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Nile Valley Festivals:


... conflagrations with his uncle Seth of slaying his father ... Here we see the Trinity of father, mother and son. Opet Festival Processional way cont'd ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nile Valley Festivals:

Nile Valley Festivals
  • Forerunner to Carnival

The Context
  • The Nile Valley and the Nile River constitute the
    worlds first cultural super highway
  • The Nile River, known as the deity Hapi, is
    approximately 4, 112 miles
  • Along this processional way great civilizations
    grew and spread to other parts of Africa as well
    as abroad to Asia, Europe and later to the
    Americas-- i.e., Nubia/Kush, Ta Seti, Ethiopia
    and finally the culminating three kingdoms of Ta
    Merry known to us as ancient Egypt today --coming
    from the deep south of Africa

The Context(Contd)
  • Annual and seasonal festivals were a germaine
    part of the 40,000 millennia tradition bequeath
    to Ta-Merry (ancient Egypt)
  • The rituals, festivals and associated deities are
    too numerous to mention here given the
    constraints of time
  • Hence an overview shall suffice in this

Seasons Festivals Calendar
  • Akhet (Winter) Season of Inundation  Netjer
    of the Season Hapi
  • was divided into 4 months of 30 days (mid-July to
    November)Month of Djehuti begins. Feast of
    Thoth, Opet Festival reunion of Amun and Mut
  • KMT August 5 Gregorian Calendar August 22

Seasons Festivals Calendar
  • Peret (Spring)  Season of Sowing
    GrowthNetjer of the SeasonKhepra  Month of Min
  • KMT Nov 1 Gregorian Calendar November 16 Sed
  • Another 4 months with 30 days each mid-November
    to March)

Peret (Spring)
  • Kmt Dec 10
  • Gregorian Calendar December 25
  • Birth of Heru (Horus) the child of Aset (Isis)
    Going forth of Wadjet singing in Heliopolis Day
    of Elevating the Great Netjer (Goddess) in all
    Her names manifestations

Seasons Festivals Calendar (contd)
  • Shemu Season of Harvest KwanzaaNetjer of the
    Season Khonsu-Ra (lunar and Solar mix)
  • Kmt March 6 Gregorian March 21
  • Spring Equinox Harvest Festival Festival of
    restructuring the Heavens Coming forth of the
    Great Ones from the House of Ra
  • Another four months with 30 days each(mid-March
    to July)

Seasons Festivals Calendar (contd)
  • Epagomenal /Herew Renpet Days Out of
    TimeFestivals of the Birthday of Wosir Kmt July
    1(Osiris birth) Gregorian Calendar July 14
  • Kmt July 2 (Gregorian Calendar July 15 Birthday
    of Heru-Dunawhy )
  • Kmt July 3 (Gregorian Calendar July 16
    Birthday of Set)
  • Kmt July 4 (Gregorian Calendar July 17 Birthday
    of Aset (Isis)
  • Kmt July 5 (Gregorian Calendar July 18 Birthday
    of Nebet-Het (Nephthys)

How some important Festivals were celebrated
  • Festivals constituted a central role in ancient
    Egypt life as been demonstrated in the abridge
  • Some major ones include Opet, Beautiful Festival
    of the Valley, Heb Sed, New Year Festival, The
    Triumph of Horus over Set, Wasirian Festival at
    Abydos, among others

Connections btw Nile Valley and its Diaspora ala
  • The root meaning of the word carnival can be
    traced to Latin
  • Carne means flesh vale means farewell
  • These two concepts are directly tied to the
    revelry of eating and intoxication right before
    the abstinence of 40 days before the crucifixion
    and resurrection of Christ in Christianity

Connections btw Nile Valley and its Diaspora ala
  • The Wosirian drama of Set slaying his brother
    Wosir, and their sisters Aset Nebet-Het
    hovering over the mummified body, performing the
    rites of resurrection more than 6,500 ago, is
    pregnant with the antecedents for Carnival
    other secular/ religious rituals
  • There was no Greece or Rome in the consciousness
    of Europe

Aset and Nebet Het at Wosirs Resurrection
Djehuti at Wosirs Resurrection
Herus Battle with Seth
  • The offspring of Wosir and Aset- Heru had
    several conflagrations with his uncle Seth of
    slaying his father
  • Example of a frame from Temple of Edfu

Herus Battle with Seth
  • Example of another frame from Temple of Edfu,
    Battle between Seth and Heru

Djehuti at Wosirs Resurrection
Wosirs Resurrection
Resurrection in the Hall of Judgment
  • Here is a Wosir seated on his throne with his
    sisters and wife Neb Het and Aset in white after
    resurrection in the Hall of Judgment
  • Death, resurrection, regeneration, rebirth and
    renewal were the constant refrain and underlying
    foundation of all festivals in the Nile Valley
    and were later exported to the rest of the
    world, ex Europe

Wosirian Festival at Abydos
  • Wosiran Festival is pregnant with all the
    elements of what would later be manifested in
    several festivals including what we call Carnival
  • Barque of Wosir at Abydos

