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Worldview of the Western World II


The Westminster Confession is unrivalled as a faithful and concise ... When was Pentecost, and when were the gifts of the Spirit given? World History (291-94) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Worldview of the Western World II

Worldview of the Western World II
  • In the opinion of B.B. Warfield, The Westminster
    Confession and The Shorter Catechism are not only
    the most thoroughly thought-out statement ever
    penned of the elements of evangelical religion'
    but also one which breathes the finest fragrance
    of spiritual religion.' The Westminster
    Confession is unrivalled as a faithful and
    concise expression of God's revelation in
  • Quines introduction is found at the following
    web site
  • http//

  • Excerpts
  • The Bible passages listed below are footnotes to
    The Westminster Confession. Read the passages
    thoughtfully and look for similar ideas. Combine
    the thoughts from each footnote into one complete
    idea. If after reading each section of The
    Westminster Confession, you find any portion that
    does not reflect your understanding of the
    Scripture, then state your belief and give Bible
    references in support of your belief.
  • Three examples are given to help you get Started.
  • The footnotes are grouped together according to
    the thought composing the confession.

  • I.
  • 1Romans 214-15 119-20 Psalms 191-3 Romans
    132 21
  • Because man's conscience Romans 214, 15, the
    creation Romans 119, 20, and nature Psalms
    191-3 all point to a knowledge of God, man is
    without excuse Romans 132 21.
  • 2I Corinthians 121 213 - 14
  • Man, reasoning from himself, is unable to come to
    a true knowledge of God, but God was well pleased
    to explain what was necessary to be saved.
  • 3Hebrews 11, 2
  • God has gone to great effort to explain Himself
    throughout all history - first through the
    prophets and finally through His Son.

Romans 211-15 (NASB95)11 For there is no
partiality with God.12 For all who have sinned
without the Law will also perish without the Law,
and all who have sinned under the Law will be
judged by the Law13 for it is not the hearers
of the Law who are just before God, but the doers
of the Law will be justified.14 For when
Gentiles who do not have the Law do instinctively
the things of the Law, these, not having the Law,
are a law to themselves,15 in that they show the
work of the Law written in their hearts, their
conscience bearing witness and their thoughts
alternately accusing or else defending them,
  • What follows are thoughts on the Westminster
  • 1.     Although the light of nature, and the
    works of creation and providence do so far
    manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God,
    as to leave men inexcusable (Rom. 21415, Rom.
    11920, Ps. 1913, Rom. 132, Rom. 21) yet
    they are not sufficient to give that knowledge of
    God, and of his will, which is necessary unto
    salvation. (1 Cor. 121, 1 Cor. 21314)

  • Holy Scripture to be most necessary (2 Tim.
    315, 2 Pet. 119) those former ways of Gods
    revealing His will unto His people being now
    ceased. (Heb. 112)
  • What happened after the crucifixion? When was
    Pentecost, and when were the gifts of the Spirit

World History (291-94)
  • See notes under the section of the Reformation
    DVD and PDF files

Revolutions WV (226-35)
  • Calvin was a 2nd generation reformer
  • Had an all pervasive worldview
  • Applied Sola Scriptura more consistently
  • Was a humanist scholar, his 1st work on Seneca
  • One of the greatest expositors and commentators
    on the Bible
  • The Epistemology of Calvin was based on Gods
    self revelation in Scripture.
  • Man has a sensus divinitatis awareness of God
  • And a semen religionis seed of religion
  • The Bible serves as reading glasses to bring to
    our minds what we could not understand
  • Our response to the knowledge of God is worship
    and piety
  • The Sovereignty of God was central to Calvins
  • Most consistent Biblical worldview in the
    reformed tradition
  • God is Lord of all temporal and spiritual
  • Redemption is entirely of Gods sovereign
    electing grace
  • Saving faith is a gift of God
  • The Church and Society
  • Invisible church of true believers, the visible
    was a mix of wheat and tares
  • True church celebrates the Lords Supper,
    baptism, and preaching the Word
  • Presbyterian government which influenced later

