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Orientation for New Directors

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Title: Orientation for New Directors


1
Orientation for New Directors
Module 7
2
(No Transcript)
3
Definitions
  • Community development a process whereby the
    efforts of Government are united with those of
    the people to improve the social, cultural, and
    economic conditions in communities

Module 7
4
Definitions (contd)
  • Community a group of people with a common
    characteristic or interest living together within
    a larger society or a body of persons or
    nations having a common history or common social,
    economic,
  • and political interests

Module 7
5
Definitions (contd)
Rural development applications of community
development principles outside of urban areas
Module 7
6
Definitions (contd)
  • Regional development applications of community
    development principles in geographical areas
    consistent with those specified for or in
  • Regional Development Associations
  • Change and Challenge
  • Community Matters

Module 7
7
Principles
1. Community development is a holistic approach
to addressing the communitys
needs. 2. Community development is a
process. 3. Empowerment results from influence,
participation, and community education.
Module 7
8
Principles (contd)
4. Development ensures environmental
stewardship. 5. Development is tied to
sustainability. 6. Partnerships provide access to
resources.
Module 7
9
Social Development
  • means people are of primary importance
  • includes the building of secure, just, free and
    harmonious societies
  • offers opportunities and humane standards of
    living for all and
  • focuses on citizens rights to
  • be nourished
  • be housed
  • be secure
  • work.

Module 7
10
Cultural Development
  • proliferation of artists gaining international
    recognition and of poets, authors, and musicians
  • development of theater, festivals, and films
  • development of archaeological and historical sites

Module 7
11
Community Economic Development
  • is citizen-led
  • is dedicated to improving lifestyles through
  • wealth distribution
  • poverty reduction
  • job creation and
  • provides infrastructure in support of business
    development.

Module 7
12
Business Development
  • the practice of a commercial activity
  • associated with the production, supply,
  • or distribution of commodities for profit

Module 7
13
Community Practice
(a) Social Action (b) Social Planning (c)
Community Development
Module 7
14
Regional Development Associations
Early organizations were created as a result of
  • the resettlement program
  • access to employment
  • out-migration and a lack of attention to fishery
    development, creating community vulnerability
    and
  • commitment to traditional lifestyles.

Module 7
15
Early Impacts
  • pressure tactics formed original approach
  • alternatives to resettlement program
  • government recognition
  • MUN Extension Service assisted with transition

Module 7
16
Government Response
  • establishment of Dept. of Rural Development in
    1972
  • financial support for RDAs
  • loans programs as a catalyst for
    business development
  • organizational and business support

Module 7
17
RDA Growth
Module 7
18
Influences
  • Planning lacked technical expertise/support.
  • Make work money became a distraction.
  • Programs addressed social rather than economic
    development.
  • Funds were targeted too specifically.
  • Fishery development was emphasized.

Module 7
19
Sustainable Development
  • Development of Aquaculture Industry
  • Fishery Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism
  • Forestry
  • Agriculture
  • Growth in Credit Unions

Module 7
20
The Dilemma
  • government funding VS locally-generated revenue
  • community development VS business development

Module 7
21
Community Futures (CF)
  • set up as a national program in 1996
  • Business Development Centres (BDCs) as financial
    arm
  • government appointed with no community
    accountability

Module 7
22
Community Futures (contd)
  • seen as competition by RDAs
  • developed strategic plans without community
    ownership or buy-in
  • no implementation capacity
  • CFs and BDCs combined to form CBDCs (Community
    Business Development Corporations) in 1975.

Module 7
23
The Beginning of the End or the End of the
Beginning?
  • A collapse of the groundfishery created a
    community crisis.
  • There was a need to refocus regional development
    efforts.
  • Downsizing resulted in less money and greater
    accountability.

Module 7
24
Regional Economic Development Boards (REDBs) A
New Approach
Module 7
25
The Approach
  • 1992 Government produces Change and
    Challenge.
  • 1993 The NLRDC requests a study of
    regional economic development.
  • 1994 The Task Force on CED travels the
    province.
  • 1995 Government approves Community
    Matters.

