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2020 Foresight: Citizens as Participants in and Consumers of Government Services 15 Years from Now.

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Title: 2020 Foresight: Citizens as Participants in and Consumers of Government Services 15 Years from Now.


1
20/20 Foresight Citizens as Participants in and
Consumers of Government Services 15 Years from
Now. ForManagement of Change 2004 Conference
Citizen Services Attaining Breakthrough
PerformancebyClem BezoldInstitute for
Alternative Futures

2
Conclusions
  • Incredible changes by 2020 could be
    significant, or terrible, or visionary
  • Government services will evolve, including the
    steering role of government
  • The significant technology challenges will be
    easier to resolve than the values and priority
    choices we face
  • Health care services illustrate the incredible
    opportunities, the difficult choices and the
    range of evolving roles for government.

3
Conclusion, cont.
  • Global Cyber Democracy Conclusions
  • Emergent possibilities Current experiments only
    hint at the potential. There is a promising
    opportunity to invent and put in place new
    approaches that enhance the key values of
    democracy, particularly freedom, equality,
    stability, majority rule with protection of
    minority viewpoints, participation, shared
    vision, and anticipation. In addition, the
    interactive nature of technology could enhance
    collective intelligence for shaping and
    implementing policy

4
Conclusion, cont.
  • Direction setting, and ensuring the quality of
    direction setting, is a key government role
    this will require enhancing the capacity of
    individuals as effective citizens
  • Individuals get little training to be effective
    citizens cyber democracy can change this for
    the better
  • Politicians and public servants have a nearly
    impossible job cyber democracy can make it better

5

Value-Added is defined
Why/What
How
6
Vision, where we live and change management.
  • Most of our time we spend delivering at the
    tactical and operational level
  • As citizens and public servants we need to be
    sure that weve spent adequate and effective time
    at the vision level in defining the shared
    future we want to create.
  • Important for employee understanding, for
    change/transition management
  • For difficult tradeoffs
  • For leaving a legacy

7

Value-Added is defined
Why/What
How
8
Sources for this Presentation
  • 1978 Anticipatory Democracy
  • 1980s and 1990s research and consulting on
    policy making, government services and
    participation
  • 2001 Global Scan of Cyber Democracy developments
    for Vivendi Universal Prospective
  • 2004 Cyber Democracy Update
  • Health Futures for governments and business

9
Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Democracy Democracy and government roles
    enhanced by the Internet and other ICTs.
  • Cyber Democracy typically encompasses more
    direct forms of government, stressing different
    aspects of political participation, particularly
    discussion and political activity through
    communal forms of participation.

10
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Administration
  • Digitalization of Government services
  • Cyber Voting
  • Online and Digital forms of voting, IR
  • Cyber Policy Participation
  • Feedback to Representatives, Electronic Town
    Meetings
  • Cyber Infrastructure
  • Online Community, Simulations, Internet Polling
  • Cyber Agenda Setting
  • Media, NGOs Political Parties
  • Swarm Activism, Collective Intelligence

11
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Administration
  • Digitalization of Government services

12
Global E-Government Trends
  • Four common stages for E-Government
    developments
  • Making info available
  • Interacting electronically with citizens
  • Transactional activities
  • Integration of services

13
E-Government Leaders
  • Innovative Leader
  • Canada
  • Visionary Followers
  • Singapore and the United States
  • Steady Achievers
  • Australia, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, France, UK,
    Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Japan, Norway,
    Spain, Malaysia
  • Platform Builders
  • Italy, Mexico, Portugal, Brazil, South Africa

Accenture eGovernment Performance High
Performance, Maximum Value, 2004
14
Canada Innovative Leader
  • Four time e-government leader
  • Whole government integration
  • Citizen centered
  • Extensive knowledge about its customers
  • Regular Surveys on service satisfaction
  • Focus groups one to one interviews
  • New Innovations
  • Wireless government portal
  • E-pass

Accenture eGovernment Performance High
Performance, Maximum Value, 2004
15
E-Gov Information Seeking is on the Rise
  • 68 million Americans have used a Government
    Website
  • To research public policy 42 million
  • To send comments 23 million
  • To help decide how to cast their votes 14
    million
  • To participate in online lobbying 13 million
  • 80 of respondents say they find what they are
    looking for on government sites

