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Gender Mainstreaming In The Corporate Sector: A WinWin Strategy

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Director, Women's Development Research Centre (KANITA), USM. ... To present briefly the global and the national scenario ... 2000: Millenium Development Goals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender Mainstreaming In The Corporate Sector: A WinWin Strategy


1
Gender Mainstreaming In The Corporate Sector A
Win-Win Strategy
Seminar On Corporate Social Responsibility
Wither Gender Equality? CenPRIS, 10 April 2008,
Co-organised by KANITA and the Vice Chancellors
Office
  • Rashidah Shuib,
  • Director, Womens Development Research Centre
    (KANITA), USM.

2
SCOPE
  • To present briefly the global and the national
    scenario with regard to CSR and gender
    mainstreaming.
  • 2. To offer conceptual clarification on basic
    terms
  • 3. To examine why Gender Mainstreaming matters
    in CSR
  • 4. To explore Gender Mainstreaming as a Win-Win
    strategy How?
  • 5. To identify some challenges to Gender
    Mainstreaming

3
GLOBAL SCENARIO
a) Women, Gender Development
  • Women and gender issues have had a long
  • history
  • Linked to sustainability sustainable
    development and sustainable health
  • 1975 1st World Conference on Women in Mexico gtgt
    Gender, Equality, Development,
  • Peace
  • 1980 2nd Meeting in Copenhagen
  • gtgt Equality, Development and Peace

4
GLOBAL SCENARIO
  • 1984 3rd Womens Conference in Nairobi
  • gtgt Toward a Global Feminism
  • 1994 Int. Conf. on Population Development
    (ICPD)
  • gtgt Linkages between population and
  • development , reproductive health
  • the empowerment of women
  • 1995 4th World Conference on Women, Beijing
    gtgtAction for Equality, Development and
    Peace.
  • 2000 Millenium Development Goals
  • gtgt gender equality, sustainable
    development poverty eradication

5
GLOBAL SCENARIO
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • EU
  • 1999 Adoption and introduction of gender
  • mainstreaming in all policy fields.
  • gtgt concrete strategies, measures means
  • differ widely according to countries.
  • Spain Gender Equality Law (2007)
    gtgt
  • quota for the board
    of companies within 6 years
  • Positive measures such as the
    Empresa Optima gender award system
    dedicated to gender equality
  • (Schultz 2007b) gtgtpart of CSR approach

6
  • Norway Law defines a quota 40 of
    the supervisory boards of all
  • public companies with
    more than five members must be women.
  • UK CSR is a trend in contemporary
    business gtgtdefined as business
    responsibility in economic, legal,
    ethical and philanthropic activities
    (Carroll 1999)
  • Japan Influenced by the UN Global
    Compact (GC) launched on 26 July 2000
  • 10 principles in 4 areas Human Rights,
    Labour, Environment and
  • Anti-Corruption .global citizenship
  • (Hirata 2006)

7
  • NATIONAL SCENARIO
  • Women,Gender and Development
  • Malaysia abides by the principles of gender
    equality. (PMs speech at the tabling of the
    motion on the 9th MP, 2006-2010, 31 Mar 2006)
  • Establishment of Gender Infrastructure
  • gtgt Gender Equality Cabinet Committee chaired
    by the PM.
  • gtgt Gender Focal Point in every Ministry
  • gtgt Ministry of Women, Family and Community
  • Development
  • gtgt Introduced gender budget gt pilot in 5
    ministries
  • gtgt CSR Award
  • Signatories to international agreements and
    ratified
  • CEDAW

8
National scenario
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Recognition that corporate sector is an important
    partner in development
  • gtgt private sector as the main catalyst in
    economic development
  • gtgt Need to build a strong and close partnership
    between the public and the private sectors (9th
    MP)

9
National scenario
  • Increasing awareness on the importance of CSR
    reported in Malaysia gtgtsupport from Securities
    Commission emphasizing professional and ethical
    management (NST 28 Apr 2006)
  • 2005 45.7 of women in the labour force but
    only 5.4 in high administrative management
    positions.
  • gtgt majority in assembly and service (lower
    rank)

