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Consumer Behavior: A Framework John C. Mowen


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Title: Consumer Behavior: A Framework John C. Mowen

Chapter 7Consumer Belief, Attitude, Behavior
Formation and Change
  • Consumer Behavior A FrameworkJohn C. Mowen
    Michael Minor

Key Concepts
  • Beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions
  • Attributes
  • Direct formation of beliefs, etc.
  • Hierarchies of effects
  • The attitude-toward-the-object model
  • The behavioral intentions model
  • The elaboration likelihood model
  • Balance theory
  • Attitude toward ads
  • Behavioral influence techniques of persuasion

Consumer Beliefs About Product Attributes
  • Beliefs result from cognitive learning.
  • Beliefs are the knowledge and inferences that a
    consumer has about objects, their attributes, and
    their benefits provided.
  • Objects are the products, people, companies, and
    things about which people hold beliefs and
  • Benefits are the positive outcomes that
    attributes provide to the consumer.
  • Attributes are the characteristics of an object

Additional Info on Attributes
  • A halo effect occurs when consumers assume that
    because a product is good or bad on one product
    characteristic it is also good or bad on another
    product characteristic.
  • Attribute importance
  • A persons assessment of the significance of an
  • Influenced by amount of attention directed to the
  • A persons self-concept, advertising, and the
    salience of the attribute can influence the
    attention focused on the feature.

Consumer Attitudes
  • Attitude is the amount of affect or feeling for
    or against a stimulus
  • Attitudes are stored in long-term memory
  • Beliefs are the cognitive knowledge about an
  • In high involvement situations, beliefs predict

The Functions of Attitudes
  • Utilitarian Function use to obtain rewards and
    avoid punishments.
  • Ego-Defensive Function self-protection, e.g.,
  • Knowledge Function simplifies decisions, e.g.,
    brand loyalty
  • Value-Expressive Function express identify to
    others. e.g., t-shirts.

Behaviors Intentions to Behave
  • Consumer behaviors consist of all the actions
    taken by consumers related to acquiring,
    disposing, and using products and services
  • Behavioral intentions may be defined as the
    intentions of consumers to behave.
  • Usually measured on 7 or 9 point scale low
    likelihood of performing behavior to high

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors May Be Formed
in Two Ways
  • Direct formation is when a belief, attitude, or
    behavior is created without either of the other
    states occurring first.
  • Hierarchy of effects occurs after a belief,
    attitude, or behavior is formed directly, there
    is a tendency for the states to build upon each
    other to create hierarchies

Direct Formation of Beliefs, Attitudes,
  • Direct belief formation corresponds to the
    decision-making perspective and cognitive
  • The direct formation of attitudes is linked to
    the experiential perspective.
  • The direct formation of behavior is linked to the
    behavioral influence perspective. Operant
    conditioning and modeling.

Forming Attitudes Directly
  • Classical conditioning/associative
    learning--positive affect is attached to object
  • Mere exposure--frequent exposure to stimulus
    increases liking for it. Derived from Butterfly
  • Moods--mood at the time of exposure to object
    influences feelings about object.

Directly Forming Behavior
  • Strong environmental forces can directly
    influence behavior, such as from the design of
    the physical environment.
  • Operant conditioning can influence behavior
    without the formation of beliefs or attitudes.

Hierarchies of Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors
  • Decision-Making Hierarchies
  • Experiential Hierarchy
  • Behavioral Influence Hierarchy

  • Decision making hierarchies
  • High involvement beliefs attitudes
  • Low involvement beliefs behavior attitudes
  • Experiential
  • Affect behavior beliefs
  • Behavioral influence hierarchy
  • Behavior beliefs affect

Predicting Consumer Attitudes
  • Multiattribute models identify how consumers in
    high-involvement situations (i.e. standard
    hierarchy of effects) combine their beliefs about
    product attributes to form attitudes about
    various brand alternatives, corporations, or
    other objects.

Attitude-Toward-The-Object Model
  • Identifies three major factors that are
    predictive of attitudes
  • Salient Beliefs
  • Strength of the Belief
  • Evaluation

  • Measurement issues
  • bi 1 low probability that object possesses
    attribute. 9high likelihood.
  • ei -3 negative evaluation of attribute. 3
    positive evaluation of attribute.

Fishbein Attitude Toward Object Model which
college will be chosen by Student Y? Ao Sum (Bi
x Ei)
Attribute Ivy State U Local U
Ei Bi Bi
Bi High Price -2 9 -18
2 -4 5 -10 Good Job
3 8 24 6 18 3
9 Easy entry -1 1 -3
4 -4 8 -1 Learn a lot
2 9 18 7 14
4 8
21 24 -1
Global Attitude MeasureDirect measure of
overall affect and feelings regarding object.
Use multiple scales to measure Bad 1 2 3
4 5 Good Negative 1 2 3 4 5
Positive Dislike 1 2 3 4 5
Like Compare results of global measure to results
of Attitude-toward-the-object measure.
The Behavioral Intentions Model . . .
  • . . . was developed by Fishbein and his
    colleagues to improve on the ability of the
    attitude-toward-the-object model to predict
    consumer behavior
  • Included subjective norms how other people feel
    about the behavior.
  • Assesses the consumers attitude toward the overt
    behavior of purchasing the product rather than
    toward the object itself. Use consequences of
    the behavior rather than attributes of object.

