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European Master in Renewable Energy

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Title: European Master in Renewable Energy


1
European Master in Renewable Energy
  • Course 6 Biomass
  • Topic Biomass as energy resource in developing
    countries

Enric Velo
2
Biomass as energy resource in developing countries
  • Traditional biomass Improved Technologies
  • Modern Technologies liquid fuels and
    gasification (syn-gas)
  • Modern Technologies biogas

3
2. Modern Technologies liquid fuels and
gasification (syn-gas production)
  • Introduction

4
Modern Technologies where?
Advancedtechnologies
  • Countries with
  • Less poverty incidence
  • Higher level of industrialization

Improvedtechnologies
5
Biomass modern technologiesdevelopment
opportunities
  • Farming industry development
  • Production of clean, efficient, and sustainable
    fuels
  • Electricity generation

Advancedtechnologies
6
Biomass modern technologiesdevelopment
opportunities for the farming and agricultural
sector
  • Diversification
  • Acting as an important primary energy supplier
  • Increasing
  • Rural productivity
  • Economical feasibility
  • Local infrastructures
  • Work places
  • Playing an important role in terms of local
    sustainability and environment benefits

7
2. Modern Technologies liquid fuels and
gasification (syn-gas production)
  • Liquid fuels

8
Liquid fuels
9
Examples of liquid fuels production
  • Transport sector in Latin America
  • Brazil (alcohol program)
  • Polices that have promoted its use
  • Development of improved technologies
  • Cost reduction
  • Argentina (biodiesel program)
  • Colombia (alcohol and biodiesel programs)
  • Peru (experimental)

10
Brazilfuel for cars
Liquid fuels
  • employing hundreds of thousands of people
  • stimulating the rural economy
  • Saving gasoline
  • 50 per cent of the total demand
  • equivalent to 220,000 barrels per day of gasoline
  • off-setting as much as 13 million tons of carbon
    emissions
  • The state offered nearly US2 billion (1999) in
    low interest loans and initially established a
    cross-subsidy with petrol so that they could sell
    ethanol at only 59 per cent of the pump-price of
    the gasoline, which was set by the government.
  • Saves in imports
  • US 5 billion/year (1999)
  • annual production, 2001
  • 14 billion liters
  • 65 of its production sugar cane production used
    for ethanol synthesis
  • Making Brazil the largest producer and consumer
    of alternate transportation fuels in the world

11
Africaethanol production in countries without
petrol production
Liquid biofuels
  • Kenya
  • 60,000 liters/day from sugar cane
  • Mixing ratio 1090
  • Direct work places 1,200
  • Zimbabwe
  • ethanol/gasoline ratio 1288
  • 40 million liters of gasoline saved by year
  • Increased incomes for 150 sugar cane farmers
  • Possibility for molasses commercialization (which
    previously were wastes from the sugar industry)
  • Malawi
  • 13 million liters by year of ethanol
  • ethanol/gasoline ratio 1585
  • foreign exchange savings (oil)
  • Waste molasses problem solved
  • Malawi
  • Monopoly (controlling selling prices)
  • Kenya
  • Several infrastructural problems
  • No commitment from the government
  • Can disappear

12
2. Modern Technologies liquid fuels and
gasification (syn-gas production)
  • Syn-gas production

13
Syn-gas production
  • Demonstrating projects at different scales

Large power utilities 10 - 100 MW
Small scale (5 - 100 kW)
  • Lighting
  • Cooking
  • Heating
  • Household use

14
Syn-gas production the small scale
  • technology reasonably simple and cheap
  • Can be locally manufactured
  • Security requirements
  • CO emissions and tars.
  • direct combustion
  • A more clean and controllable combustion

15
Syn-gas production power generation
  • diesel or gasoline modified engines
  • It can replace between 70 and 80 of petrodiesel
    or 100 of gasoline
  • from 10 to 200 kWe
  • Electrical efficiency between 15 and 25
  • Commercially available

