12
    columns), built c. 500 on the site of a 7th c.
    temple erected over the Mycenaean sanctuary. In
    ruins by Pausanias time.
  • The French (1890-1905) excavated, restoring 15
    columns destroyed by earthquake (huge boulder
    landed right in the middle of the restored
    temple).

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Sanctuary of Athena Pronaos
  • Doric Treasury (c. 480)
  • Aeolic Treasury, both marble and decorated with
    sculpture.
  • Tholos (400-380) has 20 Doric columns on the
    outside, 9 Corinthian columns on the inside (one
    of the first buildings we have that uses this
    order on the inside).
  • This area is now called the Marmaria (marble
    quarry) - gives you an idea of what happened to
    most of the marble buildings here.

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30
Gymnasium
  • Built in 4th century
  • 2 practice tracks
  • Bath complex

31
Delphi Oracle
  • After the death of Alexander the Great, the
    oracle lost power.
  • In 86 BCE, the Roman dictator Sulla seized many
    of the sanctuarys votive offerings and the
    sacred flame was put out.
  • The santuary revived several times after this,
    until in CE 394 Theodosius abolished both the
    cult and the games.

32
Mausolos
  • Around 408, we can see the spread of a veneer of
    Greek culture inland on Asia Minor.
  • In Delphi, statues are dedicated of Mausolos and
    his wife Artemisia, satrap in Caria for the
    Persian empire.
  • He died in 353 made arrangements for a huge
    funerary monument.

33
Halikarnassos
34
Artemisia (?) Female Figure from Mausoleion
35
Mausoleion
  • In Halikarnassos.
  • Commissioned Greek architects and sculptors.
  • Described as one of the 7 wonders of the world
    (Vitruvius 2.8-11).
  • 150 ft. high, 41.5 yards at the base.
  • Square base, pyramid shaped roof, quadriga at top.

36
Friezes
  • 2 continuous friezes
  • Subjects
  • Lapiths vs. Centaurs
  • Greeks vs. Amazons
  • (like the Parthenon!)
  • This barbarian ruler has adopted Greek culture
    showing how prestigious it had become.

37
Amazonomachy Herakles
38
Mausoleion Another Reconstruction
39
Another Reconstruction
40
Horse from Quadriga
41
Nereid Monument
  • Lykian, 390-380.
  • Tomb has Ionic columns, a continuous frieze, no
    architrave.
  • Below the columns are two continous friezes and
    pedimental sculpture (c. 400) which features wet
    look Nereids.
  • One frieze shows Greek warriors storming a city
    (mythological or historical event?).

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43
Frieze Segment, 4.2 ft long
44
Nereid Monument Tomb Occupant?
45
Nereid Statue (140 cm tall)
46
Olympia
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48
Olympia Plan
49
Sanctuary
50
Geometric Votives
51
Geometric Votives
52
Olympia
  • Most ancient and prestigious site of panhellenic
    games
  • Main feature great ash altar of Zeus
  • Sacred area the Altis
  • Earliest temple of Hera, in 600 BCE.
  • Large temple of Zeus begun in 470, completed in
    447.

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Altar of Zeus
  • Not much remains of this.
  • Pausanias tells us that there was an animal
    sacrifice on the altar daily.

55
Temple of Hera Plan
56
Temple of Hera Today
57
Temple of Zeus, Olympia Plan (top), Parthenon
(bottom)
58
Temple of Zeus
59
Temple of Zeus
  • Architect Libon of Elis (470-450) Doric order.
  • Limestone (mostly), stuccoed with white plaster.
  • Contained chryselephantine statue of Zeus made by
    Pheidias after 438. Wooden matrix with gold/ivory
    decoration.
  • Basin of oil in front kept ivory in good (moist)
    condition.
  • Depicted Zeus sitting down, stood about 40 feet
    high. Removed to Constantinople before a great
    earthquake destroyed the temple but was
    destroyed by fire in the later 5th c. CE.

60
Chryselephantine Zeus Athena
61
Zeus in Color
  • Quintilian describes the statue.
  • Many representations of it on coinage.

62
Pheidias Workshop
  • In a building nearby the temple, which duplicates
    the interior of the temple, excavators found a
    cup inscribed I am Pheidias.
  • His workshop.

63
Pheidias Workshop
64
Interior of Workshop
65
Temple Decorations
  • None of the external metopes were decorated no
    frieze.
  • Eyes were drawn to the pedimental sculpture (c.
    460).

66
East Pediment
  • Subject preparations for the chariot race
    between Oinomaos and Pelops (long worshipped at
    Olympia) Zeus to be judge.
  • Figures depict movement.
  • Garments used to reveal the body.
  • Chariots missing (bronze originally?).
  • The figure of the seated seer is one of the first
    Greek sculptures to indicate emotion in facial
    expression, rather than just gesture.

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West Pediment
  • Subject battle between the Lapiths and the
    Centaurs at Peirithoos wedding.
  • The battle rages as we watch.
  • Popular metaphor for the victory of civilization
    (Greeks, West) over barbarism (the others,
    East).
  • Sculptures show a lot of motion and emotion in
    pose and facial expression.
  • Lapiths maintain calm expressions to show their
    superiority.

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