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How Journalism Began


... entertainment role away from radio and most of the breaking news from newspapers. Today newspapers put less emphasis on breaking news...Why? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How Journalism Began

How Journalism Began
  • Highlights of the history of journalism in the
    United States

Americas First Newspapers
  • Did not look like newspapers today
  • Often only one long sheet that consisted of more
    letters or essays than news
  • Publick Occurences - First American
    newspaperpublished in Boston in 1690 by Benjamin
  • PO suppressed by British colonial authorities
    after only one issue because they disliked what
    Harris said

Americas First Newspapers cont.
  • The Boston News-Letter - First continuously
    published newspaper in the colonies
  • Started by John Campbell in 1704
  • Published by authority (had government
  • QUESTION Are newspapers today published by

Establishment of Freedom of the Press
  • In colonies, newspapers that criticized
    government were guilty of sedition
  • Even the truth could not be used as a defense
    against sedition - The greater the truth, the
    greater the libel
  • Changed with 1735 court case

The Zenger Trial
  • John Peter Zenger - Published the New York
    Weekly Journal beginning in 1734
  • Charged with libel for printing articles that
    criticized the governor of New York, William
  • Defended in court by Andrew Hamilton
  • Hamilton convinced the jury that libel had to be
    false, malicious and seditious and therefore
    Zenger was innocent because he printed the truth
    New precedent set for journalism

The Press and the Revolution
  • By 1775, when the American Revolution began, 37
    newspapers were being published
  • Some historians actually say there would not have
    been a revolution without the support of the
  • At the time papers were very partisan
  • After the Revolution, press rights were
    guaranteed by the first amendment in the Bill of
    Rights in 1791.

The Newspaper Industry Grows
  • The Pennsylvania Post - First daily paper
    founded in 1783
  • The Students Gazette First student newspaper
    founded in 1777
  • Penny Press name for the kinds of papers that
    were forerunners of modern day newspaper
  • New York Sun - founded by Benjamin Day in 1833
    filled with news sold for a penny

The Penny Press
  • Penny press achieved mass audience sold on the
    street rather than subscription and very
  • Advertising took a major role for the first time
    in journalism
  • Soon papers similar to the New York Sun appeared
    throughout the country
  • At this time it was not unusual for one major
    city to have eight or nine competing newspapers

Effects of the Telegraph
  • In 1861 reporters begin to use telegraph to
    report from Civil war battle sites change style
    of journalism
  • Develop inverted pyramid and become more concise
    so as to get outcome in the story incase
    telegraph breaks down

Yellow Journalism
  • Style of journalism popular in the late 19th
  • Name derived from the Yellow Kid, a
  • cartoon in the Sunday World in the 1890s
  • Unethical and irresponsible form of journalism
    involved hoaxes, altered photographs, screaming
    headlines, scoops, frauds, and endless
    promotion of the newspapers themselves

Yellow Journalism cont.
  • William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and
    Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) most notable
    yellow journalists
  • Color supplements, illustrations, cartoon strips
    and dramatic coverage of sports events filled
    their papers and gave them high circulations

William Randolph Hearst
Joseph Pulitzer
Yellow Journalism cont.
  • Nellie Bly (aka Elizabeth Cochrane) most famous
    female yellow journalist
  • Worked for Pulitzers World known for pulling
  • Pretended to be mentally ill and got herself
    committed to asylum to investigate the asylums
    conditions wrote story about trip around the
    world inspired by Jules Verne novel

Did You Know?
  • Some say it was really Hearst that got the U.S.A.
    in the Spanish American War
  • Reportedly an artist for paper telegraphed to say
    there was no war Hearst said You furnish the
    pictures, and Ill furnish the war.
  • USS Maine blew up in Havana harbor in 1898
  • Hearst paper headline DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR

  • New kind or journalism
  • Writing with a social consciousness
  • Critics of the style called the writers
    muckrakers Do you know why?
  • Muckraking spread from newspapers to new medium
    the magazine
  • Ida Tarbell famous muckraker wrote about
    Standard Oil and attacked big business

Minority Media
  • Nation grew and minority groups began to take
    important roles in journalism
  • The Chicago Defender - one of largest/most
    influential African-American newspapers
  • Founded in 1905 by Robert S. Abbott
  • Encouraged blacks to move north
  • Hispanic, Native-American, and Asian papers soon

The Advent of Radio
  • 1906 radio invented
  • First newscast made in 1916 broadcast of the
    Wilson-Hughes presidential election
  • Regular broadcast programs began in Detroit in
  • NBC formed in 1926 and CBS formed in 1927
  • Today more than 500 million radio stations are in
    use and nearly 10,000 stations broadcast in the

  • Do you ever listen to news on the radio?
  • How do you think news writing had to change to be
    effective over the radio?

The Impact of Television
  • 1940 First TV newscast took place
  • Changed role of newspapers and radio dramatically
  • Took entertainment role away from radio and most
    of the breaking news from newspapers
  • Today newspapers put less emphasis on breaking
  • Many say TV is todays yellow journalism…Do you
    agree? Why?

Journalism Today
  • 200 years ago just beginning penny press
  • Now have 24 hour access to up-to-date news
    through radio, TV, Internet, papers and magazines
  • Which is your outlet of choice and why?
  • What is the value of news in todays society?