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The period in Western history from the fall of the Roman empire 476 A.D. to the fall of Constantinop

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Title: The period in Western history from the fall of the Roman empire 476 A.D. to the fall of Constantinop


1
Middle Ages
  • The period in Western history from the fall of
    the Roman empire (476 A.D. to the fall of
    Constantinople to the Turks (1453 A.D.)

http//www.wga.hu/art/s/schinkel/medieval.jpg
2
SOLs
  • WHI.9
  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of Western
    Europe during the Middle Ages from about 500 to
    1000 A.D. in terms of its impact on Western
    civilization by
  • Sequencing events related to the spread and
    influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church
    throughout Europe
  • Explaining the structure of feudal society and
    its economic, social, and political effects
  • Sequencing events related to the invasions,
    settlements, and influence of migratory groups,
    including Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and vikings.

http//www.irtc.org/stills/2001-04-30/view.html
3
Middle Ages
  • Also known as the Medieval Period and the "Dark
    Ages," the Middle Ages were characterized by
    feudalism (rule by independent war-lords and a
    subjected peasantry) and the dominance of the
    Catholic Church.
  • This era was preceded by Antiquity and followed
    by the Renaissance.

4
Barbarian Kingdoms
http//members.aol.com/_ht_a/skyelander/celts10.ht
ml
http//www.gaucin.to/history.htm
  • By the sixth century, the Western Roman Empire
    had been replaced by smaller kingdoms ruled by
    barbarian kings granting only nominal recognition
    to the Emperor.

http//wps.ablongman.com/long_kishlansky_cw_5/0,64
72,268318-,00.html
5
Goths
http//www.answers.com/topic/goths
  • The Goths were an East Germanic tribe which
    according to their own traditions originated in
    Scandinavia (specifically Götaland and Gotland).
    They migrated southwards and conquered parts of
    the Roman empire. Two closely related tribes, the
    Götar and the Gutar, who remained in Scandinavia
    and are often called Goths, are separately
    treated, as Geats and Gotlanders.

6
Visigoths Ostrogoths
http//www.answers.com/topic/goths
  • The Visigoths were one of the two main branches
    of the Goths, Ostrogothi being the other.
    Together these tribes were one of the
    loosely-termed "Germanic tribes" that disturbed
    the late Roman Empire. After the "fall" of the
    western Roman Empire, the Visigoths continued to
    play a major role in western European affairs for
    another 250 years.

7
Vandals
Andulusia
http//www.newacropolis.org.il/Philosopher.asp?nam
eaugustine
  • The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that
    entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th
    century and created a state in North Africa,
    centered on the city of Carthage. The Vandals may
    have given their name to the province of
    Andalusia (originally, Vandalusia, then
    Al-Andalus), in Spain, where they temporarily
    settled before pushing on to Africa.

The Vandals were actually two tribes, the Asding
and the Siling Vandals. The English word
vandalism comes from this group.
8
Other Invaders
http//www.teachinghearts.org/dre17hdan02.html
The Franks were a group of Germanic peoples
inhabiting the lower and middle Rhine Valley by
the 3d century AD, when they are first mentioned
by classical authors.
The Burgundians were people from the historical
region and former province of eastern France. The
area was first organized into a kingdom by the
Burgundii, a Germanic people, in the 5th century
A.D. At the height of its later power in the 14th
and 15th centuries, Burgundy controlled vast
territories in present-day Netherlands, Belgium,
and northeast France. It was incorporated into
the French crown lands by Louis XI in 1477.
The Lombards were a Germanic people who
established a kingdom in Northern Italy. They
were originally from Scandinavia and entered the
late Roman Empire.
  • There were six major German tribes. In addition
    to the Visigoths, the Ostrogoths, the Vandals,
    there were the Burgundians, the Lombards, and the
    Franks. All six groups participated in the
    fragmentation and the collapse of the Western
    Roman Empire.

9
Anglo-Saxons
  • Tall, blue-eyed blond Germanic invaders of
    Britain during the second half of the 5th century
    AD. These Angles, Saxons, and Jutes came from
    areas in and around what is now Denmark. By A.D.
    600 they were well established in Britain, having
    driven the Romanised Celtic Britons westward into
    Wales and Cornwall. Initially they were pagans
    but by the end of the 7th century they had been
    converted to Christianity by St. Augustine of
    Canterbury and other missionaries from the
    continent.

10
Magyars
In central Europe, the Magyars started moving out
from their base in Hungary, which they had
earlier seized from the Bulgar Huns. They
launched raiding parties as far afield as Bremen
in Germany, Orleans in France and Constantinople,
raping, pillaging, looting and destroying where
they went. In 954, a Magyar raiding party
consisting of an estimated 100,000 soldiers
crossed Bavaria and the Rhine River, penetrating
France as far as Rhiems and Burgundy, then
crossing the Alps to pillage Lombardy in Italy.
  • The Magyars were an Asiatic group who burst over
    the Danube river at the close of the 10th
    Century, ravaging wide areas of central Europe.

