The European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 Sao Paulo, 11th October 2005 G.F. Barry CAHILL Fuels Departm - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 Sao Paulo, 11th October 2005 G.F. Barry CAHILL Fuels Departm

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Title: The European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 Sao Paulo, 11th October 2005 G.F. Barry CAHILL Fuels Departm


1
The European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 Sao
Paulo, 11th October 2005 G.F. (Barry)
CAHILL Fuels Department, PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN
2
Outline
  • The Context of Biodiesel in Europe
  • The Standardisation of Biodiesel in Europe
  • The Situation of Brazilian Biodiesel Test Fuels
  • Conclusions

3
1. The Context of Biodiesel in Europe Three
major strategic axes
  • Mobility
  • Safety
  • Environment
  • Air quality
  • Global warming CO2…
  • Sustainable resources

4
The Advantages of Biodiesel
  • Biodiesel brings significant advantages
  • Environmental benefits
  • Improves air quality by reducing exhaust gas
    emissions
  • Reduces WtW CO2 emissions and therefore global
    warming
  • Social and economic aspects generating
    employment
  • France 1000 jobs for 100 000 tonnes of
    biodiesel produced
  • Energy independency
  • Helps to limit oil imports
  • Contributes to promote the use of sustainable
    resources
  • Technical application
  • Good lubricity
  • Liquid fuel requiring no major modification of
    the engine/vehicle
  • PSA over ten years of experience with biodiesel
    as a motor fuel

5
Biofuels for automotive engines
  • Diesel engines
  • Gasoline engines

Ethanol / ETBE From Sugar beet, sugar cane,
cereals… Ex-Cellulosis (RD Iogen in Canada)
BtL Biomass -to liquids Fischer-Tropsch
Methyl esters From rapeseed, sunflower…
Ethyl esters From rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean,
castor, palm oil ? Conventional or in-situ
processes
6
Biodiesel in Europe
  • Pure vegetable oils are unsuitable for engines
  • low stability, low cetane, high viscosity ?
    oxidation, deposits, fouling
  • Transesterification into an ester properties
    closer to Diesel fuel
  • 1 ton oil 100 kg methanol ? 1 ton Methyl Ester
    100 kg glycerol
  • In Europe mostly produced from rapeseed oil (and
    sunflower) with methanol
  • Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), Sunflower Methyl
    Ester (SME)…
  • Biodiesel must comply with fuel quality norms
    to fulfil engine requirements

7
  • Cas Europe
  • Diesel EN590, 350ppm soufre Biodiesel EN 14214,
    mélangé à 30
  • Peugeot 406 Moteur HDi
  • Cycle MVEG
  • Cas Brésil
  • Diesel Métropolitano, 2000ppm soufre Ester
    Ethylique de Soja, mélangé à 30
  • Citroën Xsara Picasso Moteur HDi
  • Cycle MVEG

1 tonne of biodiesel saves up to 2.5 tonnes of
CO2 (ADEME)
Performances are maintained while most emissions
are reduced ?contributing to reduce global
warming and to improve air quality
8
European Biodiesel Markets
  • Pure biodiesel (tax-exempted)
  • Limited applications in Germany, Austria,
    Sweden…
  • Adapting materials (elastomers)
  • Blended (with lower taxes)
  • Without any modification of the vehicle fuel
    system
  • Up to 5 in Diesel fuel (B5) available without
    any labelling at fuel service-stations
  • 30 biodiesel blended into Diesel fuel (B30)
  • Pioneered by PSA Peugeot Citroën
  • Captive fleets in France, in Italy

9
European Legislation to promote the use of
biofuels for transport
  • EU Directive 2003/30/EC of 8 May 2003 on volumes
    of sales
  • Share of petrol and diesel sales for transport
  • (reference values on the basis of energy content)
  • EU Directive 2003/96/EC of 27 October 2003 on
    taxation of energy products authorizes lower
    taxes on biofuels
  • EU Common Agriculture Policy, 2003 aid for land
    dedicated to biofuel production (45 euros/ha)

10
Rising production Booming investments
11
Limits to the rise in European biodiesel
production
  • Available lands
  • Motor fuel / food to reach the 2010 target
    (5.75)
  • Solutions for greater biofuel supplies
  • Higher productivity ?
  • New pathways BtL (and ethanol from cellulosis)
  • Imports ?

12
Summary of European Situation
  • Biodiesel is a key contributor to sustainable
    development, an immediate solution to reduce GHG
    emissions.
  • Proven validity of biodiesel blends in Europe
  • B5 blends authorized in public use without pump
    labeling
  • PSA Peugeot Citroën has over ten years of
    successful experience with cars running on blends
    of Diesel fuel with biodiesel (up to 30) in
    Europe.
  • New developments, maybe B10.
  • ? Abundant resources in Brazil for biodiesel …

13
2 The Standardisation of Biodiesel in Europe
  • During the 1990s it became clear that biodiesel
    would become a widely used fuel in Europe, so it
    became necessary to establish a pan-European
    biodiesel standard to allow its trouble-free use
    in all countries.
  • The European policies for energy independency and
    helping the farming community by using biodiesel
    fitted well with European need for more diesel
    fuel.
  • The EU Commission mandated CEN, the European
    Standards body, in 1997 to standardise biodiesel.
  • PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN, due to its long experience
    with this fuel, took the chairmanship of this
    activity.

