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Job Development and Placement


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Title: Job Development and Placement

Job Development and Placement
  • Lecture 6
  • September 14, 1998

What have we learned to date?
  • The Profession of Rehabilitation Counseling
  • Standards of Practice
  • Which codes are important?
  • Qualified Providers of Rehabilitation Counseling
  • Public and Private Sector Rehabilitation

Research in Rehab I
  • Yolanda oriented you to the Internet
  • On 9/28 we will go over to the Information Arcade
    to learn more about the library system and data
  • Youll benefit from having your topic ready to
    start your lit review for the paper

Coming up....
  • Two lectures on Data Collection in Rehabilitation
  • Intake interview, Medical Evaluation,
    Psychological Evaluation
  • Vocational Evaluation, Vocational Analysis,
    Planning the Program

  • Job Placement
  • Some of you are in the class currently, so this
    will be somewhat of a review
  • Roessler Rubin, Chapter 9
  • Maki Riggar, Chapter 13

Professional Organizations
  • National Rehabilitation Association (NRA)
  • Subdivision of NRA, the Job Placement Division
  • Recognized job placement as a specialized
  • Louis Ortale, worked for the VR agency in
    DesMoines, first president of JPD
  • Journal of Job Placement

The Rehabilitation Process
  • Pre-Placement Process
  • Evaluation
  • Planning
  • Treatment
  • Job Development, Placement, and Follow-up

Policy and Placement
  • Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992
  • Amends the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  • See the handout supplement for the context of
    this legislation
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 1990

  • Early public sector legislation focused on
  • The role of counselor in the VR process was
    highlighted in 54 legislation
  • 92 Amendments have re-emphasized the role of
    placement outcomes in the rehabilitation process

Current Policy Debates
  • States Rights (Devolution)
  • Historically, the States have assumed more
    control, Feds were putting in more cash (80)
  • Block grants have been instituted to give power
    back to the feds
  • Market Forces (Vouchers)
  • Places the control in the consumers hands to
    choose their own services
  • Increase market competition for consumers
    business (Public Private in competition!)

  • Workforce Development Areas (Service Integration)
  • Encouraging out-dated rehabilitation counselors
    to become more aware of the labor market forces
    when developing plans
  • Integrating other government agencies addressing
    similar concerns (e.g. in Iowa, Workforce
    Development and IDVRS)

Models of Placement(Little Research....)
  • Traditional
  • A. Counselor-provided placement
  • B. Placement-Specialist
  • C. Contracted Services
  • D. Supported Employment
  • New Models
  • E. Marketing
  • F. Team networking/mentoring
  • G. Demandside placement

A. Counselor-provided
  • Most appropriate for
  • Smaller or special case loads, need for client
    formal training, rural or few employment
  • Again, little research to support any one
    approach, except supported employment

Two conflicting paradigms
  • Increased counselor involvement with employer and
    client in the placement process to facilitate
  • Minimize dependency of the client on the
    counselor by minimizing counselor involvement in
    the placement process
  • Counselors report spending between 10 and 30 of
    the time in placement-related activities

Hands-on Placement
  • Necessary when someone has a more severe
  • Accessing natural supports can facilitate this
  • Asking family and friends for ideas
  • Employers appreciate the intermediary or broker
    function of the RC between clients and employers

The World of Work
  • RCs are experts in this knowledge area
  • Resources
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles
  • Occupational Outlook Handbook
  • Local labor market knowledge through
  • Job Analyses
  • Industry Analyses
  • Labor Market Analyses

Direct Observation of Jobs
  • What does the worker do?
  • How is it done?
  • Why is it done?
  • What skills are required?
  • Are there alternative methods of doing the job?
  • Accommodations in the environment, modification
    of equipment, modification of procedures

Psychosocial Factors
  • The psychological environment
  • amount of interaction with others, type of
    supervision, stress and pressure, routine
  • The social environment
  • types of worker characteristics/personalities,
    off-job social activities/support

B. Job Placement Specialists
  • Housed within a VR agency
  • Arguments suggest that the counselor working with
    the client will do a much better job of placement
    because he or she will know the client best
  • Most appropriate when
  • Large centralized office, varied employment
    options, quality training of specialist, and
    geographically clustered clients

C. Contracting for Services
  • Most appropriate when
  • Case loads are too large to perform placement
    well, good resources with whom you contract,
    specialized services available for a given
    disability group