10
CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
English language dictionaries, gender and
sex used as synonymous terms Past 3 decades,
gender evolved into a different concept
  • SEX is the biological difference between males
    and females
  • gtgtbiologically determined characteristics
  • gtgtwith specific limited biologically
    determined roles which are often confused and
    extended to other public roles
  • gtgt shaped the division of labour

11
CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
  • GENDER refers to the economic, social and
    cultural attributes and opportunities associated
    with being male or female in a particular social
    settings at a particular point in time.
  • gtgt social construct gtgt societys
    expectations
  • gtgt different roles responsibilities
  • gtgt different norms values
  • gtgt different access to control over
    resources

12
RESOURCES
13
Gender and Development
  • Gender equality empowerment of women
    pre-requisite condition to sustainable
    development, poverty eradication etc.
  • Gender is relevant to all aspects of development
    (Kabeer 2003). Why?
  • A gender perspective means recognising that
    women stand at the crossroads between production
    and reproduction, between economic activity and
    the care of human beings, and therefore between
    economic growth and human development. They are
    workers in both spheres those most responsible
    and therefore with most at stake, those who
    suffer most when the two spheres meet at
    cross-purposes, and those most sensitive to the
    need for better integration between the two.
    (Sen, quoted in Kabeer 2003)

14
The 3 circles of sustainable development and CSR
15
WHAT IS GENDER MAINSTREAMING?
  • Often confused with
  • gtgt projects for women
  • gtgt must do something for men as well
  • gtgt its a number game increase number of
    women.
  • Gender Mainstreaming is a concept which emerged
    on the international development scene in the
    1980s.
  • It has been explained as by the UN Office of the
    Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement
    of Women as follows

16
WHAT IS GENDER MAINSTREAMING?
  • "Gender Mainstreaming is a globally accepted
    strategy for promoting gender equality.
    Mainstreaming is not an end in itself but a
    strategy, an approach, a means to achieve the
    goal of gender equality. Mainstreaming involves
    ensuring that gender perspectives and attention
    to the goal of gender equality are central to all
    activities - policy development, research,
    advocacy/ dialogue, legislation, resource
    allocation, and planning, implementation and
    monitoring of programmes and projects."

17
What is Gender Mainstreaming?
  • is the integration of the gender perspective into
    every stage of policy processes design,
    implementation, monitoring and evaluation with
    a view to promoting equality between women and
    men.
  • Need to assess how policies impact on the life
    and position of both women and men and taking
    responsibility to re-address them if necessary.

18
What is Gender Mainstreaming?
  • Result gtgt to make gender equality a concrete
    reality in the lives of women and men, creating
    space for everyone within the organisations as
    well as in communities
  • To contribute to the process of articulating a
    shared vision of sustainable human development
    and translating it into reality

19
GENDER MAINSTREAMING IS NOTgtgt
  • NOT a goal,
  • Not just content,
  • BUT the strategy to achieve equality between
    women and men.
  • This means
  • Equality is the goal, Not an add on.
  • Gender Mainstreaming is the strategy to achieve
    this goal,
  • positive actions are one way to compensate for
    existing inequalities.

(Definitions from the Equal DP POP UP GeM,
Dorothea Sauer, Heide Cortolezis)
20
Main Features of Gender Mainstreaming (Danish
National Research Documentation Centre on
Gender Equality 2002(?)
  • Focuses both on men and women their
  • gender relations
  • Deals with political and administrative matters
    which often are treated as gender neutral e.g
    budget, town planning (gender neutral?)
  • Clear, measurable objectives

21
Main Features of Gender Mainstreaming
  • Permanent changes gtgt GM process is complete when
    Gender Equality becomes part of the routine at
    work place part of the work culture.
  • Systematic qualified integration gtgtanalyses
    always done before Gender Mainstreaming is
    undertaken. Need to question the potential
    impact of a decision/policy on men and women

22
WHY Gender Mainstreaming?
  • Gender mainstreaming makes good policy sense
  • Every policy and activity has a gender
    perspective or implication. Decisions in economic
    and social policies and programmes, decisions
    influence and impact women and men differently.

