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Westward Expansion

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day be rich. In a plan to get rich quick, Brannan ... In remembrance of St. Louis' role in. westward expansion, the Gateway Arch was built. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Westward Expansion


1
Westward Expansion
  • California Gold Rush
  • Missouris Roll in Westward Expansion
  • Results of Westward Expansion
  • 4th Grade
  • Social Studies Unit

2
The Discovery of Gold
  • James Marshall and 20 other men were sent by
  • plantation owner, John Sutter, to build a saw
    mill
  • near the American River. This saw mill was
    needed to
  • produce lumber for Sutters growing ranch. With
    the
  • completion of the saw mill in sight something
  • happened that would change American history
  • forever. On January 24, 1848, a shiny glint of
  • something caught James Marshalls eye. He
    reached
  • down to pick it up, he was certain that it was
    gold. As
  • he glanced away from the small nugget,
  • another piece caught Marshalls eye.

3
More on the Discovery
  • Pushing toward the saw
  • mill, Marshall and his
  • workers continued to find
  • more gold. Eventually,
  • Marshall took samples back
  • to John Sutter to be tested.
  • After testing they concluded
  • that it was indeed gold. They
  • worried that there would be
  • a gold rush, and that miners
  • would provide competition
  • to Sutters plantation and
  • the saw mill Marshall was
  • building. They made a pact
  • to keep it a secret.

4
The American Dream
  • The Discovery of gold sparked what was called
    The
  • American Dream. After the discovery of gold,
    many
  • decided that a simple life would no longer be
    enough.
  • They wanted a life full of freedom, with endless
  • possibilities, and a fresh start somewhere new.
  • People were eager to gain the riches of gold in
  • California and few wanted to wait. They wanted
  • everything now.
  • New American Dream To Get Rich Quick.

5
That Didnt Stay a Secret Long
  • Eventually the secret of gold leaked out into the
  • countryside of California. With many in
    disbelief of
  • this discovery, there was no rush to the American
  • River to hunt for gold. The gold rush needed a
  • boost and Sam Brannan would take care of that.
  • Brannan was a merchant who also desired to one
  • day be rich. In a plan to get rich quick,
    Brannan
  • bought every piece of mining supply in the San
  • Francisco region. He then ran through the
    streets
  • of San Francisco announcing the discovery of gold
  • near the American River. To persuade people,
  • Brannan carried a jar of gold dust.

6
News Leaks East
  • Whispers of the gold rush rumor
  • was disregarded at first. The gold
  • rush remained a rumor until
  • December 1848, when President
  • James Polk confirmed that there
  • was most certainly gold in
  • California. After President Polks
  • announcement, the gold rush
  • became a reality for many
  • Americans. The dream of
  • traveling east and striking it rich
  • became a reality.

7
Project 1
  • Youre The Editor
  • Youre the editor of an Eastern Newspaper. You
    want
  • to alert the public of the news of gold being
  • discovered in California. You will give your
  • newspaper a title, design a front page informing
  • people of the gold rush, and you will draw a
    picture to
  • display on the front page of your newspaper. The
  • newspaper front page can be found in your Gold
    Rush
  • Packet.

8
California or Bust!
  • After President Polks announcement, many young
  • men decided to leave their families in search of
    gold.
  • Finding gold meant a better life and a fresh
    start
  • somewhere new. In 1849, the discussion of gold
  • could undoubtedly be heard at every dinner table
  • through out America. Men tried to convince their
  • wives that a year apart would be well worth the
  • lifetime of riches California would bring.

9
The Journey to California
  • In 1849 many men packed up and began to head west
  • to California. They were nicknamed 49'ers
    because
  • they started their journey in 1849. The
    departing
  • gold-seekers faced an immediate problem.
    California
  • was a long way from home. There was no railroad
    to
  • whisk them west and no river to float them to
  • California. Instead their journey to California
    would
  • be a painful test of their endurance and will.

10
Should We Go by Land or Sea?
  • When it came to routes to California, there were
    only
  • two choices. Each choice was just as bad as the
    other
  • and just as deadly. The land route was a path
    called
  • the Oregon-California Trail. The sea route left
    from
  • the east coast of America, went around the tip of
  • South America, and eventually arrived on the
    coast of
  • California.

11
The Oregon-California Trail
  • The Oregon-California trail was a land route that
    went
  • from Independence, Missouri all the way west to
  • California. For many people living in the
    Central
  • states this was the best choice. The land route
    was
  • shorter than the sea route but it wasnt any
    faster.
  • 49'ers traveled at a speed of 2 miles an hour.
    The
  • over land route often took up to six months and
    was
  • roughly 6,000 miles.