When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?
  • When consumer involvement is high.
  • measurement must at proper level of abstraction.
    Cannot predict whether someone will go to church
    on Sunday by asking them about overall attitude
    toward church.
  • Must consider subjective norms
  • Situational factors
  • Other brands/objects
  • Attitude strength
  • Mere measurement effect just asking intention
    to buy increases likelihood of buying.
  • When measured close in hierarchy to behavior.
    Surface traits are much like global attitude

Persuasion . . .
  • Persuasion is the explicit attempt to influence
    beliefs, attitudes, and/or behaviors.
  • Communication is defined broadly to include all
    aspects of the message, including the source of
    the message, the type of message given, and
    through what channel it moved (e.g., television,
    radio, or print media)

The Elaboration Likelihood Model a decision
making approach to persuasion
  • . . . is an approach to understanding the
    persuasion process which illustrates the
    decision-making path to belief, attitude, and
    behavior change

Central Peripheral
Routes to Persuasion
Belief and Attitude Change May Take One of Two
  • The Central Route to persuasion is when the
    consumer has high-involvement information
  • The Peripheral Route to persuasion is when the
    consumer has low-involvement information

The Central Route to Persuasion
  • Moves through the high involvement hierarchy.
  • The consumer attends more carefully to the
    message being received and compares it to his or
    her own attitudinal position.
  • Likely to generate a number of cognitive
    responses to the communication
  • Central Cues refer to ideas and supporting data
    that bear directly upon the quality of the
    arguments developed in the message

The Peripheral Route to Persuasion
  • Consumer moves through the low involvement
  • Cognitive responses are much less likely to
    occur, because the consumer is not carefully
    considering the pros and cons of the issue.
  • Peripheral persuasion cues include such factors
    as the attractiveness and expertise of the
    source, the mere number of the arguments
    presented, and the positive or negative stimuli
    that form the context within which the message
    was presented (e.g., pleasant music, source
    attractiveness, source trustworthiness, etc.)
  • Truth effect. Repeat something often enough,
    people will come to believe it.

Individual Differences in Route to Persuasion
the Need for Cognition
Strong arguments
High Low
Attitude Toward Ad
Weak arguments
Low High Need for
Multiattribute Models and the Decision-Making Path
  • A-T-O model
  • Change the perceived evaluation of an attribute
  • Change the belief that an object has a particular
  • add an attribute
  • Behavioral Intentions Model
  • Influence consumer perceptions of the
    consequences of a behavior.
  • Influence perceptions of normative influence

Experiential Path to Attitude Change
  • Balance Theory
  • Attitudes Toward the Advertisement

Balance Theory . . .
. . . proposes that people have a preference to
maintain a balanced state among the cognitive
elements if these elements are perceived as
forming a system .basic rule multiplication of
the signs of the relations must come out with a
positive sign.
Sentiment Connection

Unit connection
?? to
Sentiment Connection
Sentiment connection feeling toward evaluative
objects Unit connection psychological linkage
between two evaluative objects. Enhance by
increasing the association via attribution and
Gestalt principles.
Attitudes Toward the Advertisement . . .
  • . . . are a consumers general liking or
    disliking for a particular advertising stimulus
    during a particular advertising exposure. Will
    influence attitude toward brand.
  • Measurement like a global attitude.

The Behavioral Influence Route to Behavior Change
  • The ecological design of buildings and spaces can
    strongly affect the behavior of people without
    them being aware of the influence
  • Strong reinforcers or punishers in the
    environment can induce people to take actions
    that they would prefer to avoid.
  • Behavioral influence techniques employ strong
    norms to influence behavior directly.

Behavioral Influence Techniques
  • Ingratiation. . . refers to self-serving tactics
    engaged in by one person to make himself or
    herself more attractive to another.
  • Similarity conforming to wishes
  • offering gifts express liking
  • ask advice

  • Additional Behavioral Influence Tactics
  • Foot in the door small request and then large
    request. Uses self-perception and
  • Door in the face large request and then small
    request. Uses the norm of reciprocity.
  • even a penny will help. Based upon desire to
    present self positively to others.
  • Ethical issues??
  • Never, ever lie to consumers.

Some Managerial Implications
  • Positioning/differentiation position brands
    based upon key attributes.
  • Environmental analysis assess and manipulate
    environment to implement behavioral influence
  • Market research employ to identify salient
    attributes and key benefits, measure attitudes,
    and predict behavioral intentions
  • Marketing mix identify benefits sought by
    consumers and develop products to provide them.
    Develop promotions to communicate to consumers
    key attributes, to influence beliefs, attitudes,
    and behaviors.
  • Segmentation Employ benefit segmentation by
    identifying target markets desiring specific
    product benefits.