Pew Internet American Life Center The Rise of
the E-Citizen, 2002
16
E-Government Has Improved Government Services
  • Three-quarters believe e-government has made it
    easier for them to stay informed about government
    services
  • Two-thirds believe it has made it easier for them
    to conduct government transactions
  • More e-government users search for information
    rather than make transactions
  • 63 search for information compared to
  • 23 who conduct transactions

Council for Excellence in Government The New
Government Equation Ease, Engagement, Privacy
Protection, 2003
17
What Kinds of Information are E-Citizens Looking
For?
Council for Excellence in Government The New
Government Equation Ease, Engagement, Privacy
Protection, 2003
18
Cyber Administration
  • Common consumer services
  • Taxes, Drivers license, Car registration, Police
    reports, Social Security info, Unemployment info,
    Birth certificates
  • Common business services
  • Corporate registration, Customs Declarations,
    VAT, Submitting statistics, Social welfare
    contributions, Environmental permits, Government
    contract information

19
Transparency
  • Effects of Information exchange
  • More efficient deployment of government
    resources
  • New means for citizens to monitor government and
    business actions
  • Regulation through Publication
  • Governments can increasingly penalize misdeeds by
    publicizing offenders though websites

20
Security and Privacy
  • Post 9/11 and post-Total Information Awareness
    Program -- challenges and protections are not
    effectively in place

21
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Voting
  • Online and Digital forms of voting, IR

22
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Voting meaningful participation in meaningful
    choices on candidates, and on policies
  • Cyber Voting
  • Online and Digital forms of voting on
    candididate, Initiative Referendum
  • Major changes in awareness since 2001

23
Worldwide Voter Turnout1945-2001
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
1945-1949
1950-1959
1960-1969
1965-1979
1980-1989
1990-2001
VAPVoting Age Population
Rafael Lopez Pintor Maria Gratschew Voter
Turnout Since 1945, 2002
24
Electronic Voting
  • Voter Turnout
  • Globally, voter turnout levels converging at 50
    to 75 of the voting-age population of any given
    country.
  • Causes of Low Voter Turnout
  • Administrative Obstacles
  • Cynicism
  • Declining Social Capital
  • Decline in Competitive Elections
  • Election Systems
  • E-voting only addresses Admin. Obstacles
  • Is this enough to reverse declining voter turnout?

25
Electronic Voting Evolution
  • Stages toward E-Voting
  • Wired Polling Sites
  • Authenticated E-mail Voting
  • Web voting
  • Upsides
  • Convenience, Ease of Use, Flexibility
  • More options for policy planners
  • Downsides
  • Losing Voting as a Civic Ritual
  • Tactical/Strategic Voting
  • Security Authentication Issues
  • Large Capital Investments in New Technology

26
Wired Polling The United States, 2004
  • 50 million electronic voters this falls
    elections
  • Widespread pressure for paper-trails and
    open-source codes
  • 20 states have introduced legislation requiring
    paper-trails

27
Wired Polling The United States
  • Indiana (2004) Uncertified software installed in
    5 counties
  • Maryland (2004) Modem Problems delayed the
    presidential primaries
  • San Diego (2004)
  • 573 out of 1,083 polling places failed to open
    due to computer glitches
  • DoD cancels e-voting

28
Wired Polling India 2004
  • Largest electronic election ever
  • 380 million voters
  • 1 million e-voting machines
  • 1,214 voting centers
  • One huge upset

29
Web Voting
  • U.K. (2002)
  • 9,479 participants
  • 5 Councils
  • 28 Wards
  • France (2002)
  • 860 participants
  • Local elections
  • Sweden (2003)
  • 226 participants
  • On-line Referendum

30
Voting as a Civic Ritual
  • Evoting moves from the public sphere to the
    Private Sphere
  • Even with secret ballots, voting is one of the
    few community bonding experiences left
  • Standing in line at polling stations is a form of
    civic ritual

31
Strategic Voting
  • Online vote trading systems allow voters to cast
    their ballots strategically
  • 2000 Presidential election
  • 16,000 swaps overall
  • 1,412 swaps in Florida
  • Gore lost the state by 537 votes
  • Voteswap.com plans to reopen for 2004

Estimates from Votetrader.org, 2004
32
Authentication Methods
  • Based on secret codes
  • Passwords, PINs, ect.
  • Easy to forget or fall into the wrong hands
  • Based on a token
  • Key, passport, smartcard
  • Easy to lose steal
  • Biometrics
  • Behavioral Biometrics
  • Handwriting, Voice, Keyboard dynamics, etc.
  • Physical Biometrics
  • Face, Fingerprint, Hand Geometry, Iris/Retinal,
    Vein, etc.

