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Malnutrition

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Title: Malnutrition


1
Malnutrition
  • Sources
  • The World Food Problem
  • Leathers Foster, 2004
  • The Omnivores Dilemma
  • Michael Pollan, 2006

http//www.lastfirst.net/images/product/R004548.jp
g
2
Malnutrition
  • Undernutrition
  • Lack of nutrients
  • Calories
  • Protein
  • Micronutrients
  • Low income countries
  • Overnutrition
  • Obesity
  • Too many calories
  • High and middle income countries

http//i105.photobucket.com/albums/m203/sspasha/Ma
lnutrition.jpg
3
Undernutrition
  • Undernutrition
  • Secondary Malnutrition
  • Micronutrient Malnutrition
  • Protein Energy Malnutrition
  • Most important

Severe Protein Energy Malnutrition
http//www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/seminar
/2002/tech/malnutrition.jpg
4
Global Undernutrition
http//paperdreamer.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/wo
rld_hunger_map.jpg
5
Secondary Malnutrition
  • Diet normal
  • Food not digested or absorbed
  • Diarrhea
  • Parasites

Tapeworm
6
Micronutrient Malnutrition
  • Deficiency in
  • Vitamin A
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D
  • B Vitamins
  • Vitamin C

Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency)
http//www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/rickets.jpg
7
Vitamin A Deficiency
  • Night Blindness
  • 500,000 children/year
  • xerophthalmia
  • Half of these will die
  • within a year of becoming blind
  • Rice diet lacking green vegetables
  • Vitamin supplements help cost 3/year
  • Golden Rice could help



xerophthalmia
http//www.vitaminsdiary.com/UserFiles/Image/kerat
omalacia.jpg
8
Vitamin A Deficiency
http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thum
b/7/7d/Vitamin_A_deficiency.PNG/800px-Vitamin_A_de
ficiency.PNG
9
Iodine Deficiency
  • Iodine deficiency
  • affects 740 million people worldwide
  • single greatest cause of preventable brain damage
    in babies
  • Goiter
  • Stillbirth
  • Miscarriages
  • Mental Retardation
  • Prevented by iodized salt
  • Best sources of natural iodine
  • Sea weed
  • Sea food

Goiter (thyroid enlargement)
http//www.voanews.com/english/images/emory_edu_go
iter_Iodine_Deficiency_Disorder_195_eng_11may06_0.
jpg
10
38 million newborns are not protected from iodine
deficiency
http//images.google.com/imgres?imgurlhttp//www.
unicef.org/progressforchildren/2007n6/images/pfc6_
sources_of_data_used_in_unicef_analysis_2000-2006.
gifimgrefurlhttp//www.unicef.org/progressforchi
ldren/2007n6/index_41796.htmh361w600sz20hl
enstart75sig2xIUDzxMbqzKvhSoLjqx6cwum1tbnid
AHRtpUj1tsOS5Mtbnh81tbnw135eiAptlSJ6DD6fui
gHGy4y7Cwprev/images3Fq3Dunicef26start3D602
6ndsp3D2026um3D126hl3Den26rlz3D1B3GGGL_enUS
240US24226sa3DN
11
Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Affects 2 billion people,
  • 90 live in developing countries
  • 39 of preschool children
  • 52 of pregnant women
  • Reduced
  • physical activity
  • mental activity
  • Increased
  • birth mortality
  • Worms
  • Malaria
  • HIV
  • High iron rice could help

http//www.micronutrient.org/reports/images/Page16
Image.jpg
12
Other Deficiencies
  • Zinc
  • Growth retardation
  • delayed sexual maturation
  • skin and eye lesions
  • 48 of world at risk for zinc deficiency
  • Calcium
  • Osteoporosis bone loss
  • Vitamin D
  • Rickets bone malformation
  • Not enough sunlight exposure
  • Swaddled babies

Swaddled babies at risk for Rickets not enough
sunlight
http//www.ulanbatoronline.org/cammp_section/artic
le_images_lamc_latimes/scans/latimes_images/thumbn
ails/babyswaddle.jpg
13
Other Deficiencies
  • Vitamin C
  • Causes Scurvy problem in refugee camps
  • Niacin
  • Causes Pellagra dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
  • Due to diet high in maize (low in tryptophan)
  • Thiamin
  • Causes Beriberi
  • Due to diet high in polished rice
  • Folate
  • Birth defects Anancephaly and Spina Bifida

