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Its not childs play


hotels, holiday resorts, boarding houses, guesthouses, lodges, bed&breakfast ... sight-seeing spots, sport and beach activities, fitness centres, animal shows, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Its not childs play

Its not childs play
  • Forms of child labour in tourism

Meet Rajiv...
  • 12 year old porter in Nepal
  • carries 25kg on a trekking tour
  • paid 150 rupees daily (adult wage 250)
  • legal working age in Nepal 14 years
  • no time to attend school
  • thrilled to find an opportunity to help support
    his family

Meet Leandro.
  • Filipino, 17 years old, waiter and bodyguard
  • Left school to look for a job
  • Unemployed parents, eight siblings
  • Works from 600 pm to 300 am

what do children do in the tourist industry?
  • Accommodation
  • Catering / food and beverage
  • Excursions, recreational activities,
    entertainment industry
  • Tours and transport
  • Producing souvenirs
  • Selling souvenirs

  • Workplaces
  • hotels, holiday resorts, boarding houses,
    guesthouses, lodges, bedbreakfast places, rooms
    in private homes laundries and cleaning firms
  • Occupations
  • receptionist, baggage attendants, bell-boys,
    lift-boys, domestic servants, porters, garden
    hands, cleaners, helpers in laundry and ironing,

Catering / food and beverage
  • Workplaces
  • restaurants, cafes, teashops, snack bars, beer
    gardens, pubs, bars, beach shacks, street stands,
    itinerant food vending stalls
  • Occupations
  • kitchen and scullery helpers,
  • Dishwashers, water-carriers, cleaners,
    waitresses and waiters, delivery boys, vendors of
    fruit, snacks and ice-creams

Excursions, recreational activities,
entertainment industry
  • Workplace
  • excursion sites, tourist sight-seeing spots,
    sport and beach activities, fitness centres,
    animal shows, circuses, folklore performances,
    casinos, night clubs with go-go-dancing, massage
    salons, brothels
  • Occupation
  • tour guides, ticket postcard vendors,
    flower-girls, photo models, shoeshine boys,
    beggars, beach cleaners, snake and crocodile
    exhibitors, acrobats, divers for pennies, golf

Tour operating and transport
  • Workplaces
  • travel agencies, airports, train stations, bus
    and taxi firms, excursion and transfer boats
  • Occupations
  • small handling agents, errand-boys, baggage
    attendants, bus attendants, car washers and
    guards, ship-boys, deck-hands, porters, etc

Souvenir production
  • Workplaces
  • Wood carving and plastic processing, textile
    industry, sewing shops, straw and palm leaf
    manufacturing, shell, coral and mother-of-pearl
    processing, carpet-weaving, tanning, leather
    production, gem industry, precious stones mining,
  • Occupations
  • manufacturers of all kinds, shell and pearl

Selling of souvenirs
  • Workplaces
  • shops, hotel boutiques, stands, itinerant sales
    activities on streets and beaches
  • Occupations
  • souvenir vendors of all kinds

children working in tourist areas
  • are mostly behind the scenes. Invisible.
  • but, 13-19 million young people are estimated to
    work in tourism (10-15) ILO 1995
  • most people dont see them as child labour but
    many are WFCL
  • how many?
  • we dont know!

Child labour is.
  • little children (below 12) doing any kind of work
    other than light chores
  • children doing a regular job below the legal
    working age (usually 15)
  • young people who are in prostitution, drug trade,
    trafficked or forced to work (UnWFCL).
  • young people (under 18) who are doing work that
    will hurt them physically, psychologically, or
    morally (WFCL)
  • In 2004 218 million child labourers worldwide!


Children age 5-14 years..
186 million children labour 14 of all children
74.4 million 6.2 of all children are in
hazardous work

Youth ages 15-17.
51.9 million youth are in hazardous work
Consider the proportionsSexual exploitation is
well-known but more children in other WFCL
Impacts on children
Push-pull factors for children
  • push
  • no interest in attending school
  • Poor schools, short day
  • no sense of future
  • pull
  • excitement of working in the tourist sector
  • possibility of meeting a benefactor
  • money in the pocket

Push-pull factors on employers
  • Push
  • competition is high, have to lower costs to stay
    in business
  • cute children may attract customers
  • Pull
  • quick to learn,
  • show up for work,
  • obey,
  • little risk few controls are done

Effective action at many levels
  • International
  • International conventions (C182, CRC)
  • WTO guidelines and global code of ethics
  • wise international lending by World Bank and IMF
  • Tourist industry codes of conduct
  • National
  • ratification of the international conventions
  • laws and their enforcement
  • compulsory free education
  • information to the tourists (Nigerian posters)
  • Regional
  • NGO / local projects e.g. self help groups
  • Awareness raising, lobbying
  • Unionization of workers
  • Other
  • Community monitoring of its children
  • Networking, cooperation among NGOs
  • Local studies to understand the local issue and
    build consensus

Action to eliminate child labour in tourism in
Cape Coast Elmina, Ghana
  • Forms of child labour
  • - tourist guides
  • - sale and production of art and craft
  • - entertainment of tourists (e.g. tribal
  • - sexual exploitation

What Ghana has tried
  • programmes on local radio and TV to educate
    public that children working in tourism can be at
  • Assist ministry of tourism draft regulations and
    policies on child labour in the industry then
    lobby the local government assembly to promulgate
    appropriate bylaws and adopt policies of
  • Recruit and train a special task force to provide
    guidance and counselling services to the children
  • Set up guidance and counselling centres to
    provide services to children and get them into
  • Select and train families of ex-child workers in
    various skills grant them loans to set up a
  • Support the services through contributions from
    tourist-related businesses

  • Indian law

  • child work in/for tourists seems innocuous
    should it be banned or monitored?
  • to what extent does the work children do to help
    out after school in a tourist area lead to
  • who should be held accountable the parent, the
    child, or the client? Are children in court to
    be considered as victims or criminals?
  • Is it feasible to try to take children out of
    tourism support workare there too many? too
    scattered? no alternatives for them? where will
    the money come from? How to prevent them from
    going back to work?