33
Is the American Public Ready for Online Voting?
  • Only three in ten Americans are in favor of
    online voting for public offices,
  • And 54 strongly oppose the idea
  • Council for Excellence in Government The New
    Government Equation Ease, Engagement, Privacy
    Protection, 2003
  • DoD SERVE (Secure Electronic Registration and
    Voting Experiment)
  • 22 million pilot project was cancelled
  • Didnt properly address security concerns
  • Poor implementation
  • Little to no attempt to create public support


34
The Future of Online Voting
  • The government
  • needs to set clear standards and protocols,
    especially security standards
  • Build public trust by
  • Exposing the public to delivering high value in
    other e-government services
  • Public outreach programs
  • Executing successful pilot programs at the local
    regional level
  • If these steps are handled correctly, up to 25
    of the votes in the 2012 election could come
    through electronic channels.

E-commerce Times Are we ready for e-voting?,
2003
35
Making voting meaningful, engaging for kids?
  • In California John Vasconcellos proposal to
    allow 16 year olds a half vote 14 year olds a
    quarter vote

36
Direct Democracy
  • Initiative and Referendum
  • California initiatives 42 from 1911 to 1978 40
    between 1980 and 1996
  • Over four million Californian voters voted to
    recall Gray Davis and install Arnold
    Schwarzenegger as governor
  • Swiss Study ICT can help get more issues on the
    ballot, but could lead to an increase in marginal
    initiatives
  • ICT Enhancements
  • Easier voter education, cuts election costs
  • Creates potential for more frequent voting, or
    more flexible voting arrangements

37
Direct democracy says, Okay, how do we feel this
week? We all raise our hand. Lets rush off and
do it. The concept of republican
representationis you hire somebody who you send
to a central place. They, by definition, learn
things you dont learn, because you dont want
toyou want to be able to live your life. They
are supposed to use their judgment to represent
you. The Founders feared the passion of the
moment.- Newt Gingrich
38
If liberty and equality, as is thought by some
are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will
be best attained when all persons alike share in
the government to the utmost. -- Aristotle
39
By 2020 we could create systems where citizens
have a clear sense of values, vision and
direction collective priorities for funding, and
fairness or equity as well as the communitys
and countrys contribution these would reinforce
representative democracy. Clem Bezold
40
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Policy Participation
  • Feedback to Representatives, Electronic Town
    Meetings
  • Anticipatory Democracy
  • From Alternatives for Washington (1973) to
    America Speaks (2003)
  • Pprocess/design options, including media use are
    there, leadership among elected officials, public
    servants, and community leaders is often lacking.

41
Cyber Participation
  • ICT enables new ways for citizens to interact
    with elected officials
  • Experimental public forums
  • Canadian legislature
  • Digital Petitions
  • Nevada Legislature
  • Online Policy Discussions
  • MN-Politics Listserv

42
Cyber ParticipationConstituent Communication
  • Communication will be increasingly electronic
  • Sorting/filtering software help limited staffs
    deal with new constituent communications
  • Polling about strategic direction setting and
    specific issues will improve

43
Cyber ParticipationElectronic Town Meetings
  • Electronic Town Meetings, citizen juries, and
    related approaches allow citizens to become
    producers, rather than mere consumers, of
    political discourse
  • Technologic Drivers
  • Broadband Diffusion
  • Audio/Video Technology
  • Low Cost Computing
  • Leadership/community building is essential

44
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Infrastructure
  • Online Community, Simulations, Internet Polling

45
Cyber Infrastructure
  • ICT creates new opportunities for citizens to
    interact with each other and government to help
    shape public policy
  • Online Community Software
  • Yahoo Groups, Friendster, LinkedIn, Tribe,
    Meetup, etc.
  • Estimated at 7.5 million total users

46
Cyber Infrastructure Games Simulations
  • Simulated budget economic engines
  • Allows citizens to test policy choices and their
    implications
  • Provides real-time models for policy-makers