Types of Contracting Agencies
  • Projects with Industry (1968)
  • Contracts with agencies administered by employer
  • Nonprofit agencies
  • For-profit companies
  • Self-employed individuals

D. Supported Employment
  • 1987 program, included in the 92 Amendments
  • Place and train vs. train and place
  • More severely disabled clients
  • Job coaches, ongoing support
  • John Nietupski will tell us more about supported
    employment in Job Development, Placement, and
    Follow-up class

E. Marketing Model
  • Efforts of JPD within NRA
  • Creating lasting relationships between job
    placement professionals and employers
  • Notes two customers client and employer
  • Important to address the needs and expectations
    of both customers

Marketing most appropriate when
  • Employers unaware of VR services
  • Agency commits time to placement activity
  • Varied business options in the area

F. Team networking/mentoring
  • Using communication, parties are linked through
    video or audio conferencing for ongoing support
  • Use of the Internet for networking
  • Distance learning formats for continuing
  • Taps natural supports within the employment

....most appropriate when
  • People in the area with disabilities who are
    employed and willing to volunteer time
  • Employers are inexperienced and will benefit from
    disabled peer involvement
  • Computer technology available
  • Few formal agencies with which to compete

G. Demand-side Placement
  • Consulting relationship with the most influential
    person in placement efforts, the employer
  • Using competent placement practices to build a
    relationship that promotes continued business

Demand-side appropriate when...
  • Policy forces act on employers to comply with
    employing persons with disabilities (ADA)
  • Inadequate labor pool in a geographic region
  • Placement specialists are trained as business

Employer concerns
  • Hiring pwds increases workers comp insurance
  • The data refute this
  • Secondary injury funds buffer the impact
  • Productivity is adversely affected
  • Production rate, turnover, and absenteeism were
    all worse for non-disabled employees in a study
    review conducted in 1986
  • Harris survey (1987) as well or better

Acute employer concerns
  • Mental disabilities
  • Emotional disabilities
  • Communication disabilities

Making recommendations for reasonable
  • Note functional limitations
  • Muellers 15 categories (1990) page 145
  • Note impact on essential functions
  • Note reasonable accommodations that will allow
    the performance of the essential functions (ADA,
    Title 1)
  • Table 9.1, page 146
  • Most of these are not very expensive (i.e.,
    undue hardship)

Policy Support
  • Sections 501 and 504 or the Rehab Act of 1973
  • ADA
  • Expands the coverage of the Rehab Act (p. 148
    out of sequence)
  • Title I Anti-discrimination
  • Title II Public Services
  • Title III Public Accommodations
  • Title IV Telecommunications, Misc.

Keeping Up-to-Date
  • Professional organization memberships and
    journals help to keep you apprised
  • Keep employers informed
  • Tax legislation changes frequently
  • Incentives for employers who hire pwds
  • e.g., tax deduction for barrier removal
  • Work Opportunity Tax Credit
  • up to 2,100 for each individual hired
  • Sub-minimum wage standard

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
  • Rules for interviewing pwds (1995)
  • Become very familiar with table 9.2, p. 150, for
    future employer training opportunities
  • You can also help employers meet ADA-specific are an information resource!
  • Trial questions....

Outcomes of Job Placement Efforts
  • 1986 report indicated that 75 of the clients
    were dissatisfied
  • What can you do to help?
  • Help create realistic expectations based upon
    your knowledge of the world of work, and the job
    application process
  • Train in interviewing skills, application
  • Practice through role-play

Suggestions in the text
  • ...for the above activities are very helpful
  • Start developing folders to store information
    that you come across, which may later be helpful
    in meeting the demands of your future vocational
  • A great interview technique, an innovative
    role-play, a great summary for clients/employers,
    how-to lists, etc.

  • Job placement has been considered by some to be
    the low-prestige task of the profession
  • Hershenson (1988) called for a more sophisticated
    treatment of this activity in program curricula
  • We now embrace the idea of counselor-employer as
    well as counselor-employee relationship in our

End of Maki Riggar Chapter
  • Paints a bleak picture of preparation for
    placement activities
  • Such a statement could be made about any of the
    knowledge areas
  • Experience comes with doing, which is why we
    encourage you to engage in placement activities
    at some level within your practica and/or
  • Youll have a good foundation in this program!

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