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Cs EDUC 210 EBook

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The war effort prevented John Atanasoff from finishing the patent process and ... Barrom, Ann E; Kember, Kate; Harmes, Christine and Kalaydjian, Kinberley ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cs EDUC 210 EBook


1
Cs EDUC 210E-Book
  • Dr. Henderson

2
Who am I ?
  • MY name is C. I enjoy singing and attending
    church.

3
Contributors to the Computer
  • Jean Piaget
  • Blaise Pascal
  • Clifford Berry
  • John Atanasoff
  • Christopher Stoley
  • Doug Engelbart

4
Who is Jean Piaget?
  • The first person in technology in computers I
    wish to discuss is Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget was
    born in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) on August 9,
    1896. He died in Geneva on September 16, 1980. He
    was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor
    of medieval literature at the University, and of
    Rebecca Jackson. He studied natural sciences at
    the University of Neuchâtel where he obtained a
    Ph.D. During this period, he published two
    philosophical essays which he considered as
    "adolescence work" but were important for the
    general orientation of his thinking. After a
    semester spent at the University of Zurich where
    he developed an interest for psychoanalysis, he
    left Switzerland for France. He spent one year
    working at the Ecole de la rue de la
    Grange-aux-Belles a boys' institution created by
    Alfred Binet and then directed by De Simon who
    had developed with Binet a test for the
    measurement of intelligence. There, he
    standardized Burt's test of intelligence and did
    his first experimental studies of the growing
    mind. He was an epistemologist who regarded
    empirical studies of infants, children, and
    adolescents as an essential source of information
    about the nature of knowledge. Genetic
    epistemology (which, for Piaget, included the
    history of scientific ideas, as well as the study
    of development in individuals) is consistent with
    Objectivism in its biocentric concerns.

5
Blaise Pascal
  • The next person is Blaise Pascal he was the
    third of Etienne Pascal's children and his only
    son. Blaise's mother died when he was only three
    years old. Blaise Pascal's father had unorthodox
    educational views and decided to teach his son
    himself. Etienne Pascal decided that Blaise was
    not to study mathematics before the age of 15 and
    all mathematics texts were removed from their
    house. Blaise however, his curiosity raised by
    this, started to work on geometry himself at the
    age of 12. He discovered that the sum of the
    angles of a triangle are two right angles and,
    when his father found out, he relented and
    allowed Blaise a copy of Euclid. Pascal invented
    the first digital calculator to help his father
    with his work collecting taxes. He worked on it
    for three years between 1642 and 1645. The
    device, called the Pascaline, resembled a
    mechanical calculator of the 1940s. This, almost
    certainly, makes Pascal the second person to
    invent a mechanical calculator for Schickard had
    manufactured one in 1624.

6
Berry and Atanasoff
  • Johns Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tributed.
    Professor Johns Atanasoff and graduate student
    Clifford Berry built the world's first
    electronic-digital computer at Iowa State
    University between 1939 and 1942. The
    Atanasoff-Berry Computer represented several
    innovations in computing, including a binary
    system of arithmetic, parallel processing,
    regenerative memory, and a separation of memory
    and computing functions. They created the first
    computing machine to use electricity, vacuum
    tubes, binary numbers and capacitors. The
    capacitors were in a rotating drum that held the
    electrical charge for the memory. electronics and
    mechanical construction. The prototype created by
    these two, won the team a grant of 850 to build
    a full-scale model. They spent the next two years
    further improving the Atanasoff-Berry Computer.
    The final product was the size of a desk, weighed
    700 pounds, had over 300 vacuum tubes, and
    contained a mile of wire. It could calculate
    about one operation every 15 seconds today a
    computer can calculate 150 billion operations in
    15 seconds. Too large to go anywhere, it remained
    in the basement of the physics department. The
    war effort prevented John Atanasoff from
    finishing the patent process and doing any
    further work on the computer. When they needed
    storage space in the physics building, they
    dismantled the Atanasoff-Berry Computer.