14
Work on the biodiesel standard
  • Mandate for two levels B100 pure methyl ester
    fuel, and a B5 grade for blending.
  • The standardising committee met between 1998 and
    2000 to draft the standard
  • Priority given to the top grade B100
  • Main experience came from German constructors,
    who already had a draft German standard
  • Principle was to protect engines from harm due to
    inadequate biodiesel quality, as constructors
    could not accept risk of huge warantee claims and
    the market would fail if the fuel quality was
    insufficient.
  • Biodiesel producers lacked understanding of the
    standardisation process and of the contrains of
    the Auto and Oil industries.

15
European Biodiesel Standard EN 14214
16
Features of the specification
  • There are many parameters in the specification!
  • The Auto Industry wanted a tight specification to
    ensure the security of the engines over their
    whole life, also to have support from injection
    equipment suppliers, so parameters closely
    defined.
  • The Oil Industry wanted a biodiesel product that
    did not cause risks in storage and distribution.
  • The biodiesel producers wanted an  easy 
    specification that permitted their product
    without constraints.
  • The EU Commission wanted a specification that
    would open the biodiesel market to all feedstocks.

17
Significance of the parameters
  • Ester content a minimum is necessary to prevent
    cheating with illegal materials. Requested by
    Customs authorities.
  • Density much higher than diesel fuel (825
    840). This limits the amount that can be blended
    into diesel fuel and still remain in
    specification.
  • Viscosity higher than diesel fuel at 40C, and
    much higher at low temperatures. Concerns for
    fuel pump drive integrity.
  • Flash point higher than diesel fuel (55C) so
    safer and more economical to transport.
  • Sulfur content usually lower than 10 ppm so
    consistent with best fuel requirements.
  • Carbon residue linked to engine deposit
    formation. Same limit for biodiesel and diesel
    fuels.

18
Significance of the parameters (contd)
  • Cetane number set at diesel fuel level of 51,
    generally not a problem for biodiesel.
  • Sulphated ash biodiesel level twice that of
    diesel fuel.
  • Water content 2.5 times more than diesel fuel,
    as biodiesel picks up atmospheric and
    distribution system water. Separation may be a
    problem at low temperatures, also injection
    corrosion. Levels can be low ex-plant ( 100
    mg/kg).
  • Total contamination same level for diesel and
    biodiesel, linked to injector fouling. May
    require revision for modern engines.
  • Copper corrosion acid value same limits as for
    diesel fuel. Linked to corrosion of the injection
    system.

19
Significance of the parameters (contd)
  • Stability a primary characteristic for all
    concerned
  • Iodine Number compromise level at 120, was
    originally 115
  • Oxidation Stability Rancimat test, developed for
    biodiesel
  • Linolenic Acid Very low resistance to oxidation
    / polymerisation
  • Polyunsaturates Prevents fish oil use.
  • Iodine Number considered as a barrier to
    feedstocks other than rapeseed, but how to obtain
    adequate stability of biodiesel from other
    feedstocks?
  • Japanese auto industry considers that 6 hours at
    110C in the Rancimat test is insufficient for
    good biodiesel stability. How do we improve
    biodiesel stability?

20
(No Transcript)
21
Significance of the parameters (contd)
  • Methanol residue from production, can attack
    materials in fuel system.
  • Glycerides / Glycerol impurities of production.
    Fuel filter plugging and deposits in engine.
  • Rare earth metals / phosphorus can disactivate
    the on-board catalysts. Phosphorus at 10mg/kg is
    much too high, requires revision.

22
Second grade biodiesel for blending
  • Work was not carried out on a lower grade for
    blending
  • The Auto Industry could not agree to a lesser
    quality than that for B100 because of the risk of
    engine deterioration.
  • The Oil Industry did not want to handle and store
    different grades of biodiesel
  • The Biodiesel Producers did not want to produce
    different grades of biodiesel
  • For these reasons, a single grade is used both as
    a whole fuel and as a blending component for all
    blends.

23
3. The situation of Brazilian biodiesel test
fuels (Soy ethyl ester)
Engine test bench Results on B30
  • Reduction of smoke emissions at source
  • At full load between -10 and -27
  • Average reduction is -16

24
Brazilian B30 Biofuel Tests
  • Test bench test
  • Torque and Power unchanged

25
Brazilian B30 Biodiesel fuel tests
  • EMISSIONS

(Citroën Xsara Picasso, engine HDi)
26
Brazilian B30 Biodiesel tests
  • VEHICLE ENDURANCE TESTS
  • Citroën Xsara Picasso HDi (direct injection
    engine)
  • Peugeot 206 (indirect injection engine)
  • The objective is 160 000 km
  • 80 000 Km for each vehicle
  • Driving profile 27.5 town / 45 road / 27.5
    highway
  • Every 20 000 Km mesurement of emissions
  • (LACTEC, Curitiba)

27
Brazilian B30 fuel tests
  • VEHICLE ENDURANCE RESULTS
  • NO ENGINE INCIDENTS
  • NO ENGINE FOULING
  • VEHICLE PERFORMANCE UNCHANGED
  • RELIABILITY AND DRIVING SENSATIONS CONSERVED
  • SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE

28
Conclusions
  • A European biodiesel specification EN 14214 has
    now been in de facto operation since 2000.
  • This specification is successful in the market
    both as a pure fuel for limited markets and as a
    blending component for general use. It protects
    engines from harm and ensures the vehicle users
    of a correct vehicle service life.
  • The Brazilian B30 test fuel gives similar
    satisfactory results on engine bench and
    passenger car endurance tests to those seen in
    Europe.

29
Back-up slides
30
Back-up slides
31
Well-to-Wheel GHG emissions
32
European Gasoline and Diesel fuel demand
33
European deficit in middle distillates
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