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Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

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Title: Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam


1
Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization The
Rise and Spread of Islam
  • Desert and Town
  • Bedouin Nomads of the Arabian Peninsula with a
    culture based on herding camels and goats
  • Shaykhs Leaders of tribes and clans within
    Bedouin society usually possessed large herds,
    several wives, and many children.
  • Mecca Arabian commercial center dominated by
    the Quraysh the home of Muhammad and the future
    center of Islam
  • Medina Town northeast of Mecca asked Muhammad
    to resolve its intergroup differences. Muhammads
    flight to Medina, the Hijra, in 622 began the
    Muslim calendar.

2
  • The inhospitable Arabian Peninsula was inhabited
    by Bedouin societies. The towns were extensions
    of Bedouin society, sharing its culture and ruled
    by its clans.
  • Bedouin religion was for most clans a blend of
    animism and polytheism

3
  • Umayyad Clan of the Quraysh that dominated
    Mecca later an Islamic dynasty. Umayyad clan
    dominated Mecca.
  • Kaba Revered pre-Islamic shrine in Mecca
    incorporated into Muslim worship.

4
Kaba In Mecca, important religious shrine,
during an boligatory annyual truce in interclans
feuds, attracted pilgrims and visitors. Quran
The word of God as revealed through Muhammad
made into the holy book of Islam.
5
  • Women did not wear veils and were not secluded
  • Both sexes had multiple marriage partners.
  • Men who were the honored warrior remained
    superior
  • Traditional practices of property control,
    inheritance, and divorce favored men.
  • Women did drudge labor.
  • Female status was even more restricted in urban
    centers.

6
The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam
  • Muhammad founder of Islam, born about
    570,raised in Mecca.
  • Spread of monotheistic ideas. Muhammad became
    dissatisfied with life focused on material gain.
  • 610 he received a revelations transmitted from
    God via the angel Gabriel. Later , written in
    Arab ic and collected in the Quran, they formed
    the basis for Islam.
  • Khadijah First wife of Muhammad who was the
    widow of a wealthy merchant

7
Persecution, Flight, and Victory
  • Umma Community of the faithful within Islam
  • Zakat Tax for charity obligatory for all muslims
  • Five pillars the obligatory religious duties for
    all Muslims
  • Caliph the successor to Muhammad as head of the
    Islamic community.

Islam offered opportunities for uniting Arabs by
providing a distinct indigenous monotheism
supplanting clan division and allowing an end to
clan feuding.
8
  • Islam offered an ethical system capable of
    healing social rifts in Arab society.
  • All believers were equal before Allah
  • The strong and wealthy were responsible for the
    care of the weak and poor.
  • The Prophets teachings and the Quran became the
    basis for laws regulating the Muslim faithful.
  • All faced a last judgment by a stern but
    compassionate God.

9
The Arab Empire of he Umayyads
  • After Muhammad in 632 CE, the Umayya clan, seized
    leadership of the Muslim faithful and began a
    sequence of stunning conquest throughout the
    Middle Eat and north Africa
  • Caliph the successor to Muhammad as head of the
    Islamic community
  • Ali Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad one of eh
    orthodox caliphs focus for the development of
    Shism
  • Abu Bakr Succeeded Muhammad as the first caliph.

10
  • Ridda Wars Wars following Muhammads death the
    defeat of rival prophets and opponents restored
    the unity of Islam
  • Jihad Islamic holy war Launched to forcibly
    spread the Muslim faith
  • Uthman Third caliph his assassination set offf
    a civil war within Islam between the Umayyads and
    Ali
  • Battle of Siffin Battle fought in 657 between
    Ali and the Umayyad led to negotiations that
    fragmented Alis party.

11
  • Sunni Followers of the majority interpretation
    within Islam included the Umayyads
  • Shia Followers of Alis interpretation of Islam
  • Ali was assassinated in 661, the dispute left
    apermanent division within Islam.
  • Muawiya First Umayyad caliph his capital was
    Damascus, Syria
  • Karbala Site of the defeat and death of Husayn,
    the son of Ali

The Shia, eventually dividing into many sects,
continued to uphold the rights of Alis
descendants to be caliphs.
12
  • Dhimmis The people of the book, Jews,
    Christians later extended to Zoroastrians and
    Hindus.
  • Jizya head tax paid by all non-Muslims in
    Islamic lands.
  • Mawali non-Arab converts to Islam
  • Damascus Ancient Islamic cultural center
    capital of present-day Syria

Dhimmis had to pay taxes but were allowed to
retain their own religious and social organization
13
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14
  • Umayyad Decline and Fall
  • Luxury, and decline of military talents
  • Men married locally along the frontier and
    changed loyalties
  • Rebels led aby the Abbasid clan defeated the
    Umayyads in 750 and assassinated most of their
    clan leaders.

Arab surgery
15
  • From Arab to Islamic Empires The Early Abbasid
    Era
  • New capital Baghdad
  • Increased size, increased bureaucratic expansion,
    absolutism and luxurious living
  • Turned on Shia and support Sunni Islam

16
The great extent of empire hindered efficiency,
but the regime worked well for more than a
century. Royal executioner symbolized the
absolute power of the rulers over their subjects.
17
  • Islamic Conversion and Malawi Acceptance
  • Mawali Non-Arab converts to Islam
  • Jizya Head tax paid by all non-Muslims in
    Islamic lands
  • Wazir Chief administrative official undr the
    Abbasids
  • Abbasids Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in
    750 their capital was Baghdad
  • Under Abbasids new converts both Arabs and
    others, wree fuly integrated into the Muslim
    community.
  • Most conversions occurred peacefully.
  • Many individuals sincerely accepted appealing
    ethical Islamic beliefs.
  • Others avoided special taxes and opportunities
    for advancement
  • Persians, became the real power in the imperial
    system

18
  • Commercial Boom
  • Rise of Mawali, accompanied growth in wealth and
    status of merchant and landlord classes.
  • Increase in Afro-Eurasian trading network
  • Skilled artisans formed guild like organizations
  • Slaves performed labor
  • Rural landed elite, the ayan emerged
  • Ayan Wealthy landed elite that emerged under
    Abbasids

19
  • Flowering of Islamic Learning
  • Arabs before Islam, no writing
  • Under Abbasids, palace and mosque construction.
  • Islamic learning flurished in religious, legal
    and philosophical discurse
  • Special focus on the sciences and mathematics
  • Scholars recovered earlier civilizations (Greek
    and Roman)
  • Greek writings were saved and passed on the
    Christian world
  • Muslims introduced Indian (Arabic) Numbers into
    the Mediterranean world

20
Blue Mosque
  • Mosque Islamic temple and place of worship
  • Dhows ship with lateen sails and raised deck at
    the stern used along the coasts of east Africa
    and the Middle East
  • Allah Islamic term for God

21
Early Islam and the World
  • By the 9th c. Abbasid power had waned, the Turks
    converted to Islam and became a major component
    of the Muslim world.
  • The Arabs had created a basis for the first
    global civilization, incorporating many
    linguistic and ethnic groups into one culture
  • Religion and politics had been joined
  • They absorbed precedents form earlier
    civilizations

22
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