Barriers to its dissemination
  • Limited operational success
  • Gas cleaning
  • Relatively high upfront cost
  • Need to be operated carefully
  • Fuel supply (biomass) must be trustworthy and
    technically sound
  • Carefully pacification, specially in remote rural
    applications.
  • Biomass resource shortage
  • Isolated areas were grid is not available or
    reliable, thus being economically attractive to
    produce electricity
  • Areas with high electricity tariffs (India)

16
Where can gasifiers be found?
gasification
  • Small low cost gasifiers
  • The syn-gas is used for industrial processes or
    is distributed to the community for heating and
    cooking.
  • China
  • 1960s
  • gasification of rice husks
  • Hundreds of units still in use
  • India
  • Mali
  • Surinam
  • Brazil and Philippines
  • Gasifiers for transport commercially available

17
Philippines (2001) Case Study Modular Biopower
for Community-scale Enterprise Development
gasification
  • Small prototype
  • BioMax 15
  • Modular electric generator 15 kWe
  • fed with biomass
  • coconut husk
  • Community Power Corporation (CPC)
  • Electric power
  • Household use
  • Small enterpries (100 workers)
  • the modular system was designed to be
  • fully automated,
  • mobile,
  • easy to install and relocate, and
  • To produce high quality AC power
  • System is focused on poverty alleviation and
    local wealth creation.
  • Fuel savings

18
IndiaElectricity from syngas
gasification
  • 2003
  • 55 MW installed (1,817 projects) from biomass
    gasification.
  • Gosaba Island 500 kW (the oldest)
  • Khtrichera (Tripura state ) 1 MW (the biggest)
  • Nadu State 60 gasifiers in 2004
  • 57 (9kW), 2 (40 kW) (water pumping)
  • 1 (250 kW) (1 school)

19
IndiaCase study Gosaba Island
gasification
  • Benefits for development
  • The island developed dramatically since the power
    station was installed.
  • There are so many commercial stores and
  • more than 10 hotels
  • People from near by islands come to Gosaba for
    shopping.
  • There is a bank (State of India Bank) opened and
    support economical activities.
  • Telecommunication system is available. Internet
    is available and there is a PC training centre.
  • The hospital can conduct basic operations.
  • The electricity is also used for public purposes
    such as street lights, school lighting, drinking
    water supply and irrigation.

5 x 100 kW
Owned and operated by Gosaba Rural Energy The
cooperative organises 75 ha of energy plantation.
Biomass fuel is supplied by both from farmers
and the plantation.
The project is 100 funded by government since
this is a pilot project
20
2. Modern Technologies
  • Electricity from the direct combustion of biomass

21
direct combustion of biomass
  • Tanzania
  • a 2,5 MW facility
  • 13.15 GWhe/year
  • 41,687 biomass tons
  • Electricity
  • For its own supply
  • Neighboring areas
  • Selling to TANESCO
  • 4.35 GWh 2002
  • Zimbabwe
  • Hugh amounts of wood wastes
  • (GTZ) viability studies

22
Incentives for cogenerationsugar industry
23
Africasugar industry potential
24
3. Modern Technologies biogas production
  • Introduction

