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Second Language Learners and Special Education: Differentiating between second language learners and

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Length of time in US. Reasons for immigration. Contact with homeland. Family attitudes ... Languages used in leisure time (tv, play) Source: Lopez, E. (2001) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Second Language Learners and Special Education: Differentiating between second language learners and


1
Second Language Learners and Special Education
Differentiating between second language learners
and students with a learning disability
  • Martha Villegas-Gutierrez, Ph.D.
  • Western Oregon University, The Teaching Research
    Institute, Education Evaluation Center

2
Personal Introduction
  • Native of Mexico
  • Bilingual Student
  • Bilingual Educator in West Sacramento, California
  • Regular Education Instructor in Iowa City
  • Spanish instructor at The University of Iowa
  • Internship in School Psychology in Dallas, Texas
  • Doctorate in School Psychology from The
    University of Iowa
  • School Psychologist Portland Public Schools

3
Introduction to Special Education
  • Special Education Eleven Categories
  • Autism
  • Communication
  • Emotional Disturbance
  • Deaf/Blind
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Mental Retardation
  • Orthopedic Impairment
  • Other Health Impairment
  • Specific Learning Disability
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Vision Impairment

4
Introduction to Second Language Learners
  • Current Demographics
  • Future Demographic Projections
  • Language Development
  • Second Language Acquisition
  • Acculturation
  • Educational Background

5
Introduction to the Second Language Acquisition
Process
  • Normal Process
  • Silent Period
  • Interlanguage
  • Code switching
  • Code mixing
  • Language Loss
  • Interference
  • Examples
  • Source Lopez, E. 2001

6
The Second Language Acquisition Process (cont.)
  • Fossilization
  • Cognitive processing
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

7
Factors that influence the second language
acquisition process
  • Motivation
  • An intervening process driving an individual into
    action
  • Extrinsic
  • Intrinsic
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

8
Factors that impact the second language
acquisition process
  • Practice opportunities
  • Personality characteristics
  • Extroversion
  • Introversion

9
Factors that Influence the second language
acquisition process
  • Acculturation
  • Length of time in US
  • Reasons for immigration
  • Contact with homeland
  • Family attitudes
  • Language spoken at home
  • Language of peers and community
  • Languages in school
  • Languages in after school setting
  • Languages used in leisure time (tv, play)
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

10
Factors that Influence the second language
acquisition process
  • Home and Community Characteristics
  • Parental and community attitudes
  • Degree of parents bilingualism
  • Literacy in the home
  • Use of mixed languages
  • Sociocultural background
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

11
Factors that influence the second language
acquisition process (cont.)
  • History of Education
  • Native country
  • Languages
  • Years in school
  • Interruptions in schooling
  • Quality of education

12
Factors that influence the second language
acquisition process (cont.
  • History of Education
  • In US
  • Languages
  • Type of program
  • Quality of program
  • Literacy experiences at home
  • Language(s) of interaction during literacy
    experiences

13
Factors that influence the second language
acquisition process
  • Age and the second language acquisition process
  • Making mistakes
  • The Rules
  • Moving through stages
  • Sounds of a new language
  • Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced
  • Remembering grammatical rules
  • Interference

14
Factors that Influence the Second Language
Acquisition Process
  • Relationship between the native and secondary
    language
  • Proficiency in the native language is related to
    proficiency in the second language.
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

15
Interpretation Questions
  • How proficiently does the student communicate in
    informal and formal settings in native and second
    language?
  • Can the difficulties noted in English be
    explained by the process of second language
    acquisition?
  • Is there evidence of language loss in the native
    language that is due to the child using English
    more frequently?
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

16
Interpretation Questions
  • Are the students difficulties due to a lack of
    prior education in the native language?
  • Are the difficulties the students is experiencing
    due to problems with the quality of education the
    student has been exposed to?
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

17
Special Alerts
  • Native Language
  • Delays in responding to verbal items?
  • Difficulties following verbal instructions?
  • Gaps in labeling?
  • Difficulties organizing verbal responses to
    open-ended questions?
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

18
Special Alerts
  • Pragmatic Deficits
  • Linguistic nonfluencies
  • Revisions
  • Word finding difficulties
  • Inappropriate responses
  • Poor topic maintenance
  • Needs multiple repetition
  • Reading material and culture
  • Transference of rules from L1 to L2
  • Curriculum standards
  • History of education
  • Formal Educational experiences
  • Source Lopez, E. (2001)

19
National Association for Bilingual Educators,
NABE Guidelines
  • Language of Evaluation
  • Evaluation Procedures
  • Questions to consider
  • How long does it take to learn a second language?
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