11
Normans
Under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted
the French name Rollo, they swore allegiance to
the king of France (Charles the Simple) and
received the small lower Seine area from him in
911. This area expanded over time to become the
Duchy of Normandy.
  • The Normans (adapted from the name "Northmen" or
    "Norsemen") were a mixture of the Gauls of France
    and the Viking invaders under the leadership of
    Rollo (Gange Rolf). Danish or Norwegian Vikings
    began to occupy the northern area of France now
    known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th
    century.

12
Religion
http//classroomclipart.com/cgi-bin/kids/imageFoli
o.cgi?actionviewlinkHistory/Middle_Ages/Religio
nimageMRL_366A.jpgimgtt
  • The Catholic Church was the only church in
    Europe during the Middle Ages, and it had its own
    laws and large coffers.
  • Church leaders such as bishops and archbishops
    sat on the king's council and played leading
    roles in government. Bishops, who were often
    wealthy and came from noble families, ruled over
    groups of parishes called "diocese."
  • Parish priests, on the other hand, came from
    humbler backgrounds and often had little
    education. The village priest tended to the sick
    and indigent and, if he was able, taught Latin
    the Bible to the youth of the village.

13
Religion
http//encarta.msn.com/media_461517471_761564555_-
1_1/Monk_in_Scriptorium.html
  • The Roman Catholic church was important because
    it
  • gave religious teaching to all of Europe under
    the guidance of the Pope
  • provided most formal education preserved
    learning
  • was an important political element
  • developed drama through the mystery, miracle, and
    morality plays

http//www.asaplive.com/iKnow/LocalHistory.cfm?ccs
212cs672
14
Crusades
  • A series of military campaigns fought during the
    11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Originally they
    were Roman Catholic attempts to recapture the
    Holy Land from the Muslims.

15
Crusades
http//www.catholiceducation.org/images/history/Cr
usades20Jerusalem.jpg
  • However, some were directed against other
    Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against
    Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against
    the Cathars of southern France and the Northern
    Crusade.

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusades
16
First Crusade
http//kspark.kaist.ac.kr/1st20Crusades.htm
  • Pope Urban II (1088-1099) was responsible for
    assisting Emperor Alexus I (1081-1118) of
    Constantinople in launching the first crusade.
  • He made one of the most influential speeches in
    the Middle Ages, calling on Christian princes in
    Europe to go on a crusade to rescue the Holy Land
    from the Turks.
  • In the speech given at the Council of Clermont in
    France, on November 27, 1095, he combined the
    ideas of making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land
    with that of waging a holy war against infidels.

http//gbgm-umc.org/umw/bible/crusades.stm
17
Feudalism
  • The main form of social organization in medieval
    Europe the term was first used in 1839.
  • A system based primarily on land, feudalism
    involved a hierarchy of authority, rights, and
    power that extended from the monarchy downwards.
  • At the head of the system the crown owned all the
    land.
  • Beneath the crown, an intricate network of duties
    and obligations linked royalty, tenants-in-chief
    (such as the barons), under-tenants (knights),
    and villeins (serfs).

http//www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/h
utchinson/m0006447.html
18
Feudalism
  • In return for military service the monarch
    allowed powerful vassals (feudal tenants) to hold
    land, and often also to administer justice and
    levy taxes.
  • They in turn sublet such rights, usually
    keeping part of the land (the demesne) for
    themselves.

http//mboullic.club.fr/la_feodalite.htm
http//members.tripod.com/F1Girl/ladyc.gif
http//www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/h
utchinson/m0006447.html
19
Manors
  • Manors each consisted of up to three classes of
    land
  • Demesne, the part controlled immediately by the
    lord and exploited directly for the benefit of
    his household and dependents
  • Dependent (serf or villein) holdings carrying the
    obligation that the peasant household supply the
    lord with specified labour services or a part of
    its output (or cash in lieu thereof), subject to
    the custom attached to the holding and
  • Free peasant land, without such obligation but
    otherwise subject to manorial jurisdiction and
    custom, and owing money rent fixed at the time of
    the lease.

http//www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/durer/engravi
ngs/
http//www.answers.com/topic/manorial-system
20
Manor
  • An agricultural estate under the control of a
    single individual or lord
  • Often a manor was a small holding, typically from
    1,200 to 1,800 acres, with its own court and
    probably its own hall, but not necessarily having
    a manor house. The manor as a unit of land was
    generally held by a knight (knight's fee) or
    managed by a bailiff for some other holder.

http//www.maybole.org/history/castles/waughton.ht
m
21
Manor
  • The demense was the lords personal land,
    providing for their needs, while the land worked
    by the peasants provided additional income or
    food consumed by the lord or his retainers.