47
Cyber InfrastructureInternet Polling
  • By 2010, 90 of polling will be conducted over
    the Internet
  • The advantages of online polls
  • Are less intrusive burdensome
  • Have greater versatility
  • Have higher response rates
  • Deliver results in less time
  • Provides more research for the same dollar
  • The under-representation of certain demographic
    groups is the major disadvantage of online polls,
    although that will lessen as the digital divide
    decreases

48
Cyber Infrastructure
  • The growth and diffusion of broadband internet
    access will allow more interactive and user
    friendly e-government services
  • The total number of broadband cable and DSL
    Internet subscribers in the US will surpass the
    number of narrowband subscribers in 2005
  • And will grow to nearly 49 million by the end of
    2007

Leichtman Research Group, 2003
49
E-Health Infrastructure
  • Electronic Medical Records
  • Bio-monitoring for illnesses
  • Data security
  • By 2014, Computerized information systems will be
    commonly used for medical care, including
    diagnosis, dispensing prescriptions, monitoring
    medical conditions, and promoting self-care

The George Washington University Technology
Forecast
50
Banks and other financial institutions all across
the country can talk to each other
electronically, which has streamlined customer
transactions and reduced errors, we want to do
the same thing for the American health care
system. -Secretary Tommy Thompson, 2003
51

52
Components of Cyber Democracy
  • Cyber Agenda Setting
  • Media, NGOs Political Parties
  • Swarm Activism, Collective Intelligence
  • In the context of agenda setting currently on the
    basis of established agendas and power
    relationships.

53
Educate and inform the whole mass of peopleThey
are the only sure reliance for the preservation
of our liberty.
-Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, 1787
54
Cyber Agenda-Setting
  • Uses ICTs to enhance political or policy
    activities. Includes
  • Media
  • Political Parties
  • NGOs
  • Swarm Activism
  • Collective Intelligence

55
Cyber Agenda-Setting The Media
  • ICT enables new media voices to emerge Weblogs,
    Drudge Report
  • Consolidation in media ownership, proliferation
    of media channels
  • Interactive (Civic) Journalism
  • PEW Study 87 percent of editors thought that
    newspapers should play a broader role in the
    community
  • Value-Added comes from facilitating community
    discussion

56
Cyber Agenda-Setting Political Parties
  • Generally use ICT as a supplemental communication
    tool, some exceptions
  • Swedish Moderates Party online discussions with
    members and leaders
  • MoveOn.org used the internet to coordinate
    grass-roots volunteers and
  • Dean Campaign used the internet as a critical
    fundraising tool
  • Internet can help elevate fringe parties and
    candidates

57
Cyber Agenda-Setting NGOs
  • ICT gives new ways to mobilize supporters and
    allies
  • Amnesty International
  • Exxon/Mobil boycott
  • AIDS drug patents
  • ICTs allow smaller groups to work together
    effectively
  • amplify their collective influence

58
Cyber Agenda-Setting Swarm Activism
  • Activist groups with a networked structure that
    are able to quickly mobilize without central
    leadership
  • Factions can come together for action
  • Prominent examples the WTO, G8, and IMF protests
    in US and EU

59
Cyber Agenda-Setting Swarm Activism
  • Metcalfes Law
  • The value of a network grows by the square of the
    size of the network
  • Reeds Law
  • The value of a social network scales
    exponentially with the size of the network

60
Cyber Agenda-Setting Collective Intelligence
  • Bird watching, Flocking altering the
    environment
  • ICT enables watchers to report sightings into
    online database, and visualize migration
    patterns
  • Can individually contribute to collective action
    readjusting local environments

61
Cyber Agenda-Setting Collective Intelligence
  • Someday our technology would allow us to create
    a web of thought and action that would make the
    world more complex, diverse and alive, moving
    mankind toward ultimate evolution.
  • -Pierre Teillhard de Chardin, 1940

62
Cyber Agenda-Setting Collective Intelligence
  • The Noosphere deChardins image of a
    man-machine conscious skin, involved in human
    awareness and evolution
  • To what ends? With what results?
  • Consider these forces in relation to
  • Health Care 2020

63
Background for Health Care 2020 Thinking about
Creating The Future
64
Thinking about Creating The Future
  • Health Care Cyber Government learn from the
    future
  • Trends/Scanning Forecasting and Imagining
    Scenarios
  • Health Care and Cyber Government should be driven
    by effective direction setting
  • Values, Shared Vision, Strategies Priorities,
    Tactics and Implementation

65
Thinking about Creating The Future
  • Health Care 2020
  • Will result from complex interaction of
    technology and clinical developments marketplace
    forces
  • Government has a significant leadership role in
    ensuring that steering toward the health and
    health care system we want is done consciously
    and done well.

