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UN Millenium Declaration (2000) ' for a peaceful, prosperous and just world ' (AG Resolution) ... The Millennium Development Goals. for 2015. 1. Eradicate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Folie 1


1
Patterns of Response to the Sustainability
Challenge Multilateralism
By Alice PECOUT, Caroline ADUA, Teresa DORNER,
Stefanie DATZREITER, Michelle CHAN
2
Source www.un.org
3
The UN, at the head of the multilaterals
  • UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and
    Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992),
  • Important mechanisms for enhancing and linking
    national capacity so as to bring together
    priorities in social, economical and environment
    policies
  • Urge governments and Corporates actions
    toward Sustainable development
  • UN Millenium Declaration (2000)
  • for a peaceful, prosperous and just world
    (AG Resolution)
  • WSSD (World Summit on Sustainable Development)
    (Johannesburg, 2002).

4
WSSD, Johannesburg
  • To fill Rios gap and to organize the
    implementation
  • 2-year programmes
  • NSDS National Sustainable Development Strategy
  • Action Agenda whose implementation depends on
    World Bank, IMF, WTO, GEF andgoverments
  • Definition of new goals on
  • Water and sanitation (halve the number of people
    who dont have access to by 2015)
  • Energy (access and rewable energies),
  • Health (mortality rates, toxic chemical products,
    ozon layer, AIDS)
  • Agriculture (desertification),
  • Biodiversity (biodiversity loss,marine pollution,
    illegal logging)

5
  • Reporting Guidelines for the Fourteenth Session
    of the Commission on Sustainable Development
    (2006)
  • Energy for Sustainable Development
  • Industrial Development
  • Air Pollution/Atmosphere
  • Climate Change
  • Cross-cutting issues
  • Reporting Guidelines for the Twelfth Session of
    the Commission on Sustainable Development (2004)
  • Water
  • Sanitation
  • Human Settlements
  • Cross-cutting issues 

Source www.un.org
6
Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
"The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding
agreement under which industrialized countries
will reduce their collective emissions of
greenhouse gases by 5.2 compared to the year
1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions
levels that would be expected by 2010 without the
Protocol, this target represents a 29 cut). The
goal is to lower overall emissions from six
greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane,
nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, HFCs, and
PFCs - calculated as an average over the
five-year period of 2008-12. National targets
range from 8 reductions for the European Union
and some others to 7 for the US, 6 for Japan,
0 for Russia, and permitted increases of 8 for
Australia and 10 for Iceland."
Press release from the United Nations Environment
Programme
Source www.un.org, www.wikipedia.com
7
The Changing World Bank
  • The worlds largest external funder of
    education
  • The worlds largest external funder of the
    fight
  • against HIV/AIDS
  • A leader in the fight against corruption
    worldwide
  • A strong supporter of debt relief
  • The largest international financier of
    biodiversity
  • projects
  • The largest international financier of water
  • supply and sanitation projects
  • The largest international funder in support of
    HIV/AIDS programms

8
The Five Agencies of the World Bank Group
11 billion in lending for 87 operations in 33
countries
  • International Bank for
  • Reconstruction and
  • Development
  • Established in 1944

9 billion for 158 operations in 62 countries
InternationalDevelopment Association Establishe
in 1960
International Finance Corporation Established in
1956
4.8 billion for 217 new projects in 65 countries
Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency Established in 1988
1.1 billion in new guarantees issued for 35
projects
International Centre for Settlement of
Investment Disputes Established in 1966
9
The World Bank at a Glance
  • Our Work
  • World Bank loan commitments totaled 20.1
    billion.
  • World Banks active environment and natural
    resource management portfolio amounted to 11.3
    billion
  • total World Bank project portfolio Human
    development, social development and gender and
    social protection investments
  • Our Facilities
  • Constant energy usage
  • 12 of Green Power from the total energy usage in
    the Washington offices
  • Two out of four the Washington buildings have
    Energy Star labels.
  • we recycled 60 tons of paper, aluminum, and
    glass.
  • Our Staff
  • 236 environmental
  • Specialists
  • 167 social development specialists,
  • 207 health
  • human development specialists
  • 109 water and sanitation specialists.
  • Our Work with Others
  • at least 230 regional and global partnerships
  • public information centers in 59 countries

10
Resource Flows to
The Organization of the World Bank and Resource
Flows
11
The Millennium Development Goalsfor 2015
  • 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • 2. Achieve universal primary education
  • 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
  • 4. Reduce child mortality
  • 5. Improve maternal health
  • 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
  • 8. Develop a global partnership for developm

12
Focus on EnvironmentalSustainability
  • In 2004 66 new projects in 42 countries
  • with environment and natural resource management
  • components, representing about 1.3 billion
  • in commitments.
  • The total investment in active projects with
  • environment and natural
  • resource components was 11.2 billion
  • The World Bank is the worlds largest single
  • international funding source for biodiversity
  • projects.
  • Case Study Restoring a Marine
  • Ecosystem in Croatia

13
PARTNERSHIPS
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the
    Montreal Protocol
  • The Clean Air Initiative (CAI)
  • Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund

14
Carbon Finance Business
  • The Prototype Carbon Fund, a public-private
  • partnership of 17 companies and 6 government
  • entities that is pioneering the market for
    greenhouse
  • gas emissions reductions
  • The Community Development Carbon Fund,
  • which extends carbon finance to small-scale
  • projects in rural areas and poorer countries
  • The BioCarbon Fund, which applies carbon
  • finance to agroforestry and land use projects.