12
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13
By Sea to California
  • The sea route was favored by gold-seekers from
    the
  • eastern states. Going by sea also presented its
    own
  • set of problems. The food was often spoiled or
  • infested with bugs. Water had to be stored for
  • months in the hull of the ship and was almost
  • impossible to drink. Then there was the boredom
    that
  • six months at sea presented. There was nothing
    to do
  • but think about gold. Eventually, with the
    demand of
  • a faster way to California, a route across Panama
    was
  • created. Gold-seekers had to hike through the
    rain
  • forest of Central America to catch a ship on the
    other
  • side. This route again had its own set of
    problems.

14
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15
Project 2
  • Youre a 49er
  • Youre packing up to leave on the
    Oregon-California
  • Trail and you must decide what to take and what
    to
  • leave at home. Find the You Cant Take It With
    You
  • worksheet in your Westward Expansion Packet. You
  • are to read the directions and complete the
    worksheet
  • deciding what you will take and what you wont.
    You
  • must be able to fit everything you have into your
  • covered wagon. Your covered wagon is on the page
  • following your supplies.

16
Gold Country
  • Most of the worlds gold is locked deep
    underground
  • and embedded in hard rock. However California
    was
  • different. Here anyone with a few simple tools
    and a
  • willingness for hard work could strike it rich.
    Unlike
  • anywhere else in the world, Californias gold was
    easy
  • to find and free for the taking.

17
Struggles in California
  • With gold being discovered, thousands of people
  • here and even more on the way, problems quickly
  • grew in California. The hard lessons of supply
    and
  • demand were taught every day in California. Men
  • that had only made a dollar a day working back
  • east could now make up to 25 a day panning gold
  • in California. This was an awesome pay increase,
  • but there was one problem. The cost of simple
  • goods in California sky rocketed with the arrival
    of
  • 49'ers. For instance a metal that you might have
  • paid 20 cents for a week ago was now around 15.

18
Where Will All the 49ers Live?
  • Throughout gold rush country, places called
  • boomtowns sprouted up. Boomtowns werent really
  • towns at all. They were ramshackle mining camps
  • that were extremely dangerous. Californias gold
    was
  • famous because it was free. Meaning that anyone
  • could come and discover gold. This was also its
  • downfall. With the rumor of free gold came
    people of
  • all kinds. Some good and some bad. The
    boomtowns
  • in California were full of rough and tough
    people.
  • Fighting and stealing were common place during
  • these times.

19
Disappointment
  • By mid 1849, most of the easy to find gold was
    gone.
  • However, there was still gold in the river beds
    but the
  • 49ers had to work much harder for it than
    before. A
  • typical miner spent 10 hours a day knee deep in
    ice
  • cold water, digging, sifting, and washing. It
    was back
  • breaking labor that yielded less and less each
    day.

20
Frustration
  • Panning became a less effective method for
    finding
  • gold. Many miners turned to more advanced
  • techniques to find gold but still little was
    being
  • discovered. The gold reserves were declining
  • everyday and the amount of miners was increasing
  • dramatically. Many miners who thought they would
  • make their fortune in days found themselves
    digging
  • for months or maybe even years. Frustration and
  • depression took over the lives of many miners.

21
Theres no more gold? What do we do now?
  • Many people who didnt strike it rich by finding
    gold
  • turned to other ways to make money. A lot
  • of 49ers turned to poker or other methods of
  • gambling in hopes of snatching the quick fortune
    that
  • eluded them in the rivers. When that didnt work
  • many turned to crime. Jails, which were almost
  • unnecessary a year earlier, were filled and
    hangings
  • became common place.

22
Many people decided to head back East.
  • Many gave up on the American Dream that brought
  • them to California just a year ago. They gave up
    on
  • finding gold and getting rich and headed back
    East
  • to their homes. There were also many miners that
  • stayed and hung on tight to that dream of wealth.
  • They thought just one more month and maybe Ill
  • strike it rich. One month turned into several
    and
  • months turned to years. There were occasional
    lucky
  • strikes, but they were few and far between. Most
  • people headed back East, crushed by their dream
    of
  • riches that never came true.

23
Project 3
  • Its been a year since youve last seen your
    family.
  • You are miss them terribly. Youre beginning to
    wonder if
  • the trip was worth it.
  • Students in the class with odd numbers will
    write
  • home and tell their family that they have struck
    it rich
  • and will be home soon.
  • Students in the class with even numbers will
    write
  • home telling their family that they havent found
    an
  • ounce of gold. Youre broke, exhausted, and
    depressed.
  • Explain that you hope to make it home, but that
    theres a
  • possibility that you might not make it.