http//www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/endmi
ddle/bluedot/manor.html
22
Generic Manor
http//www.answers.com/topic/manorial-system
  • Open-field strip farming
  • Some enclosures
  • Triennial crop rotation
  • Demesne
  • Manse
  • Common woodland
  • Pasturage
  • Meadow

23
Feudal System
http//www.bayeuxtapestry.org.uk/BayeuxAfter.htm
24
Serfs
  • Laborer who is bound to the land
  • Lowest social class of the feudal society
  • Differed from slaves in that they were not
    property themselves and could not be sold apart
    from the land which they worked
  • Provided rent in the form of goods and services
    in return for protection and the right to work on
    their leased fields

http//perso.wanadoo.fr/vtt.compostelle/paysans.ht
m
25
Magna Carta
http//www.royal.gov.uk/files/images/john-lackland
_lrg.jpg
  • Document signed by King John of England in A. D.
    1215 that limited the kings power and guaranteed
    certain basic rights
  • Considered the beginning of constitutional
    government in England
  • Gave 'freemen' inalienable rights notably trial
    by jury

26
Castles
Knight A warrior who followed a nobleman or a
nobleman who followed a king
http//www.maybole.org/history/castles/
27
Life in the Castle Skipton Castle
Banqueting Hall
http//www.skiptoncastle.co.uk/family.htm
28
Life in the Castle Skipton Castle
Medieval Kitchen
http//www.skiptoncastle.co.uk/family.htm
29
Life in the Castle Skipton Castle
Withdrawing Room
http//www.skiptoncastle.co.uk/family.htm
30
Medieval Timeline
http//duguesclin.free.fr/merovingien/page/Clovis_
et_les_Alamans.htm
  • Clovis, founder of the Frankish state, conquers
    most of France and Belgium, converting his
    territories to Western Catholic Christianity

Clovis
A.D. 500
31
Medieval Timeline
  • Pope Gregory widens the gulf between Eastern
    Western Churches. He begins conversion of
    England to Christianity.

A. D. 590
Pope Gregory
Clovis
32
Medieval Timeline
http//www.wga.hu/tours/arezzo/trumpete.html
  • Heraclius becomes Emperor in Constantinople in
    610 as the Persian Empire is attempting the
    takeover of Byzantine civilization. Persia is
    conquered by Byzantine forces in 627.

A. D. 627
Pope Gregory
Persians defeated
Clovis
33
Medieval Timeline
http//www.boydhouse.com/alice/Green/SalisburyThir
tyFirstGeneration.htm
  • Pepin of Heristal, a Merovingian ruler, unites
    the Frankish territories. He is succeeded by his
    son Charles Martel, who forms an alliance with
    the Church.

A.D. 687
Pope Gregory
Persians defeated
Clovis
Pepin
34
Medieval Timeline
  • The Battle of Tours was fought on October 25, 732
    between forces under the Frankish leader Charles
    Martel and an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er
    Rahman. During the battle, the Franks defeated
    the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was
    killed. The result of this battle stopped the
    northward advance of Islam from Spain.

A.D. 732
Pope Gregory
Persians defeated
Battle of Tours
Clovis
Pepin
35
Medieval Timeline
http//www.patriarchate.org/ecumenical_patriarchat
e/chapter_4/html/chora__page_2.html
  • Arabs attempt to conquer Constantinople for 2nd
    time, but Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian
    defeats the Arab forces reconquors most of Asia
    Minor. He uses Greek Fire.

Greek Fire (also called Byzantine Fire and liquid
fire) was a weapon used by the Byzantine Empire,
said to have been invented by a Syrian Christian
refugee named Kallinikos (Callinicus) of
Heliopolis, probably about 673. Some people
believe that he acquired this knowledge from the
chemists of Alexandria. It was capable of
discharging a stream of burning fluid, and was
very effective both on sea and land, but it was
used primarily at sea.
A.D. 717
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Persians defeated
Battle of Tours
Clovis
Pepin
36
Medieval Timeline
http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/bailey/medeng.htm
  • Venerable Bede, an Anglo-Saxon Benedictine
    scholar, writes the History of the English Church
    and People in Latin, perhaps the best historical
    writing of medieval history.

A.D. 735
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Venerable Bede
Persians defeated
Clovis
Pepin
Battle of Tours
37
Medieval Timeline
http//www.gpc.edu/shale/humanities/literature/wo
rld_literature/beowulf.html
  • The first great English epic poem, Beowulf, is
    written in Old English. It is a Christian poem
    that shows early medieval society in England and
    shows roots in Old Testament law.