Wosirian Festival at Abydos
  • Wosiran festival was celebrated at the end of the
    cycle of 360 days
  • The birthdays of the important deities of Aset,
    Seth, Nebet-Het, Heru and Wosir
  • And in the period of Out of Time period of
    renewal, regeneration, resurrection,, between the
    death of one year and the beginning of another
  • Between Time itself when everything is suspended
    letting loose, no laws, suspension of inhibitions
    and cleansing
  • Barque of Wosir at Abydos

Wosirian Festival at Abydos
  • A major feature at the Wosiran festival was
    display of combatants who re-enacted the battle
    between Seth and Heru
  • Barque of Wosir at Abydos

Wosirian Festival at Abydos
  • Another example of martial artists a welcomed
    feature at the Wosirian festival as well as the
    contemporary mock battles in Carnival
    celebrations today in the Diaspora
  • Barque of Wosir at Abydos
  • Combatants

Opet Festival, Amun, Mut and Khonsu
  • Opet is a reunion, regenerative festival
    celebrated annually for about 24 days. On the
    KMT calendar August 5 Gregorian Calendar August
    22 (today).
  • The major deity of the Southern Egypt Amun-Re is
    taken from his chapel at Warit/Karnak
  • To join his wife Mut at Waset /Luxor accompanied
    by their son Khonsu. Here we see the Trinity of
    father, mother and son
  • Amun

Opet Festival, Amun
  • Solar deity oldest god of the eastern sky
  • Fertility god, seen here a potent ram of
    procreative energy
  • Related to Min,god with the erect phallus
  • Warrior god king of the gods
  • Universal god
  • Greeks called him Zeus
  • Amun

Opet Festival, Mut
  • Mut at Waset /Luxor
  • Mut

Opet Festival, Mut
  • Mut at Waset /Luxor
  • She represents the mother deity with all the
    instincts of a mother. Note the lion head mask
  • Nile Valley culture always paid great regard
    to the zoomorphic world as a complement to the
    human world
  • Mut

Opet Festival, Khonsu
  • Khonsu the lunar deity son of Amun and Mut.
  • Mut

Opet Festival, Khonsu
  • Khonsu Anthropomorphic representation of
    human body with mask of a hawk with moon above
  • Mut

Opet Festival, Trinity
  • Here we see the Trinity of father,
    mother and son

Opet Festival Processional way contd
  • Avenue of ram-headed sphinxes

Opet Festival
  • There was elaborate preparation for this week to
    one month celebration
  • Initial procession was long a one mile and half
    avenue known as the Avenue of ram-headed

Opet Festival
  • And Avenue of the human headed sphinxes joining
    the sister temples of the Grand Lodge of Waset
    and the Great Temple of Warit

Avenue of the human headed sphinxes
Opet Festival Priestly Procession
  • The Barque of Amun borne by a procession of
    priests from the Great North Temple

Opet Festival Procession contd
  • Another view of Barque of Amun borne the
    processional priests from the Great North Temple

Opet Festival Processional Musicians
  • Musicians at the Opet

Opet Festival Processional Musicians (contd)
  • Here are some merrymakers with sting instruments
    at Waset temple, Amenhotep III court columns
  • As part of the Akhet Season of Inundation, during
    the second month of the four-month observance,the
    Opet is celebrated with music and various kinds
    of offerings
  • Musicians at the Opet

Opet Festival offerings
  • Opet with

and various kinds of offerings
Opet Festival offerings (contd
  • More offerings

Opet Festival offerings (contd
  • More offerings from Waset Temple

The float Boat/Barque
  • Replica of a Barque from Horus Temple at Edfu

  • The mask was not a mere disguise but to capture
    the energy and admired characteristics and
    attributes of a particular animal
  • In this instance the hawks eye and its ability
    to see from a distance above was revered
  • Its fierceness was also considered potent

Musical Instrument
  • Here is an example of one of the common
    instruments at al festivals, the Sistrum, shack-

  • Beetle-headed deity which is a representation of
    Re as a solar disc as he appears early in the
    morning on the horizon
  • The beetle was observed rolling a ball of mud or
    dung in the similar manner as the sun moves
    across the sky
  • Female lays her eggs in a similar ball and the
    young emerges
  • The biology of this insect belied the Egyptian
    rational for selection

  • Djehuty/Tehuti originally appeared as baboon
    deity with lunar disc in predynastic times
  • Primarily represented thereafter as a ibis Scared
    bird of the scribes
  • Associated with knowledge and chief among the
  • The intellect of Atum

Masks lend themselves to Masquerade
  • The Masquerade is a very popular means of
    reconnecting, regenerative and renewal forces in
    Africa and its Diaspora
  • Masks are made by using animal references-
    dominate the play or drama
  • Kanaga mask with writing, Dogon, Mali, 20th

Masks lend themselves to Masquerades
  • Masquerade festivals are held annually in
    Nigeria/Yoruba, Ijaw communities. Such seasonal
    celebratory moments promote peaceful-co existence
    and development as people are brought together
    from different backgrounds to jubilate. Virtues
    of love, sympathy, justice, honesty, patriotism
    and unity are inculcated in the people gathered
    for celebration, thus, sending a positive signal
    across the globe.

Masks lend themselves to Masquerade
  • Okpo Masquerade, Calabar South, Nigeria