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The leaders of the Italian city-states wanted to be remembered as wise, generous ... Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presentation Plus

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SECTION 1 The Italian Renaissance SECTION
2 France SECTION 3 Germany and
Flanders SECTION 4 Spain SECTION 5 England
Terms to Learn
People to Know (cont.)
  • classical writings
  • Johannes Gutenberg
  • humanists
  • piazza
  • doge
  • chateaux
  • printing press
  • El Greco
  • Henry VIII
  • Elizabeth I
  • William Shakespeare

Places to Locate
People to Know
  • Florence
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Venice
  • Papal States
  • Toledo
  • Michelangelo

The Italian City-States
  • The first and leading center of the Renaissance
    was Italy, which consisted of small, independent
  • At first, each city-state was ruled by guilds,
    and later, powerful individuals or families took
  • The leaders of the Italian city-states wanted to
    be remembered as wise, generous rulers.

  • Art was an important part of life in Renaissance
    Italy, and city-states were proud of their
  • Renaissance artists carefully studied ancient
    Greek and Roman art, science, mathematics, and
  • The rulers of the city-states paid good artists
    for their paintings and sculptures.
  • One of the greatest Renaissance artists, Leonardo
    da Vinci, is known for the Mona Lisa.

Art (cont.)
  • Another outstanding artist was Michelangelo
    Buonarroti, known for his paintings on the
    ceiling and altar wall of Romes Sistine Chapel.

City Life
  • While the rich built homes in the classical
    style, most people in the cities were poor and
    lived in run-down areas.
  • The center of city life was the piazza, or
    central square, where markets were set up and
    people gathered.
  • Marriages were arranged as if they were business
  • Most men dressed in tights and tunics, and women
    dressed in simply cut, flowing dresses with tight

  • The Italian Renaissance began in Florence, which
    was ruled by the Medici family.
  • Lorenzo de Medici, who became the ruler of
    Florence in 1478, made it a center of art and
  • About 1490, Florences trade started to decline.
  • A monk named Savonarola accused the Medicis of
    not ruling justly and gained the peoples
    support, overthrowing the Medicis in 1494.

Florence (cont.)
  • By 1498, the people of Florence had tired of
    Savonarolas strict ways, and he was hanged for
  • The Medicis returned to power, but Florences
    greatness had passed.

The Papal States
  • During the 1300s and 1400s Popes wanted to show
    Europes kings that the Church was still
  • In 1492, Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI
    by bribing cardinals to vote for him.
  • Pope Alexanders goal was to make central Italy a
    kingdom ruled by the Borgia family.
  • By the time of Alexanders death in 1503, Rome
    had replaced Florence as the center of the

  • The Renaissance did not reach Venice until the
    late 1500s because Venetians had looked to
    Constantinople rather than to western Europe for
    art and literature.
  • Venice was ruled by a few merchant aristocrats
    that controlled the Senate and the Council of
  • The Council passed laws and chose the doge, or
    official ruler.
  • The Venetians were expected to place loyalty to
    their city above anything else.

  • In 1494, the French began invading Italy, and
    French kings became fascinated by Italian art,
    architecture, and fashions.
  • In the 1500s, King Francis I and many of his
    nobles hired Italian architects to design
    chateaux, or castles, which were then built along
    the Loire River.
  • Francis I also encouraged French authors,
    including the physician-monk Rabelais, to model
    their works on those of Italian authors.

Germany and Flanders
  • The Renaissance also spread to the rich trading
    centers of Germany and Flanders.
  • Religious scholars learned Greek and Hebrew so
    they could understand the earliest versions of
    the Bible.
  • At the same time, German merchants began to
    appreciate Renaissance values this was the
    beginning of a new, privileged middle class.

Germany and Flanders (cont.)
  • About 1440, a German named Johannes Gutenberg
    developed a printing press.
  • This allowed many more books and ideas to spread
  • Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, two brothers from
    Flanders, discovered how to paint in oils for
    deep and rich color.

  • The Renaissance took root in Spain in the late
    1400s and early 1500s.
  • It was influenced by the close ties between the
    Roman Catholic Church and the government.
  • The leading Church official, Cardinal Jiménez,
    was a loyal supporter of the monarchy and a
    strong believer in the value of learning.

Spain (cont.)
  • In 1555, Philip II became king.
  • He did not trust the work of scholars. The
    Spanish Inquisition charged many with heresy, and
    some were burned at the stake.
  • Despite strong Church and government controls,
    the arts flowered.
  • Toledo became a center for painters and poets,
    including one Greek painter the Spanish called El

Spain (cont.)
  • He painted figures with very long bodies, parts
    of which stretched beyond normal size.
  • The theater was also popular in Renaissance
  • Author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra wrote many
    plays, short stories, and other works, including
    the novel Don Quixote.

  • In 1455, the House of York and the House of
    Lancaster began a fight for the throne, a
    struggle called the Wars of the Roses.
  • When the wars ended in 1485, a family called the
    Tudors, who fought on the Lancastrian side, took
    over the English throne.
  • The first Tudor king, Henry VII, prepared the way
    for the Renaissance.
  • Henry VIIs work was continued by his son, Henry
    VIII, who became king in 1509.

England (cont.)
  • The English Renaissance reached its height during
    the reign of Henry VIIIs daughter Elizabeth I.
  • Poetry, music, and the theater became a part of
    daily life.
  • About 1580, the first theaters in England were
    built, with stages in the open air.
  • One of the best known English playwrights, or
    authors of plays, was William Shakespeare.

England (cont.)
  • His most famous works include Romeo and Juliet,
    Macbeth, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, and A Midsummer
    Night's Dream.
  • Many experts consider Shakespeare the greatest
    playwright in the English language.