15
Focus on Water and Sanitation
  • Total annual investments by the global
  • community for water supply and sanitation in
  • developing countries are 15 billion
  • Over the period 19902004, World Bank lending
  • for water supply and sanitation amounted to
  • 19.5 billion.
  • The Bank currently funds 21 stand-alone water
  • supply and sanitation projects in rural areas,
    with
  • loan amounts totaling 807 million.
  • The volume of World Bank lending in water
    supply
  • and sanitation components in multisectoral
  • projects such as social investment funds is
    rising.

16
Focus on Water and Sanitation
  • Case Study Water and Sanitation
  • Services in Gaza

17
Focus on Education
  • June 2002 the Bank launched its Education for
    All Fast Track Initiative (FTI) to help countries
    accelerate progress toward their education goals.
  • Nov. 2003 the 229 million World Bankmanaged
    Catalytic Fund was launched to help low-income
    countries not being able to attract donor funds
    for their education programs.

About 142 education projects were under
implementation worldwide, contributing to a
portfolio of 8.4 billion
18
Functions Administering WTO trade
agreements Forum for trade negotiations Handling
trade disputes and monitoring national trade
policies Technical assistance and training for
developing countries Cooperation with other
international organizations
Location Geneva, Switzerland Established 1
January 1995 by the Marrakesh Agrreement Created
by Urugay Round negotiations (1986-94) Membership
148 countries (on 13 October 2004) and
observers from several non-member
countries Budget 169 million Swiss francs for
2005 Head Supachai Panitchpadki
Source www.wto.org, www.wikipedia.com
19
Principles guiding the CTEs work The WTO is not
an environmental protection agency, best way to
deal with environmental issues are MEAs Increased
coordination within countries Secure market
access opportunities are essential to help
developing countries work towards sustainable
development. Main points of criticism and
proposals U.S. leadership in the WTO Subsidies
that contribute to unsustainable development
Integration of sustainable development goals
into new trade agreements and already existing
ones
Committee on Trade and Environment -
contributed to bring environmental and
sustainable development issues into the
mainstream of WTO's work (created 1994) 1996
Presentation of a comprehensive report to the
Singapore Ministerial Conference. Nov. 2001,
Doha - Qatar (4th Ministerial Conference)
Agreement to launch negotiations on certain
aspects of the trade and environment linkage
Source www.wto.org, www.wikipedia.com
20
Location Geneva, Switzerland Established by the
UN on April 7, 1948 Governed by the Member
States trough the World Health Assembly Membership
open to all members of the UN by accepting its
constitution and for other countries by simple
majority vote of Worls Health Assembly, right now
192 Member States Financing by contributions
from member states of the UN and from private
foundations and industry. Head Lee Jong-wook
(Director General )
Mission the attainment by all peoples of the
highest possible level of health Definition
of Health a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being and not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity
Source www.who.org, www.wikipedia.com
21
Functions and Actions Combating
diseases Coordinating international efforts to
monitor outbreaks of infectious
diseases Developing and distributing vaccines for
such diseases ? e.g. smallpox
Health action in crises
Carrying out of campaigns such as to boost
consumption of vegetables worldwide, or to
discourage tobacco consumption A variety of
responsibilities arising from international
treaties like the Single Convention on Narcotic
Drugs or Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Source www.who.org, www.wikipedia.com
22
Membership 184 countries Founded July 22, 1944,
Bretton Woods Monetary and Financial Conference
working to foster global monetary cooperation,
secure financial stability, facilitate
international trade, promote high employment and
sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty.
  • partner with World Bank and Bank for
    International Settlements (BIS)
  • provides assistance to countries in economic
    difficulties
  • stabilise countries currencies
  • short-term loans loan pool
  • trade liberalisation
  • countries must launch economic reforms to
    recieve loans based on IMFs conditions

Headquarters, Washington DC
23
The IMF failed in its original mission of
promoting stability it has also been no more
successful in the new missions that it has
undertaken, such as building the transition of
countries from communism to a market economy. As
an economic institution dedicated to improving
the economies of developing countries, the IMF
has often incurred more problems than otherwise.
Globalisation and its Discontents, Joseph Stiglitz
Criticisms
  • supports capitalist military dictatorships
    friendly with corporations
  • trickle down economics
  • poor timing and pacing
  • Argentinas economic crisis in 2001
  • since 1991, 200 inflation, 100 million debt
  • conditions conflict with countries political
    and economic abilities
  • since 1980 over 100 countries have experienced a
    banking collapse that reduced GDP by four percent
    or more