7
Stoles and the Keyboard
  • Now for the invention of the modern computer
    keyboard began with the invention of the
    typewriter. Christopher Latham Sholes patented
    the typewriter that we commonly use today in
    1868. The Remington Company mass-marketed the
    first typewriters starting in 1877. A few key
    technological developments created the transition
    of the typewriter into the computer keyboard. The
    teletype machine, introduced in the 1930s,
    combined the technology of the typewriter (used
    as an input and a printing device) with the
    telegraph. Elsewhere, punched card systems were
    combined with typewriters to create what was
    called keypunches. Keypunches were the basis of
    early adding machines and IBM was selling over
    one million dollars worth of adding machines in
    1931. Early computer keyboards were first adapted
    from the punch card and teletype technologies.
    In 1946, the Eniac Computer used a punched card
    reader as its input and output device. In 1948,
    the Binac computer used an electromechanically
    controlled typewriter to both input data directly
    onto magnetic tape (for feeding the computer
    data) and to print results. The emerging electric
    typewriter further improved the technological
    marriage between the typewriter and the
    computer.By 1964, MIT, Bell Laboratories and
    General Electric had collaborated to create a
    computer system calledMultics a time sharing,
    multi-user system. Multics encouraged the
    development of a new user interface, the video
    display terminal. The video display terminals
    (VDT) combined the technology of the cathode ray
    tube (television) and electric typewriters.
    Computer users could now see what text they were
    typing on their display screens making text
    easier to create, edit and delete, and computers
    easier to program and use. Earlier computer
    keyboards had been based either on teletype
    machines or keypunches. There were many
    electromechanical steps in transmitting data
    between the keyboard and the computer that slowed
    things down. With VDT technology and electric
    keyboards, the keyboard's keys could now send
    electronic impulses directly to the computer and
    save time. By the late 70s and early 80s, all

8
Doug Engelbart
  • Douglas Engelbart, one known for the invention of
    the mouse. Which some people say that the
    hardware design was done original by a man named
    Bill English. Bill was an extremely effective
    guy. He had been working in another lab at SRI,
    and we were lucky he was free when this project
    came up. He wasnt afraid to dive into anything
    Later on, we were joined by Jeff Rulifson, who
    made a big difference, really a step function
    improvement, in the quality of the software
    involved. The original mouse had the cord in
    front, but we quickly moved it to the back end to
    get it out of the way. It was a simple mechanical
    device with two perpendicularly mounted discs on
    the bottom. You could tilt or rock the mouse to
    draw perfectly straight horizontal or vertical
    lines. Or you could give the mouse a push and
    lift it off the desk, and watch the cursor
    continue moving while the disc was spinning. Most
    of todays mice are still mechanical, and have
    modified that original design by incorporating a
    round ball in their base, whose movements are
    tracked by two orthogonally mounted disks. (You
    can click on the photo to see a higher resolution
    version photograph of the original mouse). He
    left Ames to attend the University of California
    and received a Ph.D., and taught there for a
    year. But you can imagine how his ideas of
    augmenting the human intellect were received in
    1960! laughs One of his colleagues on the
    faculty at Cal took him aside and said, Son,
    promotions in academic institutions are based on
    peer input. People always prefer those who share
    their views. If he continued on his present path,
    he will be an acting associate professor
    forever. So he contacted the Dean of the School
    of Engineering at Stanford, just across the bay
    from Berkeley, and received a nice letter that
    said something like, Dear Dr. Engelbart. Thank
    you for your interest in Stanford. Unfortunately,
    our School of Engineering is a small department,
    and we have chosen to focus only on those areas
    which we feel offer real potential. Since
    computers are only useful to service entities, we
    have no interest in developing a focus in them.

9
Other Contributors
  • Charles Babbaye
  • James Coleman
  • James Conner
  • John Dewey
  • Margaret Meade
  • Ralph Tyler
  • Jerome Brunner
  • Benjamin Bloom
  • Howard Garner
  • Grace Hopper
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Abraham Maslow
  • BF Skinner
  • Robert Gagne

10
Chapter 5 Terms
  • Multimedia A combination of text, color,
    graphics, animation, audio, video and virtual
    reality.
  • Electronic Book A digital text that uses links
    to give the user access to information in the
    text and that can be read with an e-book
  • Virtual Reality Simulation of a real or imagined
    environment that appears as three dimensional
    space and that the user can experience and
    manipulate as it were physical.
  • Distant Learning Delivery of education from one
    location to another.
  • CBT- type of learning that involves completing
    exercises using special instructional software on
    a computer.
  • CAI- Software designed to help teach facts,
    information, and/or skills associated with
    subject related materials.
  • Web based course- Course that is taught mostly or
    completely on the web, rather that in a
    traditional classroom, AKA on line.
  • Web enhanced Course- Course that uses the web to
    enhance the content of the course.