Module 7
26
Change and Challenge
Guiding Principles
  • focus on strategic industries
  • education and training to adapt to changing
    labour market demands
  • competitiveness in local and world markets
  • private sector to be the engine of growth

Module 7
27
Change and Challenge (contd)
  • productivity enhancement through innovation and
    technology
  • commitment to change
  • client to come first in government policies and
    actions
  • sustainable economic development to be maintained

Module 7
28
Change and Challenge (contd)
  • establishment of 17 economic zones (later
    increased to 20)
  • implementation of an economic plan by the people
    in each zone
  • working more efficiently and effectively with
    Government

Module 7
29
NLRDC Presentation
  • 1. continued cooperation and support for
    economic development
  • 2. the immediate establishment of an
    independent, nonpartisan commission to
  • evaluate structures, strategies, and
  • initiatives
  • recommend ways to coordinate ongoing CED
    activities

Module 7
30
Task Force Objective
  • to review and make recommendations regarding

1. organizational structures for economic
development 2. programs and services and how they
are used
Module 7
31
Task Force
  • distributed discussion paper
  • conducted public consultations
  • visited 22 communities
  • heard from 679 individuals
  • received 235 briefs

Module 7
32
Community Matters
Provisional Boards
  • made up of representatives of major stakeholders
    in the zones
  • responsible for
  • identifying stakeholders for REDBs
  • developing formulae for their representation
  • developing bylaws and ensuring incorporation
  • finalizing boundaries and providing a name

Module 7
33
Incorporation
  • protection from personal liability
  • members VS shareholders
  • Members and directors could not share in any
    profits.

Module 7
34
Incorporation (contd)
  • profits to be used to further develop objectives
  • upon wind-up - assets to go to organizations with
    similar objectives
  • Bylaws define organizational structure and
    establish procedures for voting and elections.

Module 7
35
Core Functions
  • Provide leadership in the development and
    implementation of a strategic plan for the zone.
  • Coordinate business development support.
  • Support organizations and communities within the
    zone.

Module 7
36
Core Functions (contd)
  • Coordinate social and economic initiatives
    related to economic development.
  • Promote public participation and community
    education.

Module 7
37
Provide leadership in the development and
implementation of a strategic plan
  • Initiate partnerships.
  • Market and promote the zone and the SEP.
  • Ensure the SEP is current and up-to-date.
  • Monitor the impact of SEP implementation relative
    to the larger zonal economy.

Module 7
38
Coordinate business development support
Assist businesses, development groups, and
entrepreneurs to identify
  • funding sources
  • investment opportunities and
  • local and global investment potential.

Module 7
39
Support organizations and communities within the
zone
  • Access resources and expertise in support of
    stakeholders.
  • Promote community and organizational capacity
    building.
  • Promote leadership and skills development.
  • Empower sub-zonal agencies.

Module 7
40
Coordinate social and economic initiatives
related to economic development
Ensure
  • that the SEP is successfully implemented
  • that development is consistent with the goals
    and objectives of the SEP and
  • that social and economic objectives are
    integrated.

Module 7
41
Promote public participation and community
education
Ensure
  • the participation of all sectors of the
    community, including
  • youth
  • women
  • other minorities and
  • access to information and skills for community
    decision-making.

Module 7
42
Promote public participation and community
education(contd)
Ensure
  • citizens responsibility for becoming functional
    in
  • decision-making
  • the development process
  • government operations and
  • Board empowerment through community support.

Module 7
43
Performance Contracts
  • agreements to undertake mutually agreeable
    objectives
  • mechanisms for providing core funding
  • means to define the relationship between
    Government and the REDBs
  • developmental VS regulatory
  • means to identify accountability framework

Module 7
44
Phase I
REDBs were to
  • hire expertise to assist with the development of
    strategic economic plans
  • develop policy manuals and
  • monitor and provide input on economic development
    proposals.

Module 7
45
Phase II
  • is a five-year framework agreement based on five
    core functions
  • provides for an annual renewal of the budget,
    work plan and monitoring and evaluation schedule
    and
  • provides for dispute resolution, reporting
    procedures, and administrative details.

Module 7
46
Partnerships Through MOUs
Objectives
  • to encourage integration of local and provincial
    development strategies
  • to coordinate development with government
    policies
  • to identify technical, human, and financial
    resources
  • to build commitment through partnerships

Module 7
47
Board Governance A Leadership or Management
Philosophy?
Module 7
48
Mandate and/or Mission
Core Questions
  • Why does your organization exist?
  • What is your operational philosophy?
  • Leadership?
  • Management?
  • Implementation?
  • What are the key performance areas?
  • Can you give your conclusions in a statement of
    25 words or less?

