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Bridging the divide between doing and teaching reflexivity by ... Finlay, L. (2002) Outing the researcher: The provenance, process, and practice of reflexivity. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reflexivity

Health Sciences and Practice Subject Centre
Reflective Practice Special Interest Group 9th
February 2009
  • Teaching Reflexivity

Elizabeth Smith
Bridging the divide between doing and teaching
reflexivity by examining how we have learnt to
use reflexivity in our own areas of practice
  • Critical reflective knowing is neither
    behavioural nor technical, not truth
    establishing, nor captured by a discipline. It
    critiques all other forms of knowledge, and in so
    doing, it moves beyond merely reproducing what
    is (Habermas, 1978)

Key issues for teaching reflexivity 1.
Strategies and techniques 2. Theories and
approaches 3. Assessment and monitoring 4.
Professional knowledge and development
  • My learning about reflexivity

Trigger (App3/Date21.07.06) A conversation
with a Supervisor My views have changed they
will again. Where will this lead? What is there
after this? Have I initiated a way of thinking
that is just over-stimulated reflexivity? Is
introspection a way of researching? Is my agenda
overly personal emancipatory, therapeutic? Am I
researching me?
Reflective note book
Being reflective involves picturing
or visualizing oneself (Stronach 2007)
Reflective tools
Reflecting on our performance our novel selves
and our signature (Stronach 2007)
  • Trigger (App3/Date28.08.06) Transcribing
    interview data
  • I have such a personal view of my relationship
    with this study. I feel like I am one of two
    mirrors. I am pointed at another mirror, which is
    the study. From my position all I can see is me,
    reflected in the study... I can see where the
    study has come from and how my understandings
    have changed. But, I am in a reflection trap. I
    am frustrated with looking at the study and at
    me. It feels overly reflective and out of
    control. I am mentally going around in circles,
    scrutinizing every decision that I have made and
    what I will do next.

Limitations of reflexivity
  • Self-indulgence (Finlay 2002)
  • Difficulties of reflection (Seale 1999)
  • Paralysis (Weick 1999)

  • Reflexivity involves thinking about the
    conditions for what one is doing and the
    affects (Steier 1991)

Oedipal effect
Episteme Disciplines Discourse
  • Research does not take place in a neutral,
    apolitical, ideology-free space. Nor is an
    autonomous, value-free researcher responsible for
    it (Alvesson and Sköldberg 2000)

Structured Reflection(Smith 2008)
Political and social influences
Theoretical and epistemological positions
Interpretive Repertoire
Presence - position
Self-critical reflexivity
Interpersonal reflexivity
Contextual reflexivity
Critical reflexivity
Reflective themes
Reflexivity offers critical validation through
structured and ongoing attention to personal,
interpersonal and contextual factors influencing
what is said and done, or not said and done
(Smith 2008)
  • Key questions for teaching reflexivity
  • 1. Strategies and techniques
  • Reflective tools
  • Pedagogy of reflexivity
  • 2. Theories and approaches
  • Purposes and uses of reflexivity
  • Support for position of critical attitude
  • 3. Assessment and monitoring
  • Embracing and examining subjectivity
  • Educational relationships e.g. supervision
  • 4. Professional knowledge and development
  • Monitoring how reflexivity is taught
  • Stance style of Reflective teacher

  • Reflexivity references
  • Alvesson, M. and Skoldberg, K. (2000). Reflexive
    Methodology New Vistas for Qualitative Research.
    London Sage Publications.
  • Bolam, B., Gleeson, K. and Murphy, S. (2003) Lay
    person or Health expert? Exploring theoretical
    and practical aspects of reflexivity in
    qualitative health research. Forum Qualitative
    Social Research, 4, 2, Art. 26.
  • Brookfield, S. (1993) Self-directed learning,
    political clarity and the critical practice of
    adult education. Adult Education Quarterly,
    43(4), pp. 227242.
  • Breuer, F. and Roth, W. (2003) Subjectivity and
    reflexivity in the social sciences Epistemic
    windows and methodical consequences. Forum
    Qualitative Social Research, 4, 2, Art. 25.
  • Dowling, M. (2006) Approaches to reflexivity in
    qualitative research. Nurse Researcher, 13, 3,
  • Finlay, L. (2002). Negotiating the swamp the
    opportunity and challenge of reflexivity in
    research practice. Qualitative Research, 2,
  • Finlay, L. (2002) Outing the researcher The
    provenance, process, and practice of reflexivity.
    Qualitative Research, 12, 4, 531-545.
  • Foucault, M. (1982) The subject and power.
    Critical Inquiry, 8, (4) 777-95.
  • Habermas, J. (1978) Knowledge and Human Interests
    (second edition). London Heinemann.
  • Hardy, C., Phillips, N. and Clegg, S. (2001)
    Reflexivity in organization and management
    theory A study of the production of the research
    subject. Human Relations, 54, 531-560.
  • Holland, R. (1999). Reflexivity. Human Relations,
    52, 463-483.
  • Hsiung, P. (2008) Teaching reflexivity in
    qualitative interviewing. Teaching Sociology, 36,
  • Johnson, P. and Duberley, J. (2003) Reflexivity
    in management research. Journal of Management
    Studies, 40, 1279-1303.
  • Leach, L., Neutze, G. and Zepke N. (2001)
    Assessment and empowerment some critical
    questions. Assessment Evaluation in Higher
    Education, 26, 4, 293-297.
  • Lewis, M. and Grimes, A. (1999).
    Metatriangulation Building theory from multiple
    paradigms, Academy of Management Review, 24,
  • Riley, S., Schouten, W. and Cahill, S. (2003)
    Exploring the dynamics of subjectivity and power
    between researcher and researched. Forum
    Qualitative Social Research, 4, 2, Art. 40.
  • Smith E. (2008) Appearances of power service
    user involvement in health research. PhD thesis.
    University of London.