A.D. 750
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Venerable Bede
Persians defeated
Beowulf
Clovis
Pepin
Battle of Tours
38
Medieval Timeline
http//www.w3perl.com/www/histoire/france/caroling
iens.html
  • In addition, to aid expansion and administration
    of the kingdom, Charlemagne promotes what is
    called later, the Carolingian Renaissance.
    Prior to this revival of learning, practically
    the entire realm (with the exception of
    Benedictine England) is illiterate due to the
    decay of the Roman Empire.
  • The director of the renaissance is Anglo-Saxon
    Benedictine Alcuin, who sets up schools, sees to
    copying of classical Latin texts and develops a
    new handwriting.
  • Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne), son of Pepin,
    succeeds his father and is one of the most
    important rulers of medieval history. In time,
    his empireknown as the Carolingian dynasty, is
    huge.
  • Charlemagnes empire includes the greater section
    of central Europe, northern Italy and central
    Italy in addition to realms already conquered by
    Frankish rule.
  • Charlemagnes system of government divides the
    vast realm into different regions, ruled by local
    counts who are overseen by Charlemagnes
    representatives.

A. D. 768
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Venerable Bede
Charlemagne
Persians defeated
Beowulf
Clovis
Pepin
Battle of Tours
39
Medieval Timeline
http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/lj/conquestlj/sermon_
04.shtml?sitehistory_conquestlj_sermon
  • Alfred is responsible for the codification of
    English law, public interest in local government,
    and the reorganization of the army.
  • He founds schools and promotes Anglo-Saxon
    literacy and the establishment of a national
    culture.
  • King Alfred the Great of England constructs a
    system of government and education which allows
    for the unification of smaller Anglo-Saxon states
    in the ninth and tenth centuries.

A. D. 871
Charlemagne
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Venerable Bede
Persians defeated
Alfred the Great
Beowulf
Clovis
Pepin
Battle of Tours
40
Medieval Timeline
  • Otto the Great is named emperor in Rome after
    defeating the Hungarians (Magyars). This
    provides Germany with the power to resist
    invasion.

A.D. 962
Charlemagne
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Venerable Bede
Persians defeated
Alfred the Great
Beowulf
Otto the Great
Clovis
Pepin
Battle of Tours
41
Medieval Timeline
http//www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/we.are.
all.cousins.htm
  • The language of England evolves into Middle
    English with an English syntax and grammar and a
    heavily French vocabulary.
  • French art and literature prevail over previous
    English art and literature.
  • William introduces feudal system.
  • William the Conqueror invades England and asserts
    his right to the English throne at the Battle of
    Hastings. William is both the King of England
    and the Duke of Normandy.

A. D. 1066
William the Conqueror
Charlemagne
Pope Gregory
Emperor Leo
Venerable Bede
Persians defeated
Alfred the Great
Beowulf
Otto the Great
Clovis
Pepin
Battle of Tours
Battle of Hastings
42
Bubonic Plague
https//secure.college.hmco.com/passkeyauth/colleg
e_loginandregister.html?targeturl2Fhistory2Fwes
t2Fmosaic2Fchapter62Fimage75.html
  • Bubonic Plague was a disease carried by rats and
    spread by fleas.
  • It killed a third of the people in medieval
    Europe.
  • It was nicknamed the Black Death because its
    victims developed black sores on their skin.

http//www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/springfie
ld/eliz/plague.html
43
End of the Middle Ages
http//www.ndaviess.k12.in.us/elemshare/Teachers/j
weathers/process.htm
44
Extending Learning
45
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  • Amor Medieval. Jam Music. 2001. 17 November
    2005. lthttp//www.jammusic.com.brgt.
  • Anderson, Thomas. Barbara Allen Revisited. 16
    November 2005 lthttp//www.angryyounggradstudent.co
    m/gt.
  • End of Europes Middle Ages. Brittanica. 17
    November 2005 lthttp//www.ucalgary.ca/applied_hist
    ory/tutor/endmiddle/gt.
  • Feudalism. Tascali Reference. Online
    Encyclopedia. 2005. Helicon Publishing. 17
    November 2005 lthttp//www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/
    encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0006447.htmlgt.
  • High Middle Ages, The. AIMS Multimedia. 2004.
    Unitedstreaming. 17 November 2005
    lthttp//www.unitedstreaming.com/gt.
  • Medieval Times Reality Adventure. Encarta.
    2004. Microsoft Corporation. 17 November 2005
    lthttp//www.ndaviess.k12.in.us/elemshare/Teachers/
    jweathers/Medieval.htmgt.
  • Medieval Times Life in the Middle Ages
    (1000-1450 A.D.). United Learning. 1992.
    unitedstreaming. 17 November 2005
    lthttp//www.unitedstreaming.com/gt.
  • Medieval Village. Music of Avalon. 2001. 17
    November 2005 lthttp//music.tnbavalon.com/avalon.h
    tmgt.
  • Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. 1 November
    2005. 16 November 2005 lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/w
    iki/Main_Pagegt.
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