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Preparing oral presentations and PowerPoint in 7.0210.702 SciComm

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On October 7, 1973, the Sunday Times in London published a survey asking 3,000 ... The result: 41% of respondents ... Low conductivity. High cost (at present) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Preparing oral presentations and PowerPoint in 7.0210.702 SciComm


1
Preparing oral presentations and PowerPoint in
7.02/10.702 SciComm
2
First thing to do to prepare an oral presentation
is to overcome fear
  • On October 7, 1973, the Sunday Times in London
    published a survey asking 3,000 Americans "What
    is your greatest fear?" The result 41 of
    respondents answered "speaking in public."

3
Five Canons of Classical Rhetoric or the art of
persuasive speech
  • Invention Generating content and choosing a type
    of argumentative appeal
  • Arrangement Organizing the material
  • Style Using proper words in proper places (J.
    Swift).
  • Memory Speaking without notes.
  • Delivery Controlling voice, gesture,
    expression--and graphics!

4
Invention Classical Rhetoric described three
types of persuasive appeals.
Logos Appeal to reason, logic,
objectivity Pathos Appeal to emotion,
subjectivity Ethos Appeal to the character of
the presenter
Effective presentations make use of all three
types of appeals.
5
Arrangement Control the story that you want to
tell about your content (in four parts).
  • 1. Develop a general goal.
  • Inform? Persuade? Brainstorm?
  • 2. Develop a precise objective.
  • e.g., After my presentation, the listeners will
    be able to identify my three major conclusions
    and their implications.
  • 3. Consider the questions your presentation will
    answer for your audience.

6
Style Consider your speakers persona--even shy
people can be very effective public speakers!
  • Think in terms of talking to people
  • Look at your audience
  • Observe their reactions
  • Adjust your style accordingly
  • Make your enthusiasm for your work infectious

7
Memory Memorizing your talk word-for-word is not
necessary
  • However, use notes, note cards, or a printed
    version of your PPT slides to keep yourself
    organized and on track.

8
Delivery The rain in Spain falls mainly on the
plane.
  • Avoid filler words and distracting sounds (um,
    like, you know, okay).
  • Dont hide from your audience.
  • Talk to your audience not to the screen.
  • Dont fix your gaze on only one or two audience
    members.
  • Dont read your visual aids verbatim.
  • Practice, practice, practice.

9
You have several choices for how you deliver
your speech
Memorizing the Speech allows eye contact -
difficult for long speeches - room for precision
errors - no room for improvising
Reading From a Text ensures precision - does
not sound natural - no room for improvising -
hinders eye contact
Speaking From Slides insures organization
allows eye contact allows improvising - some
room for error
Winging It sounds natural - has much room for
error
10
Type an Outline and Practice from It
  • Type your outline in bold print and large font so
    you can refer to it easily during your
    presentation.
  • Practice your presentation from this outline but
    do not memorize it and do not read from it during
    your presentation.
  • Tape record your presentation and listen to
    yourself.
  • Listen for excessive use of uh like you
    know and failure to pause occasionally.
  • Make sure you are within the time limit.

11
PowerPoint can be your friend Tips for effective
visual aids
12
Michael Alley has sensible advice on how to use
PowerPoint.
http//www.writing.eng.vt.edu/
13
Audiences remember more when you use
well-designed slides
Hear
See
Hear and See
60
10
20
30
40
50
Recall ()
14
Choose a format that is easily read
Choose legible type
Arial BOOK ANTIQUA
Choose a helpful layout
words words words words
words words words
words
15
Color can distinguish a presentation
16
Color affects how fast the audience can read
The color combination that is read most quickly
is black on yellow.
17
Color affects how fast the audience can read
What is important is that the combination has
contrastthe one on this slide fails to do so.
18
Color affects how fast the audience can read
Combinations of red, green, and brown are
difficult for many people to read
19
Color affects the emotions of the audience
Avoid having a hot color such as red or orange as
your background color.
20
Include slides that accent important details
21
Include slides that show organization
Beginning
Mapping
Title
22
Exclude details that the audiencedoes not need
or cannot remember
23
This sentence headline introduces the first topic
(28 points, left justified, no more than two
lines)
Image(s) about first topic
Subordinate point (keep point to no more than two
lines)
Logo
24
Fuel cells are devices for energy conversion
Breakthrough Technologies Institute/Fuel Cells
2000
25
This sentence headline introduces the 2nd topic
(28 points, left justified, no more than two
lines)
First point (keep points to no more than two
lines) Second point (parallel in structure to
the others) Third point (parallel in structure
to the others)
Image about second topic
Logo
26
Composite materials are ideal for bipolar plates
  • Advantages
  • Easy to shape
  • Light in weight
  • Resistant to corrosion

Disadvantages Low conductivity High cost (at
present)
27
This sentence headline introduces the third topic
(28 points, left justified, no more than two
lines)
First point (keep points to no more than two
lines) Second point (parallel in structure to
the others) Third point (parallel in structure
to the others)
Image about third topic
Logo
28
Three methods exist for evaluating bipolar plates
29
In summary, (here, you state your most important
conclusion of the work)
Image that supports conclusion
Supporting point (no more than two
lines) Another supporting point (parallel to the
first) A third supporting point (parallel to the
first)
Questions?
Logo
30
In summary, composite bipolar plates show
promise for fuel cells
  • Composite materials function well, while under
    operating conditions
  • Minimal corrosion was observed
  • Conductivity difficulties need to be addressed

Questions?
31
What Differentiates Results from the Methods?
Methods How the data were accumulated.
Results What data were accumulated.
Readers expect to find the answers to your
research questions in your Results section.
32
What Differentiates Results from the Methods?
  • Methods versus Results
  • Methods How the data were accumulated.
  • Results What data were accumulated.

33
What are Some Qualities of a Well-Written
Results Section?
  • Methods and Results Correspond.
  • i.e., no experimental results for which there are
    no methods, and vice versa.
  • Results are presented in a logical order.
  • e.g., most important first, most fundamental
    first, etc.
  • Results focus on the question(s) or hypothesis
    introduced earlier in the paper.

34
What are some qualities of a well-written Results
section?
  • Methods and Results Correspond.
  • i.e., no experimental results for which there are
    no methods, and vice versa.
  • Results are presented in a logical order.
  • e.g., most important first, most fundamental
    first, etc.
  • Results focus on the question(s) or hypothesis
    introduced earlier in the paper.

35
What do we mean by Context, Focus, and
Justification?
  • Context Orient your reader to the published
    literature related to the study you are
    presenting.
  • Focus Define your research space, stake out
    territory. What question are you addressing? What
    is your hypothesis?
  • Justification Show how your work fits into and
    extends previous work. Argue for the importance
    of your work.
  • Your introduction sets up the direction youll
    take in the Discussion Section.

36
Introductions across disciplines contain the
essential elements of context, focus, and
justification.
Context Orient your reader to the
published literature related to the topic and to
essential background information
Focus Define the research space, stake out
territory. What questions are you addressing?
What is your hypothesis?
Justification Show how your work fits into
and extends previous work. Argue for the
importance of your work.
Swales (1990)
37
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38
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39
The Individual Teacher at Work in a Two-Teacher
Room
Individual attention involves no strain on the
teacher and no violence to the pupil hence, it
tends to that condition of repose and equipoise
essential to good teaching and to successful
study.
40
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