23
WHY Gender Mainstreaming?
  • Experience shows policies and programmes are most
    effective when the impacts on gender are
    considered and addressed.
  • For example, mainstreaming a gender perspective
    in the peace-building sector
  • gtgtinstrumental in making personnel aware of
    the ways in which armed conflict affects women
    and girls differently and that post-conflict
    reconstruction and peace-building is more
    effective and long-lasting if gender analysis
    takes place from the outset.
  • It has been recognized internationally that this
    significantly improves peace-building operations.

24
WHY Gender Mainstreaming?
  • Growing role of private sector in national and
    global governance gtgtopened new sites for
    political representations
  • gtgt new possibilities for corporate sector
    accountability on social issues (Grosser and
    Moon, 2005)
  • New corporate roles gtgtnew forms of citizenship
  • gtgt Act as if they were citizens
  • gtgt Administrators of peoples citizenship
  • gtgt Stakeholders engagement in citizenship-like
    roles

25
WHY Gender Mainstreaming?
  • Gender mainstreaming contributes to the redresses
    of systemic gender-based discrimination.
  • For example, while trade liberalization can
    provide new employment opportunities for both men
    and women, the market access opportunities that
    it creates can be difficult for women to take
    advantage of the system.

26
WHY?
  • This is because in many societies women have
    limited property rights and lack access to things
    like credit, modern technologies and marketing
    expertise.
  • Early examination of gender impacts could provide
    guidance for the ongoing implementation of
    existing trade rules and ensure future trade
    rules are gender-sensitive, resulting in a
    strengthened international trading system.

27
Mainstream Gender In corporate sector involves
  • Situating gender at the heart of social analysis
    from concept to measurement
  • Identifying gender issues and assessing gender
    outcomes of policies
  • Promoting gender equity (Walby 2004)

28
Mainstream Gender In corporate sector involves
  • Gender mainstreaming is a technical process
    therefore need technical tools
  • gtgt sex disaggregated statistics
  • gtgt gender analysis of those statistics
  • gtgt gender impact assessment,
  • gtgt development of gender equality indicators
  • gtgt capacity buildinggtgtgender sensitization,
  • gender equality training

29
Mainstream Gender In corporate sector involves
  • Gender mainstreaming is a political process
  • gtgt gender equality is an ideology and therefore
    very political
  • gtgt to enhance the inclusion participation of
    women in decision-making
  • gtgt reduce or eliminate gendered barriers

30
A win-win strategy?
  • Emerging literature on the link between
    long-term business success and the treatment of
    employees and equality of opportunity through
  • gtgt gender/diversity in employment/human capital
    management e.g recruiting employees from
    traditionally excluded group
  • gtgtgt talented and motivated group (Kingsmill
    2001, DTI 2003 )
  • gtgt family friendly policies (Dex 2004)
  • gtgt female representation on company boards
    (Singh and Vinnicombe 2003)
  • Shown to be efficient and increased productivity

31
A win-win strategy?
  • Consumers awareness and engagement in CSR type
    initiatives is increasing.
  • gtgt Ethical consumerism market worth 19.9 billion
    pounds and boycotts on ethical ground meant a
    loss of 2.6 billion pounds (Consumer watch, 2004)
  • gtgt Consumers see them benefiting and also
  • business can differentiate from those who do
    not practice gender mainstreaming
  • Better corporate image

32
CHALLENGES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING
  • Gender awareness and conceptual clarity gtgt
    confusion exists between equal opportunity,
    affirmative action and gender mainstreaming
  • Countrys political commitment which shapes and
    influences corporate sector
  • Need to overcome sensitivity around gender
    equality gtgt more open discourses, evidence

33
  • THANK YOU
  • 30 YEARS KANITA
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