Ephesians 28
  • Eph 28 th/ ga.r ca,riti, evste seswsme,noi
    dia. pi,stewj\ kai. tou/to ouvk evx umw/n( qeou/
    to. dw/ron for by grace you are saved through
    faith and this is not of yourselves, it is the
    gift of GodThis is the most debated text in terms
    of the antecedent of the demonstrative pronoun,
    tou/to. The standard interpretations include (1)
    grace as antecedent, (2) faith as
    antecedent, (3) the concept of a grace-by-faith
    salvation as antecedent, and (4) kai. tou/to
    having an adverbial force with no antecedent
    (and especially).
  • The first and second options suffer from the fact
    that tou/to is neuter while ca,riti and pi,stewj
    are feminine. Some have argued that the gender
    shift causes no problem because (a) there are
    other examples in Greek literature in which a
    neuter demonstrative refers back to a noun of a
    different gender,51 and (b) the tou/to has been
    attracted to the gender of dw/ron, the predicate
    nominative. These two arguments need to be
    examined together.
  • While it is true that on rare occasions there is
    a gender shift between antecedent and pronoun,
    the pronoun is almost always caught between two
    nouns of different gender. One is the
    antecedent the other is the predicate nom. In
    Acts 810, for example (ou-to,j evstin h
    du,namij tou/ qeou/), the pronoun is masculine
    because its antecedent is masculine, even though
    the predicate nom. is feminine. In Matt 1338
    inverse attraction takes place (the pronominal
    subject is attracted to the gender of the
    predicate nom.) to. de. kalo.n spe,rma( ou-toi,
    eivsin oi uioi. th/j basilei,aj (the good
    seed, these are the sons of the kingdom).52 The
    construction in Eph 28, however, is not parallel
    because dw/ron is not the predicate nom. of
    tou/to, but of the implied it in the
  • page 335

Ephesians 28
  • following clause. On a grammatical level, then,
    it is doubtful that either faith or grace is
    the antecedent of tou/to.
  • More plausible is the third view, viz., that
    tou/to refers to the concept of a grace-by-faith
    salvation. As we have seen, tou/to regularly
    takes a conceptual antecedent. Whether faith is
    seen as a gift here or anywhere else in the NT is
    not addressed by this.53
  • A fourth view is that kai. tou/to is adverbial,
    though this view has surprisingly made little
    impact on the exegetical literature.54 If
    adverbial, kai. tou/to is intensive, meaning and
    at that, and especially, without having any
    antecedent. It focuses on the verb rather than
    on any noun. In 3 John 5 we see this usage
    pisto.n poiei/j o eva.n evrga,sh eivj tou.j
    avdelfou.j kai. tou/to xe,nouj55 (you do a
    faithful deed whenever you render service for
    the brothers, and especially when you do it for
    strangers). If this is the force in Eph 28, the
    text means for by grace you are saved through
    faith, and you are saved especially not by your
    own doing it is the gift of God.
  • The issues here are complex and cannot be solved
    by grammar alone. Nevertheless, syntactical
    considerations do tend toward one of the latter
    two views.56

MacArthur Eph 28
  • Our response in salvation is faith, but even that
    is not of ourselves but is the gift of God.
    Faith is nothing that we do in our own power or
    by our own resources. In the first place we do
    not have adequate power or resources. More than
    that, God would not want us to rely on them even
    if we had them. Otherwise salvation would be in
    part by our own works, and we would have some
    ground to boast in ourselves. Paul intends to
    emphasize that even faith is not from us apart
    from Gods giving it.
  • Some have objected to this interpretation, saying
    that faith (pistis) is feminine, while that
    (touto) is neuter. That poses no problem,
    however, as long as it is understood that that
    does not refer precisely to the noun faith but to
    the act of believing. Further, this
    interpretation makes the best sense of the text,
    since if that refers to by grace you have been
    saved through faith (that is, to the whole
    statement), the adding of and that not of
    yourselves, it is the gift of God would be
    redundant, because grace is defined as an
    unearned act of God. If salvation is of grace, it
    has to be an undeserved gift of God. Faith is
    presented as a gift from God in ?2 Peter 11?,
    ?Philippians 129?, and ?Acts 316?.
  • John MacArthur, Ephesians (Chicago Moody Press,
    1996, c1986). 60.

LACTANTIUS (c. 240-c. 320)
  • Christian apologist and historian most
    frequently reported of the Latin Fathers of the
  • Very little is known about Lactantiuss life.
    Born probably in North Africa, and said to have
    been a pupil of Arnobius, he was in mid-life
    appointed by the emperor Diocletian as a teacher
    of rhetoric in Nicomedia, the imperial capital.
    After Diocletian began to persecute Christians,
    Lactantius returned to the West about 305.
  • His Divinae institutiones (seven volumes, c.
    304-313), his principal work, is hailed as the
    first systematic Latin account of the Christian
    attitude toward life. It combats polytheism as
    the basis of all errors, identifies the demons as
    the source of error, and exposes the frailty of
    philosophy. The latter part of the work discusses
    fundamental ethical ideas, the proper way of
    worshiping God, and immortality. Although he was
    later called the "Christian Cicero" by Pico della
    Mirandola, Lactantiuss theology was considered
    somewhat superficial, perhaps because he became a
    Christian only in mature years. Other works of
    his that have survived include De Ira Dei, which
    upholds Gods punitive justice, and De Mortibus
    persecutorium, a product of his last years, which
    is a valuable historical source, though
    criticized for having dwelt overmuch on the
    terrible fates of persecuting emperors. About 317
    Lactantius evidently came out of retirement to
    tutor Crispus, son of the emperor Constantine.
  • J. D. Douglas, Philip Wesley Comfort and Donald
    Mitchell, Who's Who in Christian History
    (Wheaton, Ill. Tyndale House, 1997, c1992).