25
Energy from organic wasteshow is it possible?
engine/generator
lamp
SUSTRATE
Gas cooker
garden
dung
GAS
Can also begasified
inlet
outlet
Agricultural waste
FERTILIZER DIGETED LIQUID (biol)
SOLIDFERTILIZER
field
BIOGAS PLANT
DIGESTER
Industrial organic waste
WET OR WETTEDORGANIC MATERIAL
NEVERwoodfire or straw
26
Energy from organic wasteshow is it possible?
engine/generator
lamp
SUSTRATE
Gas cooker
garden
dung
GAS
Can also begasified
inlet
outlet
Agricultural waste
FERTILIZER DIGETED LIQUID (biol)
SOLIDFERTILIZER
field
BIOGAS PLANT
DIGESTER
Specific geographic areas
Industrial organic waste
Needs a minimumtemperature
WET OR WETTEDORGANIC MATERIAL
Sensible to weather and climate changes
Needs a lot of water the whole year
27
Energy from organic wastesbenefits
Closes the carbon cycle
Saves on fuel
SUSTRATE
Usos energéticos
Saves on GHE gases emissions
dung
GAS
Without pathogen agents
PROMEMS FOR THE ENVIORMENMENT AND HEALTH
(pathogens)
inlet
outlet
Agricultural waste
FERTILIZER DIGETED LIQUID (biol)
SOLIDFERTILIZER
Crop growing improvement
field
BIOGAS PLANT
DIGESTER
Save on imports of chemical products
Industrial organic waste
Closes the nutritional material cycle
28
Energy from organic wastes where is it possible?
precipitation
  • The amount of seasonal and annual rainfall has
    mainly an indirect impact on anaerobic
    fermentation
  • Low rainfall or seasonal water scarcity may lead
    to insufficient mixture of the substrate with
    water. The negative flow characteristics of
    substrate can hamper digestion.
  • Low precipitation generally leads to less
    intensive systems of animal husbandry. Less dung
    is available in central locations.
  • High precipitation can lead to high groundwater
    levels, causing problems in construction and
    operation of biogas plants.

29
Energy from organic wastes where is it
possible? Suitability of climatic zones
  • Tropical Rain Forest
  • annual rainfall above 1.500 mm,
  • mean temperatures between 24 and 28C with little
    seasonal variation.
  • Climatically very suitable for biogas production.
  • Often animal husbandry is hampered by diseases
    like trypanosomiasis, leading to the virtual
    absence of substrate.
  • Tropical Highlands
  • rainfall between 1.000 and 2.000 mm,
  • mean temperatures between 18 and 25C (according
    to elevation).
  • Climatically suitable, often agricultural systems
    highly suitable for biogas production (mixed
    farming, zero-grazing).

30
Energy from organic wastes where is it
possible? Suitability of climatic zones
  • Wet Savanna
  • rainfall between 800 and 1.500 mm,
  • moderate seasonal changes in temperature.
  • Mixed farming with night stables and day grazing.
  • Grazing favor biogas dissemination.
  • Dry Savanna
  • Seasonal water scarcity,
  • seasonal changes in temperatures.
  • Pastoral systems of animal husbandry, therefore
    little availability of dung.
  • Use of biogas possible near permanent water
    sources or on irrigated, integrated farms.
  • Thornbush Steppe and Desert
  • Permanent scarcity of water.
  • Considerable seasonal variations in temperature.
  • Extremely mobile forms of animal keeping
    (nomadism).
  • Unsuitable for biogas dissemination.

31
Biogas
32
Biogasfamily-size plant
Dung from 3-5 cattle heads or 8-12 pigs
1,5 - 2 m3 biogas
100 litres/day de fertilizer
8 - 10 m3
33
Biogasfamily-size plant
family 6-8 members
Dung from 3-5 cattle heads or 8-12 pigs
Cooking of 2-3 meals
1,5 - 2 m3 biogas
100 litres/day de fertilizer
8 - 10 m3
34
Biogasfamily-size plant
Refrigerator 24h
family 6-8 members
Dung from 3-5 cattle heads or 8-12 pigs
Lamp 3 h
1,5 - 2 m3 biogas
100 litres/day de fertilizer
8 - 10 m3
35
Biogasfamily-size plant
Generator de 3 kW , 1 h
Dung from 3-5 cattle heads or 8-12 pigs
1,5 - 2 m3 biogas
100 litres/day de fertilizer
8 - 10 m3
36
Biogasequivalences
37
Biogasprevious questions
Are there another alternatives?
Can supply an important ratio of the energy
demand?
Available sustrate
Energy demand
Is it a good place?
Is it easily installed and maintained?
38
Digesters
  • Fixed dome (Chinese)
  • Floating drum (Indians)
  • Spherical
  • Mixed