24
Project 4
  • Lets Make a Boomtown!!!
  • As a class, we will create a boomtown for all of
    our
  • 49ers to live in. You will use the provided
    materials
  • and your art supplies to construct one of the
    building
  • in our boomtown. The places and businesses will
    be
  • Stable, Saloon, General Store, Blacksmith,
    Barber,
  • Telegraph Office, Sherriffs Jail, Church,
    Bank,
  • Doctors Office, Hotel.

25
Missouri and Westward Expansion
  • During the 1840s 50s, the road to California
  • carried over 250,000 gold-seekers farmers.
    They
  • traveled to the gold fields rich farmlands of
  • California. This was the greatest mass migration
    in
  • American history. The vast majority of the
    California
  • settlers would leave from Missouris western
    border
  • and head due west until they got to California.

26
Missouri Mother of the West
  • Most Americans that lived in the central states,
  • gathered at St. Louis and took a steamship along
    the
  • Missouri River. This was the easiest traveling
    they
  • would experience on their journey. However the
    easy
  • traveling didnt last long. Roughly 200 miles
    from St.
  • Louis, the Missouri River takes an extreme turn
    to the
  • north. So pioneers unloaded their wagons at any
    one
  • of several small towns along the Missouri River.
    They
  • called these towns jumping off places.

27
Jumping Off in Missouri
  • For jumping off in Missouri, Independence was
  • considered the first option. Other cities
    included St.
  • Joseph Westport. The economies of these
    frontier
  • towns completely depended on emigrants coming
  • through and buying their goods.

28
Every Spring the Population Grows.
  • Every Spring, these small, quiet towns turned
    into
  • loud and racey boomtowns. Settlers arrived in
    the
  • early spring to ensure that they left on time.
    By mid
  • April, the prairie outside Independence was
    packed
  • with emigrant campers. Often 3 square miles were
  • covered with campsites.

29
So Why Didnt the Settlers Just Head West?
  • Thats a good question. Since the journey took
  • approximately 6 months, if people left too late
    they
  • would be caught in the cold, harsh weather of
    winter.
  • However, if they left too soon, the prairie grass
  • wouldnt be long enough for the animals to graze
    on
  • along the way. Settlers depended on animals to
    pull
  • their wagons, so that mistake could be fatal.

30
You mean we cant stop at Wal-Mart on the way?
  • Believe it or not, there werent any Wal-Marts on
    the
  • Oregon Trail in 1849. Missouris frontier towns
    were
  • considered settlers last chance to buy supplies
    for
  • their journey west. Of these towns, Independence
  • was by far the most popular point of departure in
    the
  • early years.

31
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32
Lets Talk About Supplies
  • Just to get an idea of the amount of supplies
  • purchased in these small Missouri towns, lets
    consider
  • what a family of 4 might need.
  • -200 pounds of Flour
  • -150 pounds of Bacon
  • -10 pounds of Coffee
  • -20 pounds of Sugar
  • -10 pounds of Salt
  • A family of 4 would need over 1,000 pounds of
    food to
  • sustain them on their 2,000 mile journey.

33
Tribute to Missouri as the Gateway to the West.
  • St. Louis is traditionally called The Gateway to
    the
  • West because of its historical beginning from
  • which the population of the United States
    migrated
  • westward. In remembrance of St. Louis role in
  • westward expansion, the Gateway Arch was built.

34
The Gateway Arch
  • The Gateway Arch is an awesome monument that
  • represents one of the most important events in
  • American history Westward Expansion. The Arch
    is
  • Americas tallest man made monument and is
  • considered one of our countrys main attractions.

35
Project 5
  • On a piece of drawing paper, students
  • will design their own General Store. You
  • will need to decide what products you
  • will carry and what products you wont.
  • Think about things 49ers might need on
  • their way to California. Make it as neat
  • as you can and color it.

36
Project 6
  • Your Tribute to Missouri
  • Just like the Gateway Arch was dedicated to
    Missouri for its role in Westward Expansion, you
    will design them a monument too. It can be a
    statue, a building, or anything you can imagine.
    Be creative!

37
Results of Westward Expansion
  • -California became a state on 9 September 1850.
  • -With all the settlers heading west Indians were
  • pushed out of their native land into
    reservations.
  • -In addition to California, many other places
    began to
  • be settled.
  • -Transcontinental Railroad
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