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Physical activity, Environment and Policy: The link between physical inactivity, land use patterns,

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Physical activity, Environment and Policy: The link between ... Leisure time physical activity trends, BRFSS. Change in transportation? Change in density? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical activity, Environment and Policy: The link between physical inactivity, land use patterns,


1
Physical activity, Environment and Policy The
link between physical inactivity, land use
patterns, and transportation
  • Kathryn H. Schmitz, PhD, MPH
  • Assistant Professor
  • Division of Epidemiology
  • University of Minnesota

2
Costs of Inactivity, per year
  • 500 million (Minnesota)
  • 3.17 billion (New York)
  • 300 million (North Carolina)
  • 76.6 billion (United States)

3
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991,
1995 and 2000
(BMI ? 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 54
person)
Source Mokdad A H, et al. JAMA 199928216,
200128610.
4
Leisure time physical activity trends, BRFSS
5
Change in transportation?
6
Change in density?
7
Factors that influence the choice to walk for
exercise or transportation
Behavioral setting (environment)
Psychosocial variables
Culture
Policy
Other
Density
Diversity
Design
Land Use Diversity and Density
Quality of Connectivity
Destination Attractiveness
Density
Connectivity
8
Density variables
Population Density Housing Unit
Density Employment Density Building
Coverage Surrounding Population Density (e.g.
density within one mile radius)
9
Land Use Diversity and Density
of area as Core Business/Commercial/Public use
vs. residential Building massing of total land
area that is commercial Use of upper stories
over retail for office/residence of parcels
with multiple uses Spacing of public spaces in
total area Park acreage - of total area as
park Average park area Number of attractive
pedestrian destinations Size of businesses ( of
employees in the area) Numbers of particular
types of businesses Distance to destinations
(euclidean vs. walking distance)
10
Destination Attractiveness
Ability to combine trips Building design
(entries, balconies, porches, interesting
architectural features) Building orientation from
pedestrian standpoint Building Setbacks Attractive
ness of individual destinations Attractiveness
of destination cluster Is parking between
pedestrian and destination?
11
Connectivity
Street patterns Pedestrian cut
throughs Sidewalk continuity Ability to travel
to destinations without crossing an
arterial Bikeway pattern, density, and bike
parking Block size
12
Quality of Connectivity
Width of vehicular space on roads ( of lanes,
width of lanes) Street trees size, existence,
and distance between them Frequency of building
entries Parallel parking on streets preferably
7 to 8 wide Speed limit Sidewalk width greater
than or less than 5 Are pedestrian paths on
streets or separate? Bikeway pattern, density,
and bike parking Ease of street
crossings Distance between pedestrian crossings
on arterials
13
Differing reasons, similar goals
  • Urban planners
  • Transportation planners
  • Public Health professionals

Decrease dependence on automobiles, increase use
of public transportation, walking/biking
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