11
Educational Groups
  • American Educational Research Association
  • Education Commission of the States
  • American Federation of Teacher
  • Association for Supervision and Curriculum
    Development

12
American Educational Research Association
  • The AERA, is a professional membership
    organization, strives to improve the educational
    process by encouraging scholarly inquiry related
    to education. AERA offers a comprehensive program
    of scholarly publications, training, fellowships,
    and meetings to advance educational research, to
    disseminate knowledge, and to improve the
    capacity of the profession to enhance the public
    good. AREA central founded in 1916 and currently
    is in the 86th year. The AREA central offices are
    located in two adjoining townhouse near
    Washingtons Dupont Circle, an area within the
    Nations Capitol that is home to many education
    related organizations. AREA is the most prominet
    international professional organizations with the
    primary goal of advancing educational research
    and its practical application.

13
Educational Commission of the States
  • The ECS is an interstate compact created in 1965
    to improve public education by facilitating the
    exchange of information, ideas and experiences
    among state policymakers educational leaders. As
    a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization involving
    key leaders from all levels of educational
    system, ECS creates unique opportunities to build
    partnerships, share information and promote the
    development of policy based on available research
    and strategies.

14
American Federation of Teacher
  • The mission of the AFL is to improve the lives
    our lives of our members and their families, to
    give voice to their legitimate professional,
    economic and social aspirations, to strengthen
    the institutions in which we work, to improve the
    quality of service we provide, to bring together
    all members to assist and support one another and
    to promote democracy, human rights and freedom in
    our nation and through out the world.

15
Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development
  • Founded in 1943, the ASCD, is an international
    nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that
    represents 160,000 educators from more that 135
    countries and 66 affiliates. Our members span the
    entire profession of educators superintendents,
    supervisors, principals, teacher, professors of
    education, and school board members. ASCD
    reflects the conscience and content of education.

16
History of the Computer
  • Computers play an essential role in how
    individuals work, live and learn, Organizations
    of all sizes even the smallest schools and
    businesses rely on computers to help them operate
    more efficiently and effectively. At home, work,
    and school, computers help people do work faster,
    more accurately, and in some cases, in ways that
    previously were not possible. People use
    computers at home for education, entertainment,
    information management, and business purposes for
    sorting information and keeping files without a
    lot of stress organizing papers . They also use
    computers as tools to access information and to
    communicate with others around the world you can
    meet new friends and also possibly find the love
    of your life even when you bored you can get on
    the computer and find a friend to talk to that
    might be experiencing the same things you are and
    feeling the same way you might be feeling.
  • In the classroom, computers and
    computer-related technologies are having a
    profound influence on the way teachers instruct
    and students learn. They even have study guides
    to help you study for test and they have the
    answers there to make sure that your answers are
    accurate. Even the activities that are part of
    your daily routine, typing a report, driving a
    car, paying for goods and services with a credit
    card, or using an ATM involve the use of
    computers.

17
Some things used by Computers
18
The Internet
  • The Internet has revolutionized the computer and
    communications world like nothing before. The
    invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and
    computer set the stage for this unprecedented
    integration of capabilities. The Internet is at
    once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a
    mechanism for information dissemination, and a
    medium for collaboration and interaction between
    individuals and their computers without regard
    for geographic location. The Internet represents
    one of the most successful examples of the
    benefits of sustained investment and commitment
    to research and development of information
    infrastructure. Beginning with the early research
    in packet switching, the government, industry and
    academia have been partners in evolving and
    deploying this exciting new technology. Today,
    terms like "bleiner_at_computer.org" and
    "http//www.acm.org" trip lightly off the tongue
    of the random person on the street. This is
    intended to be a brief, necessarily cursory and
    incomplete history. Much material currently
    exists about the Internet, covering history,
    technology, and usage. A trip to almost any
    bookstore will find shelves of material written
    about the Internet. In this paper, several of us
    involved in the development and evolution of the
    Internet share our views of its origins and
    history. This history revolves around four
    distinct aspects. There is the technological
    evolution that began with early research on
    packet switching, the related technologies, and
    where current research continues to expand the
    horizons of the infrastructure along several
    dimensions, such as scale, performance, and
    higher level functionality. There is the
    operations and management aspect of a global and
    complex operational infrastructure. There is the
    social aspect, which resulted in a broad
    community of Internauts working together to
    create and evolve the technology. And there is
    the commercialization aspect, resulting in an
    extremely effective transition of research
    results into a broadly deployed and available
    information infrastructure. The Internet today is
    a widespread information infrastructure, the
    initial prototype of what is often called the
    National (or Global or Galactic) Information
    Infrastructure. Its history is complex and
    involves many aspects - technological,
    organizational, and community. And its influence
    reaches not only to the technical fields of
    computer communications but throughout society as
    we move toward increasing use of online tools to
    accomplish electronic commerce, information
    acquisition, and community operations. Origins of
    the Internet The first recorded description of
    the social interactions that could be enabled
    through networking was a series of memos written
    by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August