66
Health and Health Care 2020
  • Health and health care in 2020 and government
    services related to health will be far better
  • Governments role and services, especially
    leading/steering, will be critical
  • Health Care 2020 wide range of scenarios for
    health care and governments role I will
    present a plausible, visionary scenario

67
Health and Health Care 2020
  • Values, Technology, Funding, and Regulation
  • These will mix to shape health care government
    will play a critical role in how the mixing and
    shaping occurs

68
Values and Direction Setting in Health Care
  • US health care 15 of GNP 40 Million
    uninsured significant quality and safety
    problems
  • Obesity epidemic Poverty as greatest health risk
    -- Yet by 2020 cancer, diabetes, and heart
    disease are likely to be preventable or curable,
    at least for some people.
  • Health care needs more conscious direction
    setting including massive public input on that
    direction setting, including stewardship/priority
    setting.
  • Effective direction settings requires
    clarification of values, development of shared
    vision, then effective use of design options and
    choices on trade offs.

69
Values and Direction Setting in Health Care
  • What are values for health care in the US?
  • Consider our informal values and a growing sense
    of formally stated values, including those
    underlying certain Federal goals.

70
Healthcare Values?
  • Most Developed Nationals
  • Universality
  • Equity
  • Accept govts role
  • Skeptical of markets
  • Global budgets
  • Technology assessment
  • US Healthcare Values (Informal)
  • Individual accountable
  • Pluralism and choice
  • Ambivalence toward govt.
  • Competitive markets
  • Embrace technology
  • Volunteerism

71
Government and Values
  • A major role for government is in providing or
    ensuring that the steering mechanisms are
    effective in this case ensuring that the public
    considers these informal and formal values for
    health care from the World Health Organization,
    the US Healthy People 2010 Objectives for the
    Nation, and the Institute of Medicine.

72
WHO Health for All Vision
  • WHO and all nations of the world, including the
    US, agreed in 1998 to the Health For All vision

  • This vision statement identifies certain values
    necessary to achieve before all have health
    Equity, solidarity, ethics, gender and human
    rights

73
US Government Health Values
  • The Federal Government, in its goal setting,
    design work, and current policy supports much of
    the Health For All Values

74
Healthy People 2010
  • The US, in setting up Healthy People 2010
    Objectives for the Nation, identified two
    overarching goals
  • Longer years of healthy live
  • Elimination of health disparities
  • Pursued by 437 specific objectives

75
Health Care and Values in the US
  • The Institute of Medicine in its Crossing the
    Quality Chasm Report identifies six aims or
    values for Health Care
  • Safe
  • Effective
  • Patient-Centered
  • Timely
  • Efficient
  • Equitable

76
Bush Administration Values
  • The Bush Adminstration has reinforced many of
    these values
  • Relying on IOM to identify health reform
    priorities, consistent with these 6 aims
  • Required a disparity reduction focus among
    agencies

77
Steering, the Public and Values
  • One of the urgent cyberdemocracy actions needed
    is a public dialogue on values and shared vision
    for health care in the US nothing short of this
    will confront the challenges we face, as well as
    the great opportunities for better health and
    health care.