24
  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) (from1991),
    helps developing countries fund projects and
    programs that protect the global environment.
  • Projects related to biodiversity, climate change,
    international waters, land degradation, the ozone
    layer, desertification and persistent organic
    pollutants.
  • Then, implementation by
  • UNEP (UN Environment Programme)
  • Projects Urban, Fresh Water, Cross-cutting
  • UNDP (UN development Programme)
  • World Bank

Source www.gefweb.org
25
  • Mallam, a fisherman in eastern Niger, started
    saving the small fish, when his local commune in
    Bosso formed a fishermen's cooperative with the
    assistance of the United Nations Capital
    Development Fund (UNCDF) and the UN Development
    Programme (UNDP). The cooperative provides local
    fishermen with training and supplies like boats,
    nets and bait.
  • One growing season later, that has changed.
    "After the first harvest, all our neighbours and
    others in the town started buying our produce
    because it is healthier than the vegetables
    produced with chemicals," says Janpen. Some are
    even considering shifting their own farms away
    from chemicalsWith funding and assistance from
    the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
    the Institute is promoting similar sustainable
    environmental projects elsewhere in Thailand.

Source http//www.un.org/works/sustainable/mallam
_story
26
Organizations against free capitalism counter
summit
  • Greenpeace for a globalization, which protects
    environment and human rights
  • Influences international agreements in organizing
    other summits
  • ATTAC organized in network
  • Alter mondialism exists thanks to many
    associations
  • Objective to create a worldwide ecological and
    democratic movement

27
Unilateralism
The corporate influence Who is in power?
  • Bush administration's fundamental foreign policy
    goals to restrain, undermine, and delegitimize
    the world's most valuable institution for
    multilateral problem solving
  • Kyoto
  • War in Iraq
  • John Bolton newly appointed UN Ambassador
  • neoconcervative, unilateralist hawk
  • Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and
    International Security Affairs (2001-current)
  • "the equivalent of dropping a neutron bomb on the
    organization."
  • "There's no such thing as the United Nations. 'If
    the U.N. secretary building in New York lost 10
    stories, it wouldn't make a bit of difference
    the failure of the United States to win support
    at the United Nations would "simply provide
    further evidence to many why nothing more should
    be paid to the UN..

http//www.americanprogressaction.org/site/pp.asp
?cklLWJcP7Hb413301
28
UN Global CompactMultinational Companies can
have a real impact
  • From 1999, at the World Economic Forum, Kofi
    Annan propose to business leaders
  • a way to participate in the UN action. It was
    launched in 2000.
  • Human Rights
  • Principle 1 Businesses should support and
    respect the protection of internationally
    proclaimed human rights and
  • Principle 2 make sure that they are not
    complicit in human rights abuses.
  • Labour Standards
  • Principle 3 Businesses should uphold the
    freedom of association and the effective
    recognition of the right to collective
    bargaining
  • Principle 4 the elimination of all forms of
    forced and compulsory labour
  • Principle 5 the effective abolition of child
    labour and
  • Principle 6 the elimination of discrimination
    in respect of employment and occupation.
  • Environment
  • Principle 7 Businesses should support a
    precautionary approach to environmental
    challenges
  • Principle 8 undertake initiatives to promote
    greater environmental responsibility and
  • Principle 9 encourage the development and
    diffusion of environmentally friendly
    technologies
  • Anti-Corruption
  • Principle 10 Businesses should work against all
    forms of corruption, including extortion and
    bribery.

Source www.globalcompact.org
29
Global Compact Stakeholders
  • 1991 companies, among which are
  • Electrolux,
  • Volvo
  • British Telecom
  • LOréal
  • Petrobras
  • DuPont

Source www.globalcompact.org
30
Some solutions
  • Fair trade create another kind of trade
    respect of environment, and of an ethic,
    sustainable relationships with farmer
  • Have another international government, with
    transparency, power on all the states, and rules
    to regulate free trade.
  • More collaboration between WTO and others
    institutions UNDP, UNCTAD to link economic
    development and sustainable development
  • Objectives to be more efficient in
    eliminating redundancy
  • Sources www.greenpeace.org www.attac.org

31
Artistic Social CommentaryTate Britain Turner
Prize- Langlands and Bell
- acronyms for NGOs are presented as eloquent
digital sequences that multiply, transform and
dissolve into each other.
www.tatebritain.com
- the strange language of acronyms becomes a new
form of concrete poetry, as well as an important
political commentary - organizations lose meaning
with a lack of vision, structure, action
32
  • Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful,
    committed citizens can change the world.
    Margaret Mead
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