19
Internet Cont
  • New modes of access and new forms of service will
    spawn new applications, which in turn will drive
    further evolution of the net itself. The most
    pressing question for the future of the Internet
    is not how the technology will change, but how
    the process of change and evolution itself will
    be managed. As this paper describes, the
    architecture of the Internet has always been
    driven by a core group of designers, but the form
    of that group has changed as the number of
    interested parties has grown. With the success of
    the Internet has come a proliferation of
    stakeholders - stakeholders now with an economic
    as well as an intellectual investment in the
    network. We now see, in the debates over control
    of the domain name space and the form of the next
    generation IP addresses, a struggle to find the
    next social structure that will guide the
    Internet in the future. The form of that
    structure will be harder to find, given the large
    number of concerned stake-holders. At the same
    time, the industry struggles to find the economic
    rationale for the large investment needed for the
    future growth, for example to upgrade residential
    access to a more suitable technology. If the
    Internet stumbles, it will not be because we lack
    for technology, vision, or motivation.

20
OUTSIDE ASSIGNMENTS
  • Fall Convocation 2003
  • September 11th program

21
Educational Technology
  • Ghinea, Gheorghita and Chen, Sherry(Sep2003). The
    impact of cognitive styles on perceptual
    distributed multimedia quality, British Journal
    of Educational Technology, Vol.34 Issue 4 p.393.
    Retrieved September 5, 2003 from Charles W.
    Chessnut E-database at FSU.
  • Graff, Martin(Sep2003). Learning from web-based
    instructional systems and cognitive style,
    British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol.34
    Issue 4,p.407, 12p Retrieved September 5, 2003
    from Charles W. Chessnut E-database at FSU.
  • Sonnenwarld, Diane and LI,Bin(Sep2003).
    Scientific Collaborations in higher education
    exploring learning style preferences and
    perceptions of technology, Vol.34 Issue 4, p.419,
    13p Retrieved September 5, 2003 from Charles W.
    Chessnut E-database at FSU.
  • John T.E.(Sep2003). Approaches to studying and
    perceptions of academic quality in a short
    web-based course, British Journal of Educational
    Technology Vol.34 Issues 4 p.433, 10p Retrieved
    September 5, 2003 from Charles W. Chessnut
    E-database at FSU.

22
Instructional Technology
  • AL-Batinen, Adel and Brooks, Leanne(Jul2003).
    Challenges, Advantages and disadvantages if
    instructional technology in the college
    classroom, Community College Journal of Research
    and Practice, Vol.27 Issue 6,p.473, 12p.
    Retrieved September 5, 2003 from Charles W.
    Chesnut E-database at FSU.
  • (Jun2003), Pearson Educ. Merges two Instructional
    Technology Groups under Pearson Digital Learning
    name, Electronic Education report, Vol.10
    Issue11,p.1, p.2. Retrieved September 5, 2003
    from Charles W. Chesnut E-database at FSU.
  • Carter, Howard and Rundblad, Kevin(JUn2003). The
    villiage of ISS providing library-based
    instructional support, information technology and
    libraries, Vol.22 Issue 2 p.547 p.1 Retrieved
    September 5, 2003 from Charles W. Chesnut
    E-database at FSU.
  • Dirst, Tearh L (Jun2003). Improving art history
    education library and faulty partnership in
    instructional technology development,
    ionformation technology and libraries, Vol. 22
    Issue 2, p.83 Retrieved September 5, 2003 from
    Charles W. Chesnut E-database at FSU.

23
Technology Integration
  • Tansey, Mike(Jun2003), Intelleigent Content and
    tEchnology, Integration, ABA Journal, Vol. 89
    Issue 6, p.473, 12p. Retrieved September 5, 2003
    from Charles W. Chesnut E-database at FSU.
  • Barrom, Ann E Kember, Kate Harmes, Christine
    and Kalaydjian, Kinberley(Summer2003) large-scale
    Research study on Technology in Education, VOl.
    35 Issue 4 p.489, 19p. Retrieved September 5,
    2003 from Charles W. Chesnut E-database at FSU.
  • Smith, Sean J. and Robinson, Suzanne(May/June03),
    Technology Integration through collaborate
    cohorts, Remedical and Special Education, Vol. 24
    Issue 3. p.154 7p. Retrieved September 5, 2003
    from Charles W. Chesnut E-database at FSU.
  • Peterman, Leineda(Apr2003), Teacher modes of
    Technology intergration, T H E Journal, Vol.
    30Issue , p.37, 2p. Retrieved September 5, 2003
    from Charles W. Chesnut E-database at FSU.

24
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