39
DigestersFixed dome (Chinese)
  • Lower capacity
  • Good sealing required
  • Tanque de mezclado con tubería de entrada y
    trampa de arena.
  • Digestor.
  • Tanque de compensación y extracción
  • Receptáculo de gas.
  • Tubería de gas
  • Escotilla de entrada, con sello hermético
  • Acumulación de fango
  • Tubería de salida
  • Nivel de referencia
  • Película flotante

40
Digesterscúpula flotante (Hindú)
41
Digestersotros tipos y variantes
Spherical digester
Fixed dome with an external gas holder
Small plant with an spherical digester (Ivory
coast). Photo Henning
Continuous digester with a plastic holder anda
cover to protect it from sun rays
42
Digesterscomparison table
43
Digesters
44
3. Modern Technologies biogas production
  • Biogas applications

45
ApplicationsGas cookers/stoves
Biogas cookers and stoves must meet various basic
requirements
  • Simple and easy operation
  • Vversatility, e.g. for pots of various size, for
    cooking and broiling
  • Easy to clean
  • Acceptable cost and easy repair
  • Good burning properties, i.e. stable flame, high
    efficiency
  • Attractive appearance

Institutional burner in a community kitchen
46
ApplicationsBiogas lamps
  • In villages without electricity,
  • lighting is a basic need
  • As well as a status symbol.

Fire risk
"rare earth" like thorium, cerium, etc.
1000 2000ºC
Low luminousefficiency 1,2 - 2 lm/W
Bad adaptation ofbiogas
light bulb 3 - 5 lm/W fluorescent lamp 10 a 15
lm/W
400 - 500 lm (lumen)
light bulb 25 - 75W
47
ApplicationsRadiant heaters
  • Raising young stock, e.g. piglets and chicken in
    a limited amount of space.
  • piglets
  • 1st week 30-35ºC
  • 4th-5tg week 18-23º C

Regulación por altura
Buena ventilación (CO, CO2)
0,2 - 0,3 m3/h of biogas
  • Radiant heaters develop their infrared thermal
    radiation via a ceramic body that is heated to
    600-800C (red-hot) by the biogas flame.
  • 95 of the biogas' energy content is converted to
    heat.
  • Small-heater outputs range from 1.5 to 10 kW
    thermal power.

48
ApplicationsIncubators refrigerators
  • Incubators
  • to imitate and maintain optimal hatching
    temperatures for eggs.
  • a burner heats water in a heating element for
    circulation through the incubating chamber are
    suitable for operating on biogas.
  • Refrigerators
  • Absorption-type refrigerating machines operating
    on ammonia and water and equipped for automatic
    thermo-siphon circulation can be fuelled with
    biogas.
  • Just the burner itself has to be modified
  • For 100 liters refrigeration volume, about 2000 l
    of biogas per day, depending on outside
    temperatures, must be assumed.

49
Applicationsengines
  • The following types of engines are, in principle,
    well-suited for operating on biogas
  • Four-stroke diesel engines
  • Four-stroke spark-ignition engines
  • Converting diesel engines
  • Converting spark-ignition engines

yield 10 - 15
1 kWhe
If biogas is not used for lighting or cooking
  • Minimum 10 m3/day

1 m3
50
appropriate design adaptation to local conditions
  • Soil and climate conditions
  • Substrate quality
  • Substrate availability
  • Capital available
  • People skills for operating, maintaining and
    reparations

51
Energy from organic wastes Where and how apply
it? Check list
If one or more cannot be answered with YES, the
success of biogas technology is questionable or
even unlikely.
GTZ-GATE 1999 Biogas Digest (Volume I. Biogas
Basics) GTZ-GATE. Eschborn, Germany, 1999.
52
Where can be found?
  • At the end 1993
  • 5,25 millions homes around the world
  • 1.200 millions m3 /year
  • 3.500 kWe installed (no without problems)
  • China
  • Beginning 1940s ? 1970s impulse and failure
  • Construction, operation and maintenance must be
    improved
  • India
  • 1950s
  • Other
  • Tanzania, Nepal, South Korea, Thailand

July 2005152.373 plants installed
53
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