Scurvy
http//www.athropolis.com/arctic-facts/misc/scurvy
.jpg
14
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
  • Underconsumption of calories or protein
  • Most important form of malnutrition
  • Associated with poverty
  • Not enough food
  • Poor quality food
  • Kwashiorkor
  • Extreme protein deficiency
  • Marasmus
  • Extreme calorie deficiency

Kwashiorkor
15
Kwashiorkor
  • Protein deficiency often associated with weaning
    onto thin cereal gruels.
  • Cassava
  • Plantains
  • Bloating of the stomach due to edema
  • Fluid leaking into body
  • Wasted muscles
  • Antibodies degraded to provide protein to body
  • Infection
  • Dysentery
  • Death

http//www.imageenvision.com/md2/sym_0004-0703-142
2-2622_nurse_standing_with_a_group_of_african_chil
dren_showing_symptoms_of_the_protein-deficiency_di
sease_kwashiorkor.jpg
16
Marasmus
  • Calorie deficiency
  • Lack of food
  • Poorest populations
  • Neglected
  • Infants
  • children
  • Protein used for energy
  • Results in wasting
  • Deterioration of tissues
  • Brain development impaired

17
Overnutrition
  • Consumption of too many calories
  • Obesity
  • Medical problems
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer

http//www.mercola.com/images/blog/2005/01.01.junk
food.gif
18
Overnutrition
  • Global problem
  • Overnutrition has surpassed undernutrition
  • Worst in middle and high income countries
  • Rising in low income countries
  • Can co-exist with undernutrition
  • Same country
  • Same household
  • Projected to get worse as incomes rise
  • Industrial food
  • High in calories

http//i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/05/16/article-
0-064EFCA50000044D-848_468x296.jpg
19
Industrial Food
  • Economies of scale
  • Industrial agriculture
  • Commodity grains
  • Factory farm animals
  • Confinement
  • Processing
  • White flour
  • Corn and soy ingredients
  • Low Prices
  • Must sell more
  • Supersizing
  • Fat and sugar added
  • New products

http//www.salembargains.com/Images/Cereal-Aisle2.
jpg
20
Global Overnutrition
http//news.bbc.co.uk/nolpda/ukfs_news/hi/newsid_7
151000/7151813.stm
21
Global Overnutrition
http//www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes1.htm
http//www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes3.htm
22
Overnutrition in the USA
  • Overweight population
  • 2/3 of adults
  • 1/3 of children
  • Reasons
  • Excess fat, sugar in diet
  • Not enough fiber
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Poor are overweight
  • Industrial food inexpensive
  • Fast food
  • Processed
  • Energy dense
  • Fruits, vegetables more expensive

http//www.epidemiologic.org/obesity/obesity-epide
mic2004-msn-small.JPG
23
http//www.geographyalltheway.com/ib_geography/ib_
resources/imagesetc/obesity_poverty.jpg
24
Overnutrition rising in developing countries
  • Increase in global food market
  • Industrial food
  • Urbanization
  • Fast Food
  • Diet change
  • Decline in traditional diet
  • Increased meat

http//www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes2.htm
25
Calorie consumption
26
Balanced Protein
  • Protein are made of amino acids
  • Essential amino acids
  • Body cannot make
  • Required in diet
  • Animal proteins have perfect balance of amino
    acids
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Eggs

http//www.ibabuzz.com/allyoucaneat/wp-content/upl
oads/2007/09/eggs.jpg
27
Complementing Proteins
  • Plant proteins
  • are deficient in different essential amino acids
  • Cereals
  • Low in lysine
  • Beans
  • Low in methionine
  • Must eat both cereal and beans together
  • To get balanced amino acids
  • Complementing proteins

Rice and Beans
http//www.d16acbl.org/U174/black20beans.jpg
28
Calorie Deficiency
  • Most widespread problem among poor
  • Cannot get enough calories (energy) in diet
  • Most get enough protein
  • Calorie requirements vary
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Pregnancy
  • Lactation

29
Nutritional Needs
  • RDA
  • Recommended Daily Allowance
  • Level of nutrients adequate for 97-98 of the
    group
  • Good target for individuals
  • EAR
  • Estimated Average Requirement
  • Level of nutrients adequate for ½ individuals in
    group
  • Always lower than RDA
  • Good target for average intake of a group

http//www.fda.gov/diabetes/pyramid.gif
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