78
Health Care 2020
  • Multiple scenarios exist Ill provide one a
    plausible yet visionary image, then consider the
    role of government services in health and health
    care in 2020

79
The Future Environment A Plausible and Visionary
Future
  • What might the future hold?
  • Bezolds preferred future/vision for health care
    in the US

80
US Health Care 2020
  • System that meets IOMs 6 Aims/values
  • Health care provider, and patient/consumer have
    instant access to appropriate information on
    therapeutic choices, Just In Time, including
    genomics and patients preferences
  • Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are ubiquitous,
    standardized, secure
  • Personal biomonitoring data part of EMR
  • Privacy, security and discrimination protections
    are in place

81
US Health Care 2020(cont)
  • Chronic disease focus and disease anticipation
  • Awareness of multiple conditions and life stage
    are an integral part of care formulation
  • Effective, continuous, healing relationships
  • Physicians and other providers are more
    satisfied
  • New roles for Doctors, Nurses, Pharmacists, and
    others
  • Outcome based reporting, including pt.
    satisfaction, that affects patients choice of
    providers

82
US Health Care 2020 (cont)
  • Consumer responsibility, with more effective
    self-care, integrated with provider care
  • Strong patient group and other advocacy support
    for developing and applying advances
  • Application of new advances considered in the
    context of behavior, genomics, and community
  • Disparity reduction focus for advances
  • Health care funding and share of GNP are aligned
    with relative benefits, community choices, real
    health gains

83
Government Role/Services in Health Care 2020
  • Steering national, public, effective systems in
    place
  • Research consistent with needs and priorities
  • Standards for the infrastructure and operations
    (ensure standards are there, or provide)
  • Delivery of excellent services as relevant DoD,
    VA, BIA, Community Health Centers/BPC/HRSA.
  • Information ensuring quality info is available
  • Ensuring privacy, discrimination, security
    protections are in place
  • Health professions policy, guidance, funding
  • Public health advocacy and protection,
    surveillance

84
Government Role/Services 2020 Beyond Health Care
  • Steering national, public, effective systems in
    place including shared vision
  • Standards for the infrastructure and operations
    (ensure standards are there, or provide)
  • Delivery of excellent services as relevant
  • Information ensuring quality info is
    accessible
  • Ensuring privacy, discrimination, security
    protections are in place
  • Labor market policy, guidance, funding
  • Public health advocacy and protection,
    surveillance

85
Additional Changes affecting Government
Role/Services 2020
  • Virtuality
  • Biometrics
  • Anticipation of needs/services
  • Personalization/customization
  • Identity/Community
  • Risks/Uncertainties
  • Nature Climate, Hurricanes, Earthquakes, Gulf
    stream shift
  • Terrorism local, national, infrastructure
    focused disparities vs equity
  • Economic global developments, nature of value
    added

86
Are we up to the Challenge of creating more
effective democracy?

87
I know of no safe depository of the ultimate
powers of the society but the people themselves
and if we think them not enlightened enough to
exercise their control with a wholesome
discretion, the remedy is not to take it from
them but to inform their discretion by education.

-Thomas Jefferson to William C. Jarvis, 1820
88
I like the dreams of the future better than the
history of the past. -Thomas Jefferson to
John Adams, 1816
89
No one pretends that democracy is perfect or
all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy
is the worst form of Government except all those
other forms that have been tried. - Winston
Churchill, House of Commons, 11 Nov. 1947
90
A citizen of America will cross the ocean to
fight for democracy, but won't cross the street
to vote in a national election.-- Bill Vaughn
91
We have it in our power to begin the world over
again.-- Thomas Paine
92
Conclusions
  • Incredible changes by 2020 could be
    significant, or terrible, or visionary
  • Government services will evolve, including the
    steering role of government
  • The significant technology challenges will be
    easier to resolve than the values and priority
    choices we face
  • Health care services illustrate the incredible
    opportunities, the difficult choices and the
    range of evolving roles for government.

93
Conclusion, cont.
  • Global Cyber Democracy Conclusions
  • Emergent possibilities Current experiments only
    hint at the potential. There is a promising
    opportunity to invent and put in place new
    approaches that enhance the key values of
    democracy, particularly freedom, equality,
    stability, majority rule with protection of
    minority viewpoints, participation, shared
    vision, and anticipation. In addition, the
    interactive nature of technology could enhance
    collective intelligence for shaping and
    implementing policy

94
Conclusion, cont.
  • Direction setting, and ensuring the quality of
    direction setting, is a key government role
    this will require enhancing the capacity of
    individuals as effective citizens
  • Individuals get little training to be effective
    citizens cyber democracy can change this for
    the better
  • Politicians some govt. officials have a nearly
    impossible job cyber democracy can make it better

95
For More Information Contact
Alternative Futures Associates
100 N. Pitt St., Suite 235 Alexandria, VA 22314
703-684-5880
Http//www.altfutures.com
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