Module 7
49
Definitions
Leadership the utilization of the resources and
environment around oneself to create the
future Management responding in a
directed/guided way to a decided upon course of
action
Module 7
50
Leaders -VS- Managers
  • strategic planning, visioning, creative thinking
  • opportunities VS impediments
  • alliances VS rivals
  • analytical, structured, and orderly approach

Module 7
51
Leaders -VS- Managers (contd)
  • logical solutions to tangible problems
  • perform best when dealing with technical skills,
    processes
  • understand integration
  • motivated by challenge
  • committed to life-long learning

Module 7
52
Self-Sufficiency -VS- Dependence
  • provide development leadership
  • spend time on planning and coordination
  • are vulnerable
  • preoccupied with survival
  • generate revenue through projects

Module 7
53
Empowerment -VS- Control
  • motivated to excel and become creative
  • motivated to control own destiny
  • given responsibility and authority
  • system maximizes efficiency
  • hierarchical management system
  • management controls
  • accountability to system

Module 7
54
Proaction -VS- Reaction
  • take risks
  • anticipate change
  • are change agents
  • see change as real when it happens
  • act in the present
  • dislike addressing change before it happens

Module 7
55
Policy -VS- Activity
  • The board of directors develops policy consistent
    with the wishes of members.
  • The role of the board mistakenly overlaps with
    that of staff.

Module 7
56
Policy -VS- Activity (contd)
  • It becomes important to define the role of each.
  • Boards should avoid becoming mired in detail by
    concentrating on the mission, values, and
    aspirations of the Corporation.

Module 7
57
Public Participation in Regional Economic
Development
  • Module 7

58
Why Public Participation?
  • lack of government resources
  • uncoordinated community development activities
  • failure of centralized approaches

Module 7
59
Public Participation as a Contribution to
Development
  • Buy-in and support are tied to economic benefits
    or rewards.
  • Decisions affect and implementation depends on
    the public.
  • Outsiders design programs.
  • Local people are perceived to lack technical and
    process skills.

Module 7
60
Public Participation as a Contribution to
Development (contd)
  • Control, direction, and decision- making remain
    with professionals.
  • Technical aspects become prominent.
  • Organizations are usually externally conceived.

Module 7
61
Public Participation as a Contribution to
Development (contd)
  • Organizations reflect only part of the community.
  • There is little empathy with those who should be
    served.
  • Local accountability is lacking.

Module 7
62
Empowerment
Basic Principles
  • People are the primary ingredients of
    development.
  • We must recognize peoples knowledge and
    expertise.
  • The total community is included.
  • People must feel empowered to control their own
    destinies.

Module 7
63
Empowerment (contd)
  • Peoples skills and abilities must be developed
    through participation.
  • The role of education and training is recognized.
  • Expertise is a resource to the people rather than
    to the product.
  • People have the ability to determine their own
    futures.

Module 7
64
Organizational Qualities
  • personal control and growth
  • self-reliance
  • conformity to local values, ideals, and
    expectations

Module 7
65
Obstacles to Participation
Power
  • Governments traditionally designed and controlled
    programs.
  • Limited input resulted in a lack of buy-in and
    support.

Module 7
66
Obstacles to Participation (contd)
  • Community beliefs about organizational autonomy
  • The community should control design and
    priorities for development.
  • The community knows best.
  • Responsibility is shared without authority and
    resources.

Module 7
67
Obstacles to Participation (contd)
Administration
  • Accountability interferes with delegation.
  • Administrators reserve the right to determine
    priorities.
  • Planners and administrators are reluctant to
    concede their practice.
  • Local involvement adds time.

Module 7
68
Benefits of Public Participation
  • recognition of local needs and priorities
  • recognition of local knowledge and skills
  • direct input VS prescriptive solutions
  • more reliable feedback on impacts of initiatives

Module 7
69
Benefits of Public Participation (contd)
  • new insights from the community for adapting
    programs
  • lower costs in dealing with local organizations
  • better design of programs
  • improved utilization of facilities
  • cooperation in new program innovation

Module 7
70
Implications for REDBs
  • improved organizational structures
  • added accountability through Performance
    Contracts
  • need for better public education
  • more equitable sharing of roles and
    responsibilities
  • less conflict and misunderstanding

Module 7
71
Methods
Public Meetings
  • good for discussing general ideas and
    approaches
  • widespread input and perspectives obtained

Module 7
72
Methods (contd)
Newsletters
  • one-way communication
  • best for dispensing information

Module 7
73
Methods (contd)
Focus Groups
  • effective for obtaining input on specific topics
  • allow involvement of those most affected
  • useful for updating sector strategies

Module 7
74
Methods (contd)
Questionnaires
  • recommended for collecting information
  • limited opportunity for exploring issues
  • low return rates
  • lack validity

Module 7
75
Methods (contd)
Media
  • most powerful public participation tool
  • can become a forum for public discussion